The Call to Salaat
(From Beheshti Zewar)
1. If the adhaan is being called out for any salaat, it is necessary that it be given in the time of that salaat. If the adhaan is given before the commencement of the time, it will not be valid. When the time enters, the adhaan will have to be repeated irrespective of whether it was for fajr salaat or any other salaat.
2. The adhaan and the iqaamah have to be in Arabic and in exactly the same words as conveyed to us from Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. If the adhaan is given in any other language, or in Arabic but in different words; then this will not be valid even if, upon hearing it, people understand it as adhaan and the purpose of adhaan is fulfilled (i.e. even if people respond to the adhaan by coming to offer their salaat).
3. It is necessary for the mu’azzin to be a male. The adhaan of a female is not proper. If a woman gives adhaan, it should be repeated. If salaat is offered without it being repeated, it will be as if salaat was offered without any adhaan.
4. It is necessary that the mu’azzin be of sound intellect. If a child who has not reached the age of understanding, a lunatic or an intoxicated person gives adhaan; it will not be considered.
5. The sunnah method of calling out adhaan is that the person calling out adhaan should be pure from the major and minor impurities. He should go to an elevated place away from the musjid, face the qiblah, insert his forefingers into both his ears, and say the following words as loud as possible without overstraining himself: Allahu Akbar four times, Ash hadu an la ilaaha illa Allahu twice, Ash hadu anna Muhammadar Rasulullah twice, Hayya alas salaat twice, Hayya alal falaah twice, Allahu Akbar twice again, and La ilaaha illa Allahu once. When saying Hayya alas salaat, he should turn his face towards the right in such a way that his chest and feet do not turn away from the qiblah. When saying Hayya alal falaah, he should turn his face towards the left in such a way that his chest and feet do not turn away from the qiblah.
In the fajr adhaan, after saying Hayya alal falaah, he should add the words as-Salaatu khayrum minan naum two times.
The total phrases of adhaan are therefore fifteen while there are seventeen words for the adhaan of fajr.
The words of the adhaan should not be uttered in a singing tune, nor should they be uttered in such a way that some of the words are said loudly while others are said softly.
After saying Allahu Akbar twice, he should wait to the extent that the person who is listening to the adhaan can reply to it. Apart from Allahu Akbar, even for the other words, he should wait for a similar period before continuing with the next words.
6. The method of iqaamah is also the same. The difference is that it is preferable to call out the adhaan outside the musjid, while the iqaamah is called out inside. Adhaan is called out in a loud voice while iqaamah is called out in a comparatively softer voice. In iqaamah one does not say as-salaatu khairun minan naum. Instead, for all the five salaats one has to say Qad qaamatis salaat two times. When saying the iqaamah one does not have to insert one’s fore-fingers into one’s ears. The reason for inserting the fingers into the ears is to raise the voice, and this is not necessary when saying the iqaamah. In the iqaamah, it is not necessary to turn right and left when saying Hayya alas salaat and Hayya alal falaah. However, some jurists are in favour of this.
Rules Concerning Adhaan And Iqaamah
1. For every fard-e-ayn salaat, it is sunnat-e-mu’akkadah for men to call out adhaan once. This is irrespective of whether a person is a traveller or not, whether he is reading in congregation or alone, or whether he is reading a qada salaat or not. For jumu’ah salaat, the adhaan should be called out twice.
2. If a salaat was missed for a reason in which all the people were involved, then the adhaan for that salaat should be given aloud. If it was missed for some specific reason, it should be given secretly in a soft voice so that people do not come to know of any missed salaat by hearing the adhaan aloud. The reason for this is that missing a salaat is a sign of negligence and laziness, and to be negligent and lazy in affairs of the Deen is a sin. And it is not good to announce or expose one’s sins.
If several salaats were missed and all are being read at one time, it will be sunnah to call out the adhaan for the first salaat only. As for the other salaats, only the iqaamah is sunnah. However, it is mustahab to call out adhaan for each salaat separately.
3. If a person is travelling and all his companions are present with him, then it will be mustahab, and not sunnat-e-mu’akkadah, for him to give the adhaan.
4. If a person offers his salaat at home, whether alone or in congregation, then both the adhaan and the iqaamah will be mustahab for him on condition that the adhaan and iqaamah of the musjid of that area or town has already been called out. This is so because the adhaan and iqaamah of the area is sufficient for all the residents of that area.
5. If a person goes to a musjid in which the adhaan, iqaamah and salaat has already been performed,it will be makruh for him to give adhaan and iqaamah when offering his own salaat. However, if that musjid does not have any appointed imam or mu’azzin, it will not be makruh, but preferable.
6. A person is in a place in which all the conditions for jumu’ah salaat are found and jumu’ah is even performed there. Despite this, he offers zuhr salaat instead of jumu’ah salaat. It will therefore be makruh for him to call out adhaan and iqaamah. This is irrespective of whether he offers the zuhr salaat due to some excuse or not, or whether he offers it before the completion of the jumu’ah salaat or after its completion.
7. It is makruh for women to call out adhaan and iqaamah irrespective of whether they are offering their salaat in congregation or individually.
8. Apart from fard-e-ayn salaat, adhaan for any other salaat is not prescribed – irrespective of whether it is a fard-e-kifaayah salaat, such as janaazah salaat; or a wajib salaat, such as witr salaat, the salaats of eid; or whether it is a nafl salaat.
9. It is mustahab on the person who hears the adhaan to reply to it irrespective of whether he is a man or woman, in a state of purity or impurity. Some ulama have even said that it is wajib. But the preferred opinion is that it is mustahab.
Replying to the adhaan means that the words which the mu’azzin says should be repeated. However, when replying to Hayya alas salaat and Hayya alal falaah, he should say La hawla wa la quwwata illa billahil aliyyil azeem. For As-salaato khairun minan naum he should say Sadaqta wa bararta.
After the adhaan he should send salutations to Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and then read the following dua:
allaahumma rabba haazihid da”waatit taaammatiw waSSalaatil Qaa-imati aati muHammadanil waseelata wal faDeelata wabAth-hu maQaaman maHmoodanillazee wa-Adtahu innaka laa tukhliful mee-Aad
10. On hearing the adhaan of jumu’ah, it is wajib to leave whatever one may be occupied with, and go for the jumu’ah salaat in a jaame musjid. It is haraam to occupy oneself in any transaction or any other sort of work.
11. Replying to the iqaamah is also mustahab and not wajib. In replying to Qad qaamatis salaat, one should say Aqaamahallahu wa adaamaha.
12. In eight conditions an answer to the adhaan should not be given: (1) while offering salaat, (2) while listening to a khutbah irrespective of whether it is a khutbah of jumu’ah or any other khutbah, (3,4) when one is in a state of haid or nifaas, i.e. it is not necessary to give an answer, (5) while one is teaching or learning knowledge of the Deen, (6) while one is having sexual intercourse, (7) while one is relieving oneself, (8) while one is eating, i.e. it is not necessary. After having completed these occupations, and much time has not lapsed since hearing the adhaan; one should reply to it, otherwise one should not reply.
13. A person forgets to reply to the adhaan or intentionally does not reply to it. On the completion of the adhaan he remembers or decides to reply to it. If much time has not lapsed, he should reply to it, otherwise he should not reply.
14. If considerable time has passed after having called out the iqaamah and the congregation has not stood up as yet, the iqaamah should be repeated. But if much time has not passed, it does not have to be repeated. The iqaamah for fajr salaat has been called out but the imaam has not offered his sunnah salaat of fajr as yet. If he occupies himself in offering his sunnah, then the time that he takes will not be regarded as a long time and it will therefore not be necessary to repeat the iqaamah. However, if one occupies oneself with something that is not a part of salaat, such as eating and drinking, then in this case the iqaamah will have to be repeated.
15. While the mu’azzin calls out the adhaan; he dies, falls unconscious, his voice breaks down completely or he forgets and there is no one to correct him, or his wudu breaks and he rushes to repeat it – in all these cases it will be sunnat-e-mu’akkadah to repeat the adhaan.
16. If a person’s wudu breaks while he is calling out the adhaan or iqaamah, it will be preferable for him to complete the adhaan or iqaamah and thereafter perform his wudu.
17. It is makruh for one mu’azzin to call out adhaan in two musjids. He should call out adhaan in the musjid in which he offers his fard salaat.
18. It is the right of the person who calls out the adhaan to call out the iqaamah as well. But if after calling out the adhaan he goes away somewhere or permits someone else to call out the iqaamah, then someone else can call out the iqaamah.
19. It is permissible for several mu’azzins to call out adhaan at the same time.
20. The mua’zzin should complete his iqaamah at the place where he commenced with it.
21. Niyyah is not a condition for adhaan and iqaamah. However, one is not rewarded without making an intention. The intention is this that he is calling out this adhaan solely for the pleasure of Allah and for the reward of it, and for no other reason.
The Sunnats And Mustahabs Of Adhaan And Iqaamah
The sunnats of adhaan and iqaamah are of two types. Some are related to the mu’azzin while others are related to the adhaan and iqaamah. We will first mention the sunnats related to the mu’azzin, and then those that are related to the adhaan and iqaamah.
Sunnats related to the mu’azzin
1. The mu’azzin has to be a male. The adhaan and iqaamah of a female is makruh-e-tahrimi. If a woman calls out adhaan, it will have to be repeated, but not the iqaamah. This is so because repetition of the iqaamah is not stipulated as opposed to the repetition of adhaan.
2. The mu’azzin has to be of sound mind. The adhaan and iqaamah of a lunatic, intoxicated person or immature child is makruh. Their adhaan will have to be repeated and not their iqaamah.
3. The mu’azzin must know the necessary rules applicable to him and he must also know the times of the different salaats. If an ignorant person calls out the adhaan, he will not get the same reward as that of a mu’azzin.
4. The mu’azzin must be pious and religiously-minded and he must be aware of the condition of the people – reminding those who do not attend the congregation. He must do this if he has no fear of anyone causing harm to him.
5. The mu’azzin must have a loud voice.
Sunnats Related To The Adhaan And Iqaamah
1. The adhaan should be called out at an elevated place outside the musjid. The iqaamah should be called out inside the musjid. To call out the adhaan inside the musjid is makruh-e-tanzihi. However, it is not makruh to call out the second adhaan of jumu’ah inside the musjid in front of the pulpit (mimbar). In fact, this is practised in all Muslim countries.
2. The adhaan has to be called out standing. If anyone calls it out while sitting, this will be makruh and it will have to be repeated. However, if a traveller is on his mount or a person gives adhaan for his own salaat, it will not have to be repeated.
3. The adhaan has to be called out in a loud voice. However, if a person is calling out adhaan for his own salaat, he has the choice to say it aloud or softly. Even then, there is more reward in saying it aloud.
4. It is mustahab to insert the fore-fingers into the ears at the time of calling out the adhaan.
5. The words of the adhaan should be said with a pause between them, while the iqaamah should be said quickly. In other words, when saying the takbeers of the adhaan, the mu’azzin should pause after every two takbeers so that those who are listening to the adhaan can repeat the words. Apart from the takbeers, he should pause after every sentence and thereafter continue with the next word. If, due to some reason, he does not pause in this way, it will be mustahab to repeat the adhaan. If the iqaamah was called out by pausing, it is not mustahab to repeat it.
6. When calling out adhaan, it is sunnah to turn towards the right and left when saying Hayya alas salaat and Hayya alal falaah. This is irrespective of whether the adhaan is for a salaat or for some other reason. However, his chest and feet should not turn away from the qiblah.
7. Adhaan and iqaamah should be called while facing the qiblah as long as he is not mounted on an animal. It is makruh-e-tanzihi to call out adhaan and iqaamah while one is not facing the qiblah.
8. At the time of calling out the adhaan it is necessary for the person to be pure from hadath-e-akbar (major impurity) and mustahab to be pure from both the major and minor impurities. At the time of calling out the iqaamah, it is necessary to be pure from both the impurities. If a person calls out adhaan while in a state of hadath-e-akbar, this will be makruh-e-tahrimi and it will be mustahab to repeat that adhaan. Similarly, if a person calls out iqaamah while in a state of major or minor impurity, this will be makruh-e-tahrimi but it is not mustahab to repeat the iqaamah.
9. It is sunnah to say the words of the adhaan and iqaamah in the sequence shown to us. If a person says a latter word first, for example, he says Ash hado anna Muhammadar Rasulullah before Ash hado an la ilaaha illa Allahu, or he says Hayya alal falaah before Hayya alas salaat; then in such a case, just the latter word should be repeated. In the first example, after saying Ash hado an la ilaaha illa Allahu he should repeat Ash hado anna Muhammadan Rasulullah. In the second example, after saying Hayya alas salaat, he should repeat Hayya alal falaah. It is not necessary to repeat the entire adhaan.
10. While calling out the adhaan and iqaamah, no other words should be spoken, even if they be a greeting or a reply to a greeting. If a person speaks while calling out adhaan or iqaamah and he spoke considerably, he should repeat the adhaan and not the iqaamah.
11. preference is given to the muqeem over the musafir. Thereafter, the person who was born as a free person. Thereafter, the person who made tayammum for hadath-e-asghar is given preference over the person who made tayammum for hadath-e-akbar. But according to some, the person who made tayammum for hadath-e-akbar is given preference.
12. The person in whom two qualities are found is given preference over the person in whom only one quality is found. For example, the person who knows the masa’il of salaat and also recites the Quran correctly has preference over the person who only knows the masa’il of salaat and cannot read the Quran correctly.
13. If jama’at is made in a house, the person whose house it is has more right of imaamat over the others. Thereafter, the person whom he appoints as an imam. However, if the owner of the house is a jaahil, and the other persons have knowledge of the masa’il, they will have the right of imaamat.
14. If there is an imam who is appointed in a particular musjid, then in his presence no one else has the right of imaamat. However, if he appoints anyone else as the imam, there will be no harm in this.
15. In the presence of the Qadi, i.e. the ruler of the Islamic state, no one else has the right of imaamat.
16. It is makruh-e-tahrimi to make imaamat without the happiness of the people. However, if that person is the most qualified person for imaamat, i.e. no one else has the qualities of imaamat as he possesses, then it will not be makruh for him. Instead, whoever is unhappy with his imaamat will be in the wrong.
17. It is makruh-e-tahrimi to appoint a faasiq or a bid’atee as an imam. However, if (Allah forbid) there is no one else apart from these people, then it will not be makruh. In the same way, if the bid’atee or the faasiq is a powerful person and they are unable to remove him, or there is a fear of great discord or dissension, even then it will not be makruh on the muqtadis.
18. It is makruh-e-tanzihi to appoint the following persons as an imam: (a) a slave who is regarded as a slave in Islamic jurisprudence and not the one who is bought at the time of a famine,etc. even if he has been freed, (b) a villager, (c) a blind person who is not conscious of the laws of purity and impurity, (d) a person who cannot see well at night, (e) a waladuz zina, i.e. a person who was born out of an illicit relationship. However, if all these persons are possessors of knowledge and virtue, and people do not mind appointing them as imams, then it will not be makruh. It is also makruh-e-tanzihi to appoint a handsome youth whose beard has not appeared as yet, and also a person who has no intellect.
19. It is wajib on all the muqtadis to be in conformity with the imam in all the fara’id and wajibaat of salaat. However, it is not wajib to be in conformity with him in the sunnats. Based on this, if the imam is a follower of the Shafi’i school of thought and he raises his hands at the time of going into ruku and coming up from ruku, then it is not necessary for the Hanafee muqtadis to raise their hands. This is because the raising of the hands is sunnah even according to them. Similarly, if the Shafi’i imam reads the qunut in the fajr salaat, it is not necessary for the Hanafee muqtadis to do the same. However, since qunut is wajib in witr salaat, and the Shafi’i imam will read it after standing up from ruku, the Hanafee muqtadis should also read it after the ruku.
20. It is makruh-e-tahrimi for the imam to recite very long Surahs which are more than the recommended amount, or to stay for very long periods in the ruku and sajdah postures. Instead, the imam should take into consideration the need, necessities, and weakness of the muqtadis. He should make his qira’ah after taking into consideration the condition of the person who is the weakest of all of them. In fact, if there is a great urgency, it will be preferable for him to make his recitation even shorter than the recommended amount. This is so that people do not find any difficulty which could be a cause for a decrease in the jama’at.
21. If there is only one muqtadi who is a male or an immature boy, he should stand in line with or slightly behind the imam to the right of the imam. It is makruh to stand on the left hand side of the imam (or directly behind him – in this case).
22. If there is more than one muqtadi, they should stand behind the imam. If there are two muqtadis, it would be makruh-e-tanzihi for them to stand on either side of the imam. And if there are more than two muqtadis, it would be makruh-e-tahrimi to do so. This is because when there are more than two muqtadis, it is wajib for the imam to stand in front.
23. At the time of commencing the jama’at there was only one muqtadi and he stood to the right of the imam. Thereafter, more muqtadis joined the jama’at. The first muqtadi should step back so that all the muqtadis could get together and stand behind the imam. If he does not move back, the other muqtadis should pull him back. But if the muqtadis unintentionally stand to the right and left of the imam and do not pull the first muqtadi back, then in this case the imam should step forward so that all the muqtadis could get together and stand behind him. Similarly, if there is no place to move backwards, it will be the duty of the imam to step forward. But if the muqtadi is unaware of the masa’il, as is generally the case today, then it will not be advisable to move him because it is possible that he may do something which may break his salaat.
24. If the muqtadi is a woman or an immature girl, she should stand behind the imam irrespective of whether there is only one woman or several women.
25. If there are different types of muqtadis, i.e. a few men, a few women and a few children, then it is the duty of the imam to arrange their saffs in the following order: firstly he should arrange the saffs of the men, thereafter the saffs of the immature boys, thereafter the saffs of the women, and lastly the saffs of the immature girls.
26. It is the duty of the imam to straighten the saffs. That is, he should stop the people from standing unevenly, and he should order them to stand straight. They should stand next to each other and should not leave any gaps within the saff itself.
27. It is makruh for a person to stand alone in a saff. Instead, in such a case, he should pull a person back who is standing in the saff in front of him and make him stand in line with him. But if there is the possibility that the person will disrupt his salaat or take this unkindly, then he should not do this.
28. It is makruh to stand in a new saff if there is place in the first saff. Once the saff is complete, then only should one stand in a new saff.
29. It is makruh-e-tahrimi for a man to make imamat of women in a place where there is no other man or where there is no mahram female such as his wife, mother, sister, etc. If there is another man or mahram female, it will not be makruh.
30. A person is offering the fard of fajr, maghrib or esha salaat alone and he is offering his salaat silently. If a person joins him and follows him while he is in this salaat, then there are two alternatives in this: (i) this person makes this intention in his heart that he is now becoming the imam so that his salaat may be offered with jama’at, (ii) he does not make this intention but continues thinking to himself that although this person has come and stood behind me, I am still offering my salaat alone. In the first case, the moment he makes his intention, it will be wajib for him to start reciting in a loud voice. If he had already recited a part of Surah Faatihah or any other Surah silently, he should start reciting them aloud the moment he makes his intention. This is because it is wajib on the imam to make the qira’at in a loud voice for the fajr, maghrib and esha salaats. As for the second case, it is not wajib to make the qira’at in a loud voice and even the salaat of that muqtadi will remain valid. This is because it is not necessary for the imam to make an intention of imamat in order for the salaat to be valid.
31. If the imam or the munfarid is offering his salaat at home or in an open field, it is mustahab for him to place an object which is equal to one arm or more in length and equal to one finger or more in thickness in front of him either on his right or left side. This object is called a sutra. However, if he is offering his salaat in a musjid or in a place where people will not pass in front of him, then there is no need to do this. The sutra of the imam will suffice for all the muqtadis. Once the sutra has been placed, there is no sin in walking beyond the sutra. But if someone walks within the sutra, he will be committing a sin.
32. A laahiq is that muqtadi who misses a few or all his rakaats after having joined the jama’at, irrespective of whether he has an excuse or not. Example where he has an excuse: he falls asleep in his salaat and thereby misses a few rakaats, or he is unable to make ruku and sajdah because of the large number of people, or his wudu breaks and while he is gone to make his wudu he misses a few rakaats. (In salaatul khauf, the first group is regarded as the laahiq. Similarly, the muqeem who follows an imam who is a musafir and who is making qasr, is regarded as a laahiq after the completion of the salaat of the imam). Example where he has no excuse: he goes into ruku or sajdah before the imam and even comes up before him, on account of which his rakaat is not considered to be valid. With regard to that rakaat, he will be regarded as a laahiq. It is wajib on the laahiq to complete the rakaats which he had missed first. After completing them, he should join the jama’at if it is still in progress, if not, he should offer the balance of his salaat as well.
33. The laahiq will also be regarded as a muqtadi for the rakaats which he had missed. That is, just as a muqtadi does not make qira’at but merely stands silently, the laahiq will also do this. And just as the muqtadi does not make sajdah-e-sahw when he makes any mistake, so is the case with the laahiq.
34. The masbuq, i.e. the one who has missed a few rakaats, should join the imam and offer whatever is left of his salaat with the jama’at. Once the imam completes his salaat, the masbuq should stand up and complete the rakaats which he had missed.
35. The masbuq has to offer his missed rakaats as a munfarid with qira’at. And if he makes any mistake in these rakaats, it is also necessary for him to make sajdah-e-sahw.
36. The masbuq should offer his missed rakaats in the following order: he should first offer those rakaats in which there is qira’at and then those which have no qira’at. As for the rakaats which he has offered with the imam, he should sit for them accordingly. That is, after counting the rakaats, he should make his first qa’dah after the one that is second. He should make his last qa’dah after his third rakaat if the salaat is a three rakaat salaat (such as maghrib). Examples: a person joined the jama’at for zuhr salaat when three rakaats had already been completed. When the imam makes salaam at the end of the salaat, this person should stand up and offer the three rakaats which he missed in the following manner: in the first rakaat he should recite Surah Faatihah, another Surah, make his ruku and sajdahs and then sit down for his first qa’dah. He has to sit down because this rakaat is regarded as his second rakaat after combining it with the rakaat that he had offered with the imam. Thereafter, he should offer his second rakaat and recite Surah Faatihah and another Surah in it as well. After this second rakaat he should not sit down because this rakaat is regarded as his third rakaat after joining it to the previous two. Thereafter, he should offer his third rakaat without reciting another Surah after having recited Surah Faatihah because this rakaat was not a rakaat of qira’at. After this rakaat, he should sit down because this is his last qa’dah.
37. A person is a laahiq and a masbuq as well. Example, he joined the jama’at after a few rakaats and after joining in, he also misses some rakaats. He should first offer those rakaats which he missed after joining, i.e. in which he was a laahiq. However, he should offer these as if he is following the imam, i.e. he should not make qira’at and he should offer his salaat in the same order as that of the imam. Thereafter, if the jama’at is still in progress, he should join it. If not, he should also offer the balance of his salaat after having read those rakaats in which he was a masbuq. Example: a person joined the asr salaat after one rakaat. Upon joining the jama’at, his wudu broke so he went to repeat his wudu. In the meantime, the salaat ended. He should first offer those three rakaats which he missed out after having joined the jama’at. Thereafter, he should offer the one rakaat which he had missed before joining the jama’at. He should offer those three rakaats as a muqtadi, i.e. he should not make qira’at and he should sit down after the first of those three rakaats. This is because this is the second rakaat of the imam and he (imam) had sat in this rakaat. Thereafter, he should not sit in the second rakaat because this is actually the third rakaat of the imam. Thereafter, he should sit down in the third rakaat because this is actually the fourth rakaat of the imam and he had sat in this rakaat. Thereafter, he should offer that rakaat which he had missed before joining the jama’at, and he should also sit in this rakaat because it is his fourth rakaat. He also has to make qira’at in this rakaat because he is a masbuq in this rakaat and a masbuq is regarded as a munfarid in the rakaats which he missed.
38. It is sunnah for the muqtadis to follow the imam in all the postures without any delay. The takbeer-e-tahreemah, ruku, standing after ruku, sajdahs – all have to be carried out with the imam. In other words, every act has to be carried out simultaneously with every act of the imam. However, if the imam stands up from the first qa’dah before the muqtadis could complete their at-tahiyyaat, the muqtadis should complete their at-tahiyyaat first and then stand up. Similarly, if the imam makes salaam in the last qa’dah before the muqtadis could complete their at-tahiyyaat, they should complete their at-tahiyyaat first and then make salaam. However, if the muqtadis have not read their tasbeehs in the ruku and sajdahs, they should still stand up with the imam.