When should the topî be worn?
Although it was the practice of Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum) to cover their heads at all times, special emphasis was given to covering the head during the following occasions:
When performing salâh
Imâm Bukhârî,رحمه الله in his Sahîh, mentions the statement of Hasan Basrîرحمه الله :
كان القوم يسجدون على العمامة و القلنسوة
“The Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum) would perform sajdah (prostrate) on turbans and topîs.” 
Wâil Ibn Hujr (radhiyallahu anhu) mentions that he performed salâh with Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum) who were wearing burnuses (i.e. covering their heads with hoods). 
Ibrâhîm An-Nakha`î رحمه اللهmentions that it was the practice of the Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum) to perform salâh wearing burnuses. 
Faltân Ibn `Âsim (radhiyallahu anhu) mentions that he found Nabî e and the Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum) performing salâh wearing burnuses. 
This shows us that performing salâh with the head covered was the practice of all the Salafus-Sâlih (pious predecessors).
Narrations explicitly mentioning that the following great personalities were seen performing salâh with their heads covered:
- `Abdullâh Ibn `Umar 
- Suwayd Ibn Gafalah 
- Shurayh 
- `Alqamah 
- Aswad 
- Masrûq 
- Abû Mushir 
- `Abdur Rahmân Ibn Yazîd 
- Sa`îd Ibn Jubayr 
- Ahmad Ibn Abî Hawârî 
- Sâlim Ibn `Abdullâh 
- `Âmir Ibn `Abdullâh 
- `Abdullah Ibn Mudrik 
- Imâm Ahmad Ibn Hambal 
- Ibn `Abdus Salâm رحمهم الله
The Fatwâ of Shaikh Rashîd Rîdhâ
The Egyptian scholar , Shaikh Rashîd Rîdhâ, the author of ‘Tafsîrul Manâr’, who in spite of being very famous for his modern thinking, authored the following article, which was published in the Egyptian magazine ‘Al-Manâr’:
“While it could be considered correct to say that it is not Makrûh (disliked in Sharî`ah) to perform salâh with the head uncovered, its not being Makrûh is only applicable when performing salâh alone at home without forming a habit of leaving the head uncovered.
As for one who: –
- Makes a habit of leaving the head uncovered, or
- Keeps his head uncovered when performing salâh in jamâ`ah with others whose heads are covered, or
- Insists on leaving his head uncovered in the masjid in the presence of such people who dislike this action of his and will engage in his criticism
then in all these instances, it is makrûh (reprehensible) to leave the head uncovered.
The reason for the first instance being makrûh is that he has adopted a habit that is not backed by any legitimate proof. Rather what he is doing is in direct conflict to what was the accepted practice from the beginning of Islam.
The second instance is Makrûh because he is opposing the majority, which is forbidden in Islam.
As for the third instance, it is Makrûh because this person would be the cause of people falling into the sin of backbiting and this action will result in his becoming ill-reputed.
As for the statement that it is sometimes better to perform salâh with the head uncovered as this leads to greater humility, this is nothing but expressing one’s opinion in a matter of Sharî`ah (Islamic Law) which does not accept anyone’s subjective opinion (Some of our jurists disagree with him on this point). This argument can be challenged by the fact that it actually leads to one adopting a resemblance to the Christians and others who are in the habit of praying with their heads uncovered and it is well known that we have been prevented from imitating them even in habits (not to speak of acts of worship).
It can also be countered by the fact that the accepted trend around us is that the proper attire to be adopted when visiting the `Ulamâ and the pious, consists of (amongst others) a topî or turban.”
The Fatwâ of `Allâmah Kowtharî
The following is a summary of a fatwâ by `Allâmah Muhammad Zâhid Kowtharî رحمه الله , a world-renowned Muhaddith and Faqîh who held a prominent post in the Ottoman Khilâfah in Turkey and who later went on to emerge as one of the greatest scholars Egypt has ever seen.
`Allâmah Kowtharî رحمه الله writes:
People often ask concerning the ruling of performing salâh bareheaded without an excuse. This question has come to the fore, due to the emergence of a group who seem to take delight in denying those actions, which are accepted by the Muslims and have been passed down from generation to generation. They strive hard to cause discord in the masjid and greatly resemble the Khawârij (a deviant sect which emerged in the time of `Alî (radhiyallahu anhu)) in that they lay great stress on trivial matters while ignoring major issues.
The ruling concerning the salâh of a person bareheaded without an excuse, it that it is valid if all the conditions and pre-requisites are met, however this is in direct conflict to what has remained the practice of all the Muslims throughout the ages.
It also entails emulation of the Christians in that they worship bareheaded, as is well known.
Allâh Ta`âlâ has ordered the Muslims:
خذوا زينتكم عند كل مسجد
“Adopt clothing of beauty when performing salâh”
Leaving the head uncovered is discarding this beauty.
Imâm Baihaqî رحمه الله narrates that Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: –
“When performing salâh, one should wear two items of clothing as the most deserving being for whom you should dress up, is Allâh.” 
Imâm Baihaqî رحمه الله has also mentioned the following incident.
Nâfi`رحمه الله, the slave of Ibn `Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) says that Ibn `Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) saw him performing salâh wearing only one item of clothing. He rebuked him saying, “Have I not given you clothing?” “Yes, you have!” replied Nâfi`. “So who,” asked Ibn `Umar tHHHHHHH “has more right that you dress up well for him? Allâh Ta`âlâ or the people!” 
It is on this basis, that the fuqahâ (jurists) say that it is Makrûh (reprehensible) to perform salâh wearing such clothing in which one would not normally present oneself in front of those whom he holds in high esteem.
There exists absolutely no doubt in the fact that it has always remained the practice of the Muslims not to appear bareheaded in front of those whom they respect. In the very same way, salâh performed bareheaded would be reprehensible in the light of Sharî`ah.
A few doubts cleared
`Allâmah Kowtharî رحمه الله has also most graciously provided us answers to a few doubts, which arise on this topic.
Misconception: The âyah “Adopt clothing of beauty when performing salâh” was revealed to censure the disbelievers who would perform tawâf (circumambulate) around the Ka`bah, naked and has nothing to do with covering the head.
Answer: It is a well-known principle of Tafsîr (commentary of the Qur`ân) that an âyah is not restricted to the particular incident concerning which it was revealed. Rather it would encompass all such situations that fall under its scope. Therefore we find all the mazhâhib are unanimous on the point that it is mustahab (preferable) to wear a topî (or turban), upper garment and lower garment when in salâh. This is mentioned by Imâm Nawawî رحمه الله in Al- Majmû` and by `Allâmah Halbîرحمه الله in Sharhul Munyah. 
Misconception: The âyah concerns covering the private parts, not the head.
Answer: `Allâmah Abû Hayyân, the renowned Mufassir (commentator of the Qur`ân), has beautifully explained this point in the following manner: –
“The order to adopt ‘beauty’, in this ayah, is specific to salâh. Therefore ‘beauty’ cannot refer to covering the private parts since we are ordered to cover them at all times, not only during salâh. ‘Beauty’ will therefore, in this case, have to mean something else viz. that with which one beautifies himself.” 
Thus we can say without any doubt that the covering of the head is part of ‘beauty’ and this has always been the custom from the early days of Islâm. It is for this reason that in no time or place has this ever been seen (in the past) that the Muslims are forming the rows for salâh, bareheaded. Anyone who denies this is just being pigheaded. We hereby understand that there exists no proof at all to show that ‘beauty’ does not include covering the head.
Misconception: It is Sunnah to perform salâh bareheaded as Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) performed salâh without a topî. It is reported that he would remove his topî and place it as a sutrah (barrier) in front of him during salâh.
Answer: It is mentioned in Sharhush Shamâil and other books that this narration is weak; therefore no attention should be given to it. It has not been mentioned in any of the reliable collections of hadîth, so how can it contest the covering of the head in salâh, which has remained the accepted practice of the Muslims throughout the ages! Yes, we do find that Hadhrat `Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) would stop the women slaves from covering their heads, so those who insist on keeping their heads open, probably count themselves among the women slaves and would like to emulate them during salâh, as this is not becoming of men.
(If we do accept that Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) used his topî as a sutrah, then we find that `Allâmah Munâwî has mentioned that this was at an instance when Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) did not have anything else to use as a sutrah.
This was done to show that it is permissible to perform salâh without a topî, even though this would be makrûh for us, not for Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). This is similar to the instances where Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) urinated or drank standing. These actions are makrûh for us, but were carried out by Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) to show that they are not harâm. The paragraph between the parentheses is by the author not by `Allâmah Kowtharî)
Misconception: The head is left uncovered during Haj; there should therefore be nothing wrong with leaving it uncovered during salâh.
Answer: Haj is a unique act of worship performed at a specific time and place; therefore leaving of the head uncovered at other times cannot be established from it.
The gist is that it is not proven that Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) ever performed salâh bareheaded without an excuse, whereas leaving the head uncovered when praying is the habit of the Christians. 
When entering the toilet
Imâm Baihaqî رحمه الله mentions:
عن عائشةt قالت: كانe إذا دخل الخلاء غطى رأسه
و إذا أتى أهله غطى رأسه
`Âishah (radhiyallahu anha) narrates that when Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) entered the toilet he would cover his head.
Imâm Baihaqî رحمه الله also reports:
عن حبيب بن صالح رحمه الله مرسلا: كان رسول اللهe إذا دخل الخلاء
لبس حذاءه و غطى رأسه
Habîb Ibn Sâlih رحمه الله reports that when Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) entered the toilet, he would wear shoes and cover his head. 
Imâm Abdur Razzaq رحمه الله reports:
عن عائشة t قالت: قال أبو بكر t :”استحيوا من الله فإني لأدخل الخلاء
فأقنع رأسي حياء من الله عز و جل”
`Âishah (radhiyallahu anha) narrates that Abû Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) said: “Show respect in front of Allah, for I certainly cover my head when entering the toilet, due to respect for Allah.” 
Covering the head with a topî when entering the toilet has also been narrated from:
- Anas Ibn Mâlik 
- Abû Mûsâ Ash`arî 
`Allâmah Munâwî writes in his famous commentary ‘Faidhul Qadîr’(Hadîth no.6667), explaining the reason for Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) covering his head upon entering the toilet:
حياء من ربه تعالى ولأن تغطية الرأس حال قضاء الحاجة أجمع لمسام البدن وأسرع
لخروج الفضلات ولاحتمال أن يصل شعره ريح الخلاء فيعلق به. قال أهل الطريق:
ويجب كون الإنسان فيما لا بد منه من حاجته حيي خجل مستور
“It was done out of respect for Allâh and because covering the head when answering the call of nature causes the pores to contract thereby allowing quicker emerging of faeces. It also prevents the bad smell of the toilet from getting onto the hair. The `Ulamâ of Tasawwuf maintain that it is necessary for a person to be respectful, shy and concealed when answering the call of nature.”
A highly authentic narration of Sahîhul Bukhârî also shows that covering the head while answering the call of nature was a norm in the time of the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum).
Farrqad (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates:
أكلت مع رسول اللهe و رأيت عليه قلنسوة بيضاء في وسط رأسه
“I ate with Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and I saw a white topî placed on the centre of his head.” 
`Âishah (radhiyallahu anha) narrates that Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
آكل كما يأكل العبد
“I eat in the manner a slave eats” 
It is therefore necessary for us to display our humility and subservience to Allâh Ta`âlâ while eating. Covering the head helps greatly in achieving this goal.
It should be borne in mind that it is not forbidden to eat with the head uncovered. Many people greatly exceed the bounds by laying too much stress on this point, while others insist on leaving it out completely. We are أمة وسطاi.e. Such a nation who neither exceed the bounds nor do we exercise any deficiency in Dîn.
Abû Nuaim رحمه اللهreports:
عن عائشةt قالت: كانe إذا دخل الخلاء غطى رأسه
و إذا أتى أهله غطى رأسه
`Âishah (radhiyallahu anha) narrates that when Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) entered the toilet he would cover his head and when cohabiting with his wives he would cover his head.
Ummu Salamah (radhiyallahu anha) also narrates that Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) would cover his head during cohabitation.
Covering the head on this occasion could also refer to wearing a scarf or shawl or even to covering ones body with a sheet.
This is supported by another narration of Ummu Salamah (radhiyallahu anha)  and by an extremely weak narration of `Âishah (radhiyallahu anha) wherein she mentions:
“Whenever Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) cohabited with any of his wives he would cover his head with a shawl.” 
Imâm Ghazâlî رحمه الله has also mentioned this in his Ihyâ `Ulûm Uddîn (Vol. 2 Pg. 46).
When out in battle
Ibn `Abbâs (radhiyallahu anhu) mentions:
ويلبس ذوات الآذان في الحرب
“Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) would wear a topî with earflaps when out in battle.”
Nabî’s (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) wearing a topî in battle has also been narrated by:
- `Abdul Rahmân Ibn Zayd
- Makhûl  رحمه الله
- Wâthilah Ibnul Asqa`
In the same way we find Imâm Bukhârî رحمه الله narrating in his Sahîh, from Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) that when Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) passed by the ruins of Thamûd, on the way to Tabûk, he covered his head )with his shawl) and quickened the pace of his conveyance.
Hâfiz Ibn Hajr رحمه الله mentions the following incident.
Ja`far Ibn `Abdullâh narrates that Khâlid Ibn Walîd (radhiyallahu anhu) could not find his topî on the day of the Battle of Yarmûk. He ordered the army to search for it but it could not be found. The search was repeated and it was eventually found. It turned out to be an old topî. Khâlid (radhiyallahu anhu) explained that when Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) shaved his hair off during `umrah, people rushed to get the hair from the side of his e head, while I managed to acquire the hair from just above the forehead. I then placed the hair in this topî. Whenever I participated in a battle keeping this topî with me, we were granted victory.
Mahmûd Ibn Labîd (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that on the day of Badr, Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The angels have adopted their insignia, so should also adopt yours.” The Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum) then placed pieces of wool in their helmets and topîs, as distinguishing marks.
Wearing the topî in battle was the practice of many great personalities. From amongst them are:
- `Abdullâh Ibnul Mubârak رحمه الله
- Husain Ibn Âlî 
- Khâlid Ibnul Walîd 
- Hârûn Ar-Rashîd 
`Allâmah Tabarî رحمهالله narrates that the Khalîfah Al-Ma`mûn and his entire army wore green attire; to such an extent that even their topîs were green. 
There are many narrations showing that Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) covered his head with a helmet when in battle, however we have chosen not to include those narrations as the object it was protection and is thus out of the scope of our discussion.
When imparting knowledge
`Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) mentions that Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was narrating a hadîth to them during which he lifted up his head causing his topî to fall to the ground.
The narrator mentions that it could refer to the topî of Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) or to the topî of `Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) i.e. when `Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated the hadîth to his students he lifted his head up thereby causing his topî to fall to the ground.
We learn from the above hadîth that the topî was worn while imparting the knowledge of hadîth. This is because the knowledge of dîn is an extremely valuable and noble gift of Allâh which demands utmost respect and honour.
It is in the same light that we find Imâm Mizzî رحمه الله mentioning regarding Imâm Mâlik رحمه الله:
كان مالك إذا أراد أن يخرج يحدث توضأ وضوءه للصلاة و لبس أحسن ثيابه
و لبس قلنسوة و مشط لحيته
When Imâm Mâlik رحمه الله intended to narrate hadîth, he would perform wudhû, wear his best clothing, wear a topî and comb his beard. When asked the reason for doing this, he said: “This is how I show respect to the ahâdîth of Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).” 
When seeking knowledge
Ibn Mas`ûd (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated from Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) that Mûsâ (alayhis salaam) wore a topî when he spoke to Allâh (and thereby received the knowledge of prophethood.)
Seeking knowledge demands great humility and respect and covering the head is a great aid in achieving this.
It was the practice of our Salafus Salih to cover their heads with both turbans and topîs when seeking the valuable knowledge of dîn.
The great muhaddith, Hadhrat Shaikh Zakarîyâ Khândehlawî رحمه الله writes in his commentary of Muattâ Imâm Mâlik, that when Imâm Mâlik رحمه الله was still very young and decided to set out in the search of knowledge, his mother placed a long topî on his head and tied a turban around it. This then remained his practice throughout his life.
Hâfiz Ibn Hajr رحمه الله writes that it was the practice of Imâm Muslim رحمه الله to attend the lessons of his teacher, Imâm Zuhalî رحمه الله , wearing a turban.
When ruling and passing judgements
The wearing of the topî was not only the practice of the `Ulâmâ and the pious but was also always held fast onto by the man on the street and by the leaders as well. We have been ordered by Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) to hold fast to the practices of the Rightly–Guided Khulafâh (Islâmic rulers). It was their practice to wear the topî, thus it would be our duty to hold fast to this Sunnah as well.
The following are a number of Khulafâ (Islâmic rulers) and judges from whom wearing the topî is narrated:
- `Umar 
- `Uthmân 
- `Alî 
- `Umar Ibn `Abdul `Azîz 
- Hârûn Ar-Rashîd 
- Al-Muayyid 
- Al-Mu`tadhid 
- Abû Ja`far 
- Salâhuddîn Ayyûbî 
- Qâdhî Shurayh 
- Qâdhî Dhiyâ Uddîn 
- As-Saffâr 
- Al-Juzhû`î 
- Ibrahîm Ibnul Mahdî 
- Al-Qâim Bi-Amrillâh 
- Al-Musta`în 
- Al-Wâthiq Billâh 
- Muhammad Ibnul Wâthiq 
- Al-Mamûn 
- Al-Mansûr 
- Abûl `Umaitir 
- Marwân 
`Allâmah Firozâbâdî has written that the judges of that time would wear a topî known as the Danniyah.
Taqannu` is the covering of the head and a portion of the face with a scarf, shawl or similar item of clothing.
In addition to wearing a topî and tying a turban, it was the habit of Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum) to cover their heads with a shawl.
My dearest colleague, Mufti Muhammad Amîn Qâsim greatly eased my task by collecting Ahâdîth concerning the taqannu` of Rasûlullâh (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). These number approximately twenty narrations from about thirteen different Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum). If the narrations concerning the taqannu` of the Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum) are gathered, the number is sure to go into the hundreds.
We will suffice on the following narration of Anas (radhiyallahu anhu):
كان رسول الله e يكثر القناع
“Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) would practise taqannu` with great consistency and regularity”
‘Allâmah Suyûtî رحمه الله has written that there exists no difference of opinion in accepting taqannu` to be Sunnah.
`Allâmah Ibn Hajr Al-Haitamîرحمه الله writes:
“ Taqannu` is to place a sheet of cloth on top of the topî or turban. This will be used to cover part of the face and would then be wrapped under the chin and thrown onto the shoulders. All `Ulamâ agree that this act is desirable in Sharî`ah, in fact it is greatly emphasised upon during salâh and when attending jumu`ah and other public functions. A number of authentic ahâdîth have been narrated concerning this action, its benefits and encouragement towards adopting it. This has also been narrated from a large number of Sahâbah (radhiyallahu anhum) and other Salafus Sâlih.” 
Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is reported to have mentioned regarding it:
“ This is an item of clothing for which sufficient gratitude has not been expressed.” 
Nabî (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is reported to have worn many different colour shawls viz. red, black, green etc.
These will, Inshâ Allâh be discussed with greater detail in a future publication.
FOOTNOTES TO THIS SECTION البخاري تعليقا -باب السجود في شدة الحر ص56- و جزم به ومعلوم أن ما علقه البخاري
مقبول إذا جزم به وأما قول الحافظ وصله ابن أبي شيبة (1/298( فليس في المطبوع ذكر القلنسوة
و لا عند عبد الرزاق 1/400 ولا البيهقي 4/106 و الله أعلم ابن خزيمة 1/233 و قال محققه: إسناده صحيح, و رواه أبو داؤد ص 105 (728)  المصنف لعبد الرزاق 1/401 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  رواه ابن قانع في معجمه (1534) و أبو نعيم في تاريخ إصبهان 2/567 و الطبراني
في الكبير و قال الهيثمي في المجمع (2226): رجاله موثقون. ابن سعد 4/131 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  ابن سعد 6/133 و رجاله موثقون المصنف لابن أبي شيبة 1/297 و ابن سعد 6/190 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  المصنف لابن أبي شيبة 1/298 و ابن سعد 6/ 152 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  ابن سعد 6/137 و المصنف لابن أبي شيبة 1/297 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  المصنف لابن أبي شيبة 1/298 و ابن سعد 6/139 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  تاريخ دمشق 33/434  المصنف لابن أبي شيبة 1/297 و ابن سعد 6/175 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  المصنف لابن أبي شيبة 1/298 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  تاريخ دمشق 49/120  أوجز المسالك 3/202 و ابن أبي شيبة 1/298 و فيه أسامة بن زيد العلوي هو ضعيف  الزهد لأحمد ص 326 و رجاله رجال الصحيح إلا محمد بن مصعب و قد وثق  تاريخ دمشق 33/34  سير أعلام النبلاء 11/209  در الغمامة ص 20  السنن و المبتدعات ص 50  السنن الكبرى 2/236  السنن الكبرى 2/236  المجموع 3/175, غنية المستملي ص 214  تفسير البحر المحيط 4/292  فيض القدير (7168)  مقالات الكوثري ص 170  رواه البيهقي في السنن الكبرى 1 /96 و قال: هذا الحديث أحد ما أنكر على محمد بنيونس
الكديمي. و قال ابن عدي 7 /555: وهذا لا أعلمه رواه غير الكديمي بهذاالإسناد…الخ . قال
النووي في المجموع 2/ 113 في حديث الكديمي: هو ضعيف. قال العبد الضعيف: تابعه
أبو خالد يزيد العمى عند ابن الأعرابي في كتاب المعجم (1085) و تابعه أيضا علي بن حيان
عند أبي نعيم في الحلية 7 /158 فهو قوي ان شاء الله. رواه البيهقي في السنن الكبرى 1 /96 عن حبيب بن صالح مرسلا, و قال المناوي في
فيض القدير(6667): فيه أبو بكر بن عبد الله قال الذهبي: ضعيف. و نقله النووي في
المجموع 2 /113 و قال: وقد اتفق العلماء على أن الحديث المرسل و الضعيف و
الموقوف يتسامح به في فضائل الأعمال و يعمل بمقتضاه و هذا منها. اﻫ
و قال العزيزي 4/61 قال الشيخ: حديث حسن لغيره. كنز العمال )8514 ) عن سفيان, و رواه عبد الرزاق و هو في حياة الصحابة 2/554
و إعلاء السنن 1/322 و قال البيهقي 1/96 :هو صحيح عبد الرزاق 1/190 و البيهقي في السنن الكبرى 1/285 و فيه سعيد بن عبد الله,
قال أبو حاتم :ليس بالقوي المصنف لابن أبي شيبة 1/34 و العلل لأحمد1/202 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  صحيح البخاري (577) في قصة قتل أبي رافع . وانظر أثر الحديث الشريف لمحمد عوامة ص147  رواه ابن السكن في المعرفة عن محمد بن سلام عن الحسن, ذكره الشامي في سبل الهدى
7/284 و نقله الحافظ في الإصابة 5 /207 و سكت عنه قال الهيثمي في المجمع (14210): رواه أبو يعلى و إسناده حسن  أبو نعيم في الحلية 7 /158 و مر التفصيل في “باب لبس القلنسوة عند دخول الخلاء” ,  قال العراقي: رواه الخطيب بإسناد ضعيف, الإتحاف 5/372 و فيض القدير )6536)  تاريخ البغداد 5/162 وفيه معروف أبو الخطاب وهو ضعيف ,  أخلاق النبي ص 198 وفيه محمد بن القاسم الأسدي ضعيف جدا ,  ابن عساكر و قد مر في “باب الطويلة”  رواه البلاذري في تاريخه, كذا في سبل الهدى 7 /287  رواه ابن أبي شيبة في مصنفه, كذا رمز له في الكنز(30120) ولكن لم أجده في
المطبوع من المصنف, وهو في جامع الأحاديث والمراسيل(20037) ابن عساكر 45/78 و الحاوي للسيوطي 1/405 و الطبراني في الكبير 22/62 و قال الهيثمي
في المجمع (7917) فيه بقية و عمرو الشامي و بقية ثقة لكنه مدلس و عمرو لم أعرفه.اﻫ
قال العبد الضعيف:الصواب أنه عمر بن سليمان الدمشقي و له ترجمة عند ابن عساكر 45/78 صحيح البخاري (4419)  الإصابة 2/99,صفوة الصفوة 1/291,الطبراني في الكبير 4/105 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  ابن سعد 2/16 و المغازي للواقدي 1/75 و رجاله ثقات إلا الواقدي وهو مقبول في المغازي  شعب الإيمان 3/167  البداية و النهاية 8/186 و تاريخ الطبري ص 2756  الإصابة 2/99,صفوة الصفوة 1/291,الطبراني في الكبير 4/105 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  تاريخ الطبري 10/106  تاريخ الطبري 11/3  رواه الترمذي ص 293(1644) وقال: هذا حديثٌ حسنٌ غريبٌ…الخ و قال ابن كثير في تفسيره
4/334: و هكذا رواه علي بن المديني عن أبي داؤد الطيالسي عن ابن مبارك عن ابن
لهيعة و قال هذا إسناد مصري صالح تهذيب الكمال 17/384 و هو مسند في كشف المغطا في فضل الموطا ص33  رواه الترمذي ص (1734) و قال:هذا حديثٌ غريبٌ لا نعرفهُ إلاَّ من حَدِيثِ حميدٍ
الأعرجِ..الخ. وقال العزيزي (4 /3): هو حديث ضعيف مقدمة أوجز المسالك 1/16 و أسنده الخطيب في الجامع لأخلاق الراوي و أداب السامع 1/384  هدي الساري مقدمة فتح الباري ص491  ابن أبي شيبة 6/37, البداية النهاية 7/87 و في مسند الروياني 1/190 نحوه  الجرح و التعديل 9/119 و تاريخ دمشق 70/137  ابن سعد 3/22 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  ابن سعد 5/314 و الآحاد و المثاني 2/442 و 5/334  البداية و النهاية 10/203 و تاريخ الطبري 10/106  سير أعلام النبلاء 17/16  البداية و النهاية 11/91  ابن سعد 3/183 و فيه يحيى بن عمران , قال أبو حاتم: شيخ مدني مجهول  سير أعلام النبلاء 21/281  فتح الباري 13/155 و ابن سعد 6/189 و رجاله رجال الصحيح  الوافي للوفيات ص 71  سير أعلام النبلاء 12/517 تاريخ بغداد 3/206  تاريخ بغداد 8/313  تاريخ بغداد 9/402  تاريخ الطبري 11/205  تاريخ الطبري 11/145  تاريخ الطبري 11/145  تاريخ الطبري 11/3  تاريخ الطبري 9/297  تاريخ دمشق 43/32  الآحاد و المثاني 1/393  القاموس  شرح الزرقاني على المواهب 6/309 , فتح الباري 10/274  الترمذي في الشمائل ص 3 و ابن سعد 1/356 و حسنه الشيخ محمد الحجازي
(السراج المنير 3/190) و له شاهد في حديث سهل عند البيهقي 5/226 منتهى السول 1/473 , شرح الزرقاني على المواهب 6/311  الدعامة  ابن سعد 1/357 و ذكره الحافظ في الفتح (7/235) و (10/275) و سكت عنه فهو حسن.