I’la al-Sunan on Raf’ al-Yadayn Part One

[Hadith One]

1. Narrated from Tamim ibn Tarafah from Jabir ibn Samurah (Allah be pleased with him): He said: Allah‟s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) came out to us and said: “Why do I see you raising your hands like they are the tails of wild horses? Be still in Salah!” Muslim narrated it (1:181).

I say: The evidence adhered to in this hadith is his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) statement, “Be still in Salah,” as it proves the obligation of stillness and that raising the hands in Salah negates this [stillness].

If it is said that his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) statement, “Why do I see you raising your hands like they are the tails of wild horses?” was said specifically with respect to raising [the hands] upon salam as clarified in a second hadith, which is Muslim’s narration from ‘Ubayd Allah ibn al-Qibtiyyah from Jabir ibn Samurah, he said: “We would, when praying with Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him), say ‘al-salamu ‘alaykum wa rahmat Allah, al-salamu ‘alaykum wa rahmat Allah,’” and he gestured with his hands to the side, “so Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: ‘Why do you gesture with your hands like they are the tails of wild horses?’”

We say: Apparently the hadith of Tamim ibn Tarafah and the hadith of ‘Ubayd Allah ibn al-Qibtiyyah are two separate incidents because it is not said to the one raising the hand during salam, “Be still in (fi) Salah,” since by this act [i.e. the salam] he comes out of Salah; so understand! Secondly, the context of the hadith of Ibn al-Qibtiyyah indicates that it occurred when praying behind Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the context of the hadith of Ibn Tarafah [indicates] that it occurred when praying individually. Thus, the assertion that they are the same [incident] is inaccurate.

If conceded [that they are the same incident], it is still possible to deduce evidence from it for not raising [the hands] upon bowing and after it by what Shaykh [Ashraf ‘Ali al-Thanawi] explained that: “He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) commanded [us] to not raise [the hands] in the act of salam which is internal to Salah from one perspective and external to it from another perspective as is not hidden, so this proves that it is required in that which is internal to Salah from all perspectives by way of greater priority as is indicated by his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) reasoning, ‘Be still in Salah.’ This was taught [to us] by the teacher of teachers, the chief of the brilliant scholars, the verifier, Mawlana Muhammad Ya‘qub [al-Nanotwi], the mercy of the Knower of Secrets be upon him.” Hence, in its inclusiveness, this entails [the hands] are not raised upon bowing and after it, and does not entail its omission when starting [the Salah], since this is not [regarded as] raising [the hands] inside Salah, rather it is external to it, because the opening takbir is a condition of Salah according to us and is not inside of it, while it is also excluded from the hadith by consensus.

Response to al-Bukhari‟s Vilification of the Imam

Know that al-Bukhari in Juz’ Raf‘ al-Yadayn (p. 19) narrated without chain (ta‘liqan) from Ibn al-Mubarak that he said:

I was praying to the side of [Abu Hanifah] al-Nu‘man ibn Thabit and I raised my hands. He said: “Weren’t you afraid that you would fly?!” I said: “If I didn’t fly in the first [instance], I would not fly in the second.”

Waki‘ [ibn al-Jarrah] said: “Allah have mercy on Ibn al-Mubarak. He was quick to respond, and the other was left speechless.”

This chainless report was connected by Ibn Qutaybah (d. 276 H) in Ta’wil Mukhtalif al-Hadith (p. 66):

Ishaq ibn Rahwayh narrated to us, he said: Waki‘ reported to us that Abu Hanifah said: “What is the matter with him, that he raises his hands at every upward and downward movement? Does he wish to fly?!” Thereupon, ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak said to him: “If he wishes to fly when he starts [his Salah], then indeed he wishes to fly when he moves up and down.”

I say: There is no proof in this reply for the opposition at all, since Abu Hanifah only compared raising [the hands] with flight just as the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) compared raising the hands upon salam with the tails of wild horses. The intent of the Imam is that this raising [of the hands] is outside its [proper] place, and hence its omission is proper, just as was his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) intent in this comparison.

Hence, that which Ibn al-Mubarak brought [as an objection] against the Imam, it may be brought against the hadith also, since it may be said: “If raising [the hands] upon salam is like the tails of wild horses, it is the same at the opening [of Salah], or else it is not [like the tails of wild horses].” Whatever your response is to [this objection against] the hadith, that is our response to what Ibn al-Mubarak said [against Abu Hanifah]. So, understand! It is strange from these outstanding Imams that they vilify Imam Abu Hanifah using that which is not a [valid] criticism, yet they are unaware that the same [objection] may be brought against the hadith also. We seek refuge in Allah from the excesses of fanaticism.

 

[Hadith Two]

2. Narrated from „Alqamah: He said: „Abd Allah ibn Mas„ud said: “Should I not pray with you the Salah of Allah‟s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace)?” Thereupon, he prayed, not raising his hands except in the first instance. Al-Tirmidhi narrated it (1:35) and he said: “In the chapter [of not raising the hands except in the opening of Salah is a hadith narrated] from al-Bara‟ ibn „Azib” [see hadith no. 17] and he said: “[The hadith of Ibn Mas„ud is] a hasan hadith, and many of the people of knowledge adopted it from the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the successors, and it is the opinion of Sufyan [al-Thawri] and the people of Kufa.” Its narrators are the narrators of Muslim as mentioned in al-Jawhar al-Naqi (1:137). Ibn Hazm declared it sahih as mentioned in al-Talkhis al-Habir (1:83). Al-Nasa‟i also narrated it as is to come [see hadith no.3].

I say: Its chain according to al-Tirmidhi is as follows: “Hannad [ibn al-Sari] narrated to us: Waki‘ [ibn al-Jarrah] narrated to us from Sufyan [al-Thawri] from ‘Asim ibn Kulayb from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Aswad from ‘Alqamah.” This hadith has been criticised for [a number of] reasons:

From them is that al-Tirmidhi narrated with his chain to Ibn al-Mubarak that he said: “According to me, the hadith of Ibn Mas‘ud that he (peace be upon him) did not raise his hands except in the first instance is not established.” The answer to this is:

Firstly, that this hadith was narrated from Ibn Mas‘ud in two forms:

* The first of them is from his [own] practice as was narrated by al-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, al-Nasa’i, Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah, Ahmad and Abu Hanifah that “‘Abd Allah would raise his hands at the first takbir and then he would not repeat [it], and he attributed this to Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace),” and in the wording of some of them, “‘Should I not pray with you the Salah of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace)?’ Thereupon, he prayed, not raising his hands except in the first instance.”

* And the second of them is traced (marfu‘) to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), that he did not raise his hands except in the first instance and the like of this, as transmitted by al-Tahawi and others.

Therefore, probably the intent of Ibn al-Mubarak is that the hadith of Ibn Mas‘ud is not established in the second form traced [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], and that the one who narrated it traced [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)] narrated it by meaning [and not with the precise wording]. As for [the possibility of] his absolute rejection [of the narration], it is farfetched from the like of him. How [is this possible], when the disagreement of Ibn Mas‘ud and his companions on raising the hands is well-known (mashhur) amongst the hadith-scholars¹? It is not hidden that the hadith in the first form is also traced [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], though in ruling, since the statement of a Sahabi, “Should I not pray with you the Salah of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace),” has the ruling of being traced [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)] as is established in the principles [of hadith-science].

Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id said in al-Imam:

The non-establishment of the report according to Ibn al-Mubarak does not prevent analysis of it, and it revolves around ‘Asim ibn Kulayb, who Ibn Ma‘in declared trustworthy as we mentioned previously. (Nasb al-Rayah, 1:207)

I say: He is from the narrators of Muslim, as his narrations are found in his Sahih, and al-Bukhari transmitted from him without chain (ta‘liqan), and Shu‘bah narrated from him. These [individuals] do not narrate but from trustworthy narrators as is known.

Ibn Ma‘in and al-Nasa’i said, “Trustworthy.” Abu Hatim said, “Acceptable.” Al-Ajurri said, “I said to Abu Dawud: ‘‘Asim the son of Kulayb the son of who?’ He said: ‘The son of Shihab, he was from the worshippers’ and he recollected his virtues.” And he said in another place, “He was the most virtuous of the inhabitants of Kufa.” Ibn Hibban mentioned him in al-Thiqat. Ibn Shahin said in al-Thiqat, “Ahmad ibn Salih al-Misri said: ‘He is counted amongst the outstanding trustworthy narrators of Kufa,’” and in another place, “He is trustworthy and reliable (thiqah ma’mun).” Ibn Sa‘d said, “He was trustworthy, passable as proof. He did not narrate many hadiths.” (Summarised from Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, 5:55-6)

By this, the invalidity of al-Hakim’s statement as transmitted by al-Zayla‘i from al-Bayhaqi from him that he said, “‘Asim ibn Kulayb’s hadith is not transmitted in the Sahih,” (Nasb al-Rayah, 1:207) is clear. Al-Zayla‘i said:

Shaykh [Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id] said: “The statement of al-Hakim that his hadith is not transmitted in the Sahih is incorrect, since Muslim narrated his hadith from Abu Burdah from ‘Ali on [the hadith of supplicating for] guidance, and his hadith from him from ‘Ali, “Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) forbade me to place my ring on this [finger] and the one next to it,” and other [hadiths] besides these. Moreover, it is not a condition of a Sahih collection to narrate from every reliable narrator, and indeed he [i.e. al-Hakim] transmitted in al-Mustadrak from a group who were not narrated from in the Sahih collections, yet he said: “It is according to the criteria of the two shaykhs [al-Bukhari and Muslim].” If he meant by his statement, “His hadith is not transmitted in the Sahih,” that this [particular] hadith [is not found in the Sahih], that is not a defect, otherwise his entire objective in his book al-Mustadrak [which is to collect the sahih narrations according to the criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim which they failed to include in their collections] will be spoilt.” (Nasb al-Rayah, 1:208)

From them [i.e. the criticisms of this hadith] is what al-Mundhiri said: “Besides Ibn al-Mubarak, [another critic] said: ‘Abd al-Rahman did not hear from ‘Alqamah.’” Shaykh [Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id] responded to this [as follows]:

This does not harm [the hadith] because it [i.e. that ‘Abd al-Rahman did not hear from ‘Alqamah] was narrated from an unknown man, and I searched for this speaker and did not find him. Ibn Abi Hatim did not mention him in his Marasil, and he only mentioned him in Kitab al-Jarh wa al-Ta‘dil and he said: “‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Aswad entered upon ‘A’ishah while he was small and he did not hear from her, and he narrated from his father and ‘Alqamah,” and he did not say that this is disconnected. Ibn Hibban mentioned him Kitab al-Thiqat, and he said, “He died in the year 99 and his age was the age of Ibrahim al-Nakha‘i,” and since his age was the age of al-Nakha‘i what prevents him from having heard from ‘Alqamah when it is agreed al-Nakha‘i heard from him? Along with all of this, Hafiz Abu Bakr al-Khatib stated in Kitab al-Muttafaq wa al-Muftaraq under the biography of this ‘Abd al-Rahman that he heard from his father and ‘Alqamah. (Nasb al-Rayah, 1:207)

From them [i.e. the criticisms of this hadith] is that it was mentioned in one narration, “He raised his hands in the first takbir and then he did not repeat [it],” and in a report traced [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], “Then he would not repeat [it],” and his statement, “then he did not repeat” and, “then he would not repeat” is not preserved (ghayr mahfuz). Ibn al-Qattan said in his book al-Wahm wa al-Iham:

Al-Tirmidhi narrated from Ibn al-Mubarak that he said, “The hadith of Waki‘ is inauthentic,” and that which is [correct] according to me is that it is sahih and he only rejected Waki‘’s addition of “then he would not repeat.” They [i.e. the scholars] said that he used to say this from himself, and sometimes he attached it to the hadith as though it is from the speech of Ibn Mas‘ud.

Al-Bukhari said in Juz’ Raf‘ al-Yadayn (p. 14): “It was narrated from Sufyan from ‘Asim ibn Kulayb,” and then he mentioned the hadith with its chain and text, and he said:

Ahmad ibn Hanbal narrated from Yahya ibn Adam, he said: “I looked into the book of ‘Abd Allah ibn Idris from ‘Asim ibn Kulayb in which ‘then he did not repeat’ is not found.” This is more authentic because a book is more accurate according to the scholars as a man narrates something and then refers to [his] book. Hence, it is as found in the book.

Then he narrated the hadith of tatbiq (placing the hands between the knees when bowing) from Ibn Mas‘ud (Allah be pleased with him)² and he said: “This is what is preserved from the hadith of ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud according to the people of reflection.”

I say: As for his statement, that a book is more accurate according to the scholars, it is not conceded absolutely, since sometimes error and mistake occur in writing, and then the scholar corrects it and rectifies it from his memory, so it is not unlikely that the phrase “then he would not repeat” was dropped from the book of Ibn Idris due to an error of the scribe.

The hadith of tatbiq does not contradict this hadith as proven by their different contexts, and one hadith is not rejected for another. Even assuming they are the same, Ibn Idris’s conflict with Sufyan does not harm him, since the addition of a trustworthy narrator is acceptable, and Sufyan is trustworthy, a hafiz, jurist, worshipper, imam, and proof as mentioned in Taqrib al-Tahdhib (p. 74) while ‘Abd Allah ibn Idris is only trustworthy, a jurist and worshipper as mentioned in there also (p. 98), and he is not an imam or a proof according to them. It is strange from the hadith-scholars how they consider Sufyan stronger than Shu‘bah in the chapter of raising the voice for Amin, and in favour of his statement, they leave the narration of Shu‘bah with the wording, “He lowered his voice when [saying] it,” when he is the commander of the believers in hadith; while they also leave the statement of Sufyan in favour of the book of Ibn Idris while he is less in rank than Sufyan, and a book contains greater possibility of error than memory. Is this but clear obstinacy?

As for what Ibn al-Qattan said, “Ibn al-Mubarak only rejected Waki‘’s addition,” it is refuted by what al-Nasa’i transmitted in his Sunan from Suwayd ibn Nasr from ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak from Sufyan in which is mentioned, “He raised his hands in the first instance and then did not repeat [it].” This chain is sahih and is the third hadith of this chapter. Hence, it is established by this that Waki‘ was not alone in [narrating] this, rather he was followed-up by Ibn al-Mubarak from the companions of al-Thawri. Abu Hanifah narrated it through another route as is to come in the main text [see hadith no. 15], and in it is mentioned, “Then he would not repeat [it] in any part of it,” and it is acceptable as a supporting narration as we will explain.

Moreover, even if it were to be accepted that the addition “then he would not repeat” is an unpreserved addition, we are availed of it by the narration of al-Tirmidhi from his statement, “Then he did not raise his hands except in the first instance,” and what is mentioned in the hadith of Ibn Abi Shaybah that “he would raise his hands at the start when he began [the Salah] and then he would not raise them,” and in another narration from him, “Then he did not raise them except once,” and Ahmad also narrated it with the wording, “Then he did not raise his hands except once,” and Abu Dawud narrated it from ‘Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah from Waki‘ with this wording and then he said: “Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali narrated to us: Mu‘awiyah and Khalid ibn ‘Umar and Abu Hudhayfah narrated to us, they said: Sufyan narrated to us this [hadith] and he said, ‘Then he raised his hands in the first instance,’ and some of them said, ‘One time,’” all of which we documented in the main text. It is not hidden that all of these wordings have the [same] meaning as his statement, “Then he would not repeat” or, “He did not repeat.”

Al-Zayla‘i responded to it saying:

Al-Bukhari and Abu Hatim determined the error therein to be from Sufyan, while Ibn al-Qattan and others determined the error therein to be from Waki‘, and this disagreement leads to discarding both opinions, and to returning to the [default] authenticity of the hadith due to it being narrated by trustworthy narrators. (Nasb al-Rayah, 1:208)

[Hadith Three]

3. Suwayd ibn Nasr reported to us: „Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak narrated to us from Sufyan from „Asim ibn Kulayb from „Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Aswad from „Alqamah from „Abd Allah: He said: “Should I not inform you of the Salah of Allah‟s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace)?” Thereupon, he stood up and raised his hands in the first instance [of Salah], and then he did not repeat [it]. In another version, “Then he did not raise [his hands].” Al-Nasa‟i narrated it (1:158) and remained silent upon it. It is mentioned in al-Ta„liq al-Hasan (1:104): “This is a sahih chain.” I say: Its narrators are the narrators of the two Sahihs besides Suwayd who is trustworthy, and besides „Asim who is from the narrators of Muslim, and trustworthy.

I say: ‘Allamah al-Hashim al-Madani said in Kashf al-Rayn ‘an Mas’alati Raf‘ al-Yadayn that the chain of al-Nasa’i is in accordance with the criteria of the two shaykhs [i.e. al-Bukhari and Muslim], as mentioned in Ta‘liq al-Tahawi (1:132). Some people criticised this because the two shaykhs did not narrate from this Suwayd in their two Sahihs, as mentioned in Tahdhib al-Tahdhib:

Abu Sa‘d al-Sam‘ani mentioned him in al-Ansab…Al-Bukhari, Muslim and al-Nasa’i narrated from him as stated by Abu Sa‘d [al-Sam‘ani], the two shaykhs probably having narrated from him outside of the Sahihs. (Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, 4:280)

Therefore, that which Hashim said that the chain of al-Nasa’i is in accordance with the criteria of the two shaykhs is incorrect because by this [phrase i.e. “in accordance with the criteria of the two shaykhs”] in the usage of the scholars of the science is meant the criteria of the two Sahihs, as is not hidden to the expert.

I say: Shaykh Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id said in al-Imam as mentioned in Nasb al-Rayah (1:208):

It is not from the condition of a Sahih to transmit from every reliable narrator, and indeed al-Hakim transmitted in al-Mustadrak from a group not narrated from in the Sahih [collections], yet he said: “[It is] sahih according to the criteria of the two shaykhs.”

Hence, that which Hashim said is correct according to the methodology of al-Hakim, and there is no tenacity in terminology; so understand!

 

[Hadiths Four & Five]

4. Narrated from al-Aswad: He said: “I saw „Umar ibn al-Khattab raising his hands in the first takbir, and then he would not repeat [it].” Al-Tahawi narrated it and he said, “It is a sahih hadith,” and [Ibn Hajar al-„Asqalani mentioned] in al-Dirayah (p. 85): “Its narrators are trustworthy.”

5. Yahya ibn Adam narrated to us from Hasan ibn „Ayyash from „Abd al-Malik ibn Abjar from al-Zubayr ibn „Adi from Ibrahim from al-Aswad: He said: “I prayed with „Umar and he did not raise his hands in any part of his Salah except when starting the Salah,” and I [i.e. al-Zubayr ibn „Adi] saw Ibrahim, al-Sha„bi and Abu Ishaq not raising their hands except when starting the Salah. Ibn Abi Shaybah transmitted it in al-Musannaf, and its chain is sahih according to the criteria of Muslim. 

Al-Tahawi said: “This is established from „Umar,” as mentioned in al-Jawhar al-Naqi (1:134), and he said: “Al-Hasan ibn „Ayyash is trustworthy and a proof as stated by Yahya ibn Ma„in and others.” (Sharh Ma„ani al-Athar, 1:134)

Their significance to the chapter is obvious. They are contradicted by what al-Bayhaqi transmitted as mentioned in al-Jawhar al-Naqi (1:135) from Shu‘bah from al-Hakam:

I saw Tawus saying takbir, and he raised his hands at the level of his shoulders upon takbir and upon bowing and upon raising his head from bowing, so I asked a man from his companions [about this], and he said that he narrated it from Ibn ‘Umar from ‘Umar from the Prophet (upon him peace).

Then he [i.e. al-Bayhaqi] said:

Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Hafiz [i.e. Imam al-Hakim] said: “Hence, both hadiths are preserved: Ibn ‘Umar from ‘Umar from the Prophet (upon him peace) and Ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), as Ibn ‘Umar saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) practising it and he saw his father practising it, and he narrated it.”

I say: It is mentioned in al-Imam:

It was narrated in this way by Adam and Ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar al-Marwazi from Shu‘bah, and these two erred therein. The preserved [narration] from Ibn ‘Umar is from the Prophet (upon him peace). This narration hinges on an unknown narrator which is the man from the companions of Tawus narrating to al-Hakam, so it must be supported by another connected route, for otherwise there is no proof in the narration of an unknown.

It is mentioned in al-‘Ilal of al-Khallal from Ahmad ibn Athram: “I asked Abu ‘Abd Allah [i.e. Ahmad ibn Hanbal] about this hadith and he said: ‘Who narrated this from Shu‘bah?’ I said: ‘Adam al-‘Asqalani.’ He said ‘This is nothing! It was only narrated from Ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace).’” It is mentioned in al-Khilafiyyat by al-Bayhaqi: “This was narrated from Muhammad ibn Ja‘far Ghandar from Shu‘bah and he did not mention ‘Umar in its chain.”

Thus, it is established by this that the narration from ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) of raising [the hands] is inauthentic, and only its omission is established from him as stated by al-Tahawi. It is mentioned in al-Ta‘liq al-Hasan (1:105):

I say: Regarding the defects, that which al-Hakim claimed that this narration [i.e. the narration of al-Aswad from ‘Umar] is anomalous (shadhdh) is inaccurate. How [can it be], when its narrators are trustworthy and al-Tahawi authenticated it, and it is not opposed by the narration of anyone?

As for what he claimed that al-Thawri narrated it from al-Zubayr ibn ‘Adi and he did not say, “He did not repeat” in it, Shaykh ‘Allamah Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id replied to it in his book al-Imam that his statement, “Sufyan did not narrate ‘he did not repeat’ from al-Zubayr ibn ‘Adi” is very weak because Sufyan’s narration is with respect to the degree of raising [the hands], and al-Hasan ibn ‘Ayyash’s narration is with respect to the time of raising [the hands]. Moreover, the narration of one who adds does not contradict the narration of one who omits.

They [i.e. hadiths 4 and 5] are also contradicted by what al-Bayhaqi narrated as mentioned in Nasb al-Rayah (1:217) from Rishdin ibn Sa‘d from Muhammad ibn Sahm from Sa‘id ibn al-Musayyib, he said: “I saw ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab raising his hands in line with his shoulders when he began the Salah and when he bowed and when he raised his head from bowing.” [Al-Zayla‘i said:] “And in it is one who was weakened.”

I say: In its [chain] is Rishdin who was criticised as has preceded, and al-Zayla‘i alluded to this by his statement, “In it is one who was weakened.” Although disagreement [over the reliability of a narrator] does not harm [the use of a hadith as proof], that is when it is not contradicted by a [narration] stronger than it, and here this is not so, since the hadith of al-Aswad is more authentic than it and stronger. I did not find anyone who wrote a biography of Muhammad ibn Sahm, and the rest of the chain is not mentioned, so this narration cannot be used as proof.

Similar is what al-Bukhari said in Juz’ Raf‘ al-Yadayn (p. 6): “Likewise, it was narrated from seventeen souls from the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) that they would raise their hands upon bowing and upon rising from it,” and he mentioned ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) from amongst them, for al-Bukhari narrated this without chain and did not quote its chain, and he also did not mention it using a term of authentication and certainty, rather in his statement, “Similarly it was narrated,” is an indication of its weakness [due to the use of the passive verb]. Hence, there is no proof in this after not raising [the hands] has been authenticated from ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) with a chain whose narrators are all trustworthy.

[Footnotes to Part One]

1. ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak is also one of the narrators of the hadith of Ibn Mas‘ud via the same route as Waki‘ – see hadith 3. Therefore, his complete rejection of this narration is highly improbable. The hadith of Ibn Mas‘ud has also been narrated through a second route – see hadiths 8, 10, 14, 15 and 18. For the narrations reporting this same practice from the companions of ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud and from their companions, see hadiths 5, 9 and 14.

2. Al-Bukhari narrated the hadith of tatbiq as follows in his Juz’ Raf‘ al-Yadayn:

Al-Hasan ibn al-Rabi‘ narrated to us: Ibn Idris narrated to us from ‘Asim ibn Kulayb from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Aswad: ‘Alqamah narrated to us that ‘Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with him) said: “Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) taught us Salah, so he stood, said takbir and raised his hands. Then he bowed, doing tatbiq of his hands by placing them between his knees.” This reached Sa‘d, and he said: “My brother spoke the truth – we used to do that at the start of Islam, and then we were commanded to [do] this [i.e. bow by placing the hands on the knees].” (Kitab Raf‘ al-Yadayn fi al-Salah, p. 83)