Kitaabut Tahaarah

KITAABUT TAHAARAH

(From Beheshti Zewar)

RULES PERTAINING TO THE USE OF WATER

1. Any impure water whereby all three of its qualities, i.e. taste, smell and colour, have changed because of some impurity cannot be used under any circumstances. It cannot be given to animals for drinking purposes, nor can it be used to prepare mud for building or plastering. If all three qualities have not changed, it could be given to animals, could be used for building purposes, and could also be used for watering in the house. However, mud of this sort should not be used to plaster the walls of the musjid.

2. The sea, rivers, that pond which is not on some private property, and that well which has been made waqf (given in Allah’s name) – the water of all these can be used by the general public. No one has the right to stop anyone from using water from these places, nor does anyone have the right to use it in such a way that it causes harm to the general public. For example, a person digs a canal from a river or pond and draws water from it in such a way that it becomes dry, or there is the fear of flooding a tract of land or village. To use it in such a way is not proper, and everyone has the right to stop him from this improper way.

3. A person has a well, fountain, pond, or spring on his private property. He cannot stop others from doing the following: drinking water from there, giving water to their animals, making wudughusl or washing clothes, and filling buckets in order to water their trees and gardens. The reason for this is that everyone has a right in it. However, if on account of there being too many animals, there is a fear that the water will get finished, or the pond will get damaged; then he has the right to stop them. If he wishes to stop anyone, they will have to see whether they could get their work done by obtaining water from elsewhere, (eg. there is another well within 1.6 kilometres and it is not on any private property); or the work will not get done and they will have problems. If their work could get done from some other place, well and good. If not, the owner will be told that he should allow this person to draw water on the condition that he will not break the well, etc. or alternatively, he (i.e. the owner) should draw the water for him or get someone to draw it for him and give it to him. However, the water that he receives for his farm or garden cannot be given to anyone else without the owner’s permission. The owner has the right to stop him from this. The same rule applies to grass and all those plants that have no trunks. However, trees that have trunks are the property of the land-owner.

4. A person wishes to irrigate his farm with water from someone else’s well or reservoir and the owner of these wants to charge him for the water. The Ulama differ as to whether it is permissible or not. TheUlama of Balkh have passed a fatwa that it is permissible.

5. If a person fills sea-water, water of a pond or well, etc. into a utensil of his, he will become the owner of that water. No one can use it without his permission. But if a person becomes extremely restless due to thirst, it will be permissible to take that water forcefully from that person if he knows that the water is more than what the owner will require. However, he will have to give compensation for the water.

6. Wudu and ghusl cannot be made with water that has been kept aside for drinking purposes – as is normally kept aside during summer. However, if a lot of water has been kept aside, it can be used. Water that has been kept aside for wudu can be used for drinking purposes.

7. If one or two bits of a goat’s excreta fall into a well, and they come out whole, then the well will not become impure (najis). Irrespective of whether the well is in a jungle or in a town, or whether it is covered or not.

ISTINJA

1. On awakening from sleep, a person should not put his hands in the water (container) until and unless he washes his hands upto his wrists irrespective of whether the hands are pure or impure. If water has been kept in a small container, such as a pitcher or jug, then it should be carried with the left hand and poured onto the right hand and washed three times. Thereafter, the utensil should be taken into the right hand and the left hand should be washed three times. If the water is not kept in a small container, but in a big drum, etc., then it should be taken out with a small utensil, such as a jug. Care should be taken that the fingers do not touch the water. If there is no small utensil, then water should be taken out with the palm of the left hand. As far as possible, very little of the fingers should be put in the water. On taking out the water, first the right hand should be washed, and thereafter, as much of the right hand can be put in the water. On taking out water, the left hand should be washed. This method of washing the hands is only permissible if the hands are not impure. If they are impure, then under no condition should the hands be put in the drum. Water should be taken out in such a way that it does not become impure. For example, a clean handkerchief could be dipped in the water and whatever comes onto the handkie could be used to purify the hands. Alternatively, any other possible method could be used to purify them.

2. It is sunnah to make istinja of those impurities emitted from the anterior or posterior private parts.

3. If the impurity does not stick to the sides (or anywhere else), and a person does not use water for istinja, but instead uses pure stones or lumps of clay, and wipes in such a way that the impurity goes away and the body gets clean; then this will also be permissible. But this method is contrary to purity consciousness. If there is no water or a shortage of it, then there is no alternative but to cleanse oneself in this way.

4. There is no special method for using stones. But care should be taken that the impurity does not spread and the body gets thoroughly cleaned.

5. After having made istinja with stones, it is sunnat to

make istinja with water. But if the impurity spreads more than the size of a fifty cents coin, it will be wajib to wash with water. Without washing, salaat will not be valid. If the impurity has not spread, then even after purifying with stones alone, salaat will be valid, but this is contrary to the sunnat.

6. When making istinja with water, first the hands upto the wrists should be washed. Thereafter go to a secluded spot, and after loosening the clothes, sit down. Wash until you are thoroughly satisfied that the body is clean. But if a person is always in doubt and he uses a lot of water, and still he is not fully satisfied, then he should wash three or seven times and not more than this.

7. If a secluded place cannot be found, then for the sake of making istinja with water, one should not expose one’s private parts, neither to women nor men. In such a case, istinja should not be made with water (but stones). Salaat should be offered without having made istinja (with water). This is because the exposing of one’s body is a major sin.

8. Making istinja with the following objects is a sin and prohibited, and should be abstained from: bones, impurities such as cow-dung and droppings of goats, coal, coarse limestone, glass, baked bricks, edibles, paper, etc. It is also sinful to make istinja with the right hand. But if someone does this, the body will be cleaned.

9. It is prohibited to stand and urinate.

10. It is prohibited to face or turn one’s back towards the qiblah when passing stool or urinating.

11. It is also prohibited and makruh to make small children to face the qiblah and pass stool or urinate.

12. It is permissible to use the left-over water of istinja for wudu. It is also permissible to use the left over water of wudu for istinja, but not to do so is better.

13. When entering the toilet, Bismillah should be read outside, and then the following dua should be read:

“Allahumma inni a’udhu bika minal khubusi wal khabaa’is.”

Translation: “O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the impure male and female jinn.”

One should not enter the toilet bare-headed. If one is wearing any ring, etc. on which is the name of Allah or His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, it should be removed. One should enter with the left foot. Allah’s name should not be taken inside. If one sneezes, then Alhamdulillah should be recited in the heart only and nothing should be said with the tongue. Nor should one talk or say anything in the toilet. When leaving the toilet, one should step out with the right foot first. After leaving the toilet, the following dua should be read:

“Ghufraanaka, alhamdulillahil lazi az’haba anni al-adha wa aafaani.”

Translation: “I seek Your forgiveness, O Allah! Praise be to Allah who has removed from me this discomfort and granted me tranquility.”

After making istinja, the left hand should rubbed on the ground or washed with sand (or soap).

Things that one should abstain from when passing stool or urinating

1. To talk.

2. To cough unnecessarily.

3. To read some verse of the Quran, Hadith, or respected thing.

4. To take something to the toilet on which the following things are written: the name of Allah, any prophet, any angel, or any respected person; any verse of the Quran, Hadith, or dua. But if these things are in the pocket, or wrapped in a ta’wiz (amulet), then there’s no harm in this.

5. To relieve one’s self in a standing or lying down position without any genuine excuse.

6. To remove all the clothes and relieve one’s self completely naked.

7. To make istinja with the right hand.

8. To face the moon or sun, or to turn one’s back towards them while one is passing stool or urinating is makruh. It is also makruh to do the same on the bank of a river, pond, etc. even if the impurity does not fall inside. Similarly, it is makruh to do this under trees in whose shade people sit, or under fruit and flowering trees where people sit in winter in order to get some sunshine. It is makruh tahrimi (extremely detestable) to do this in the following places: among animals, very close to the musjid or eid-gah whereby the foul smell disturbs the musallis, in a grave yard, at a place where people make wudu or ghusl, on the road, in the direction of the wind, in a hole, on the road-side, near a caravan or some gathering. In other words, it is makruh to relieve one’s self in such a place where people move around and thereby cause them discomfort; and also in such a place where the impurity can flow back towards the person.

Unsuitable items for instinja

1. Bones, edibles, excreta and all impure substances.

2. That stone or clay which has already been used for istinja.

3. Baked bricks, small pieces of broken earthenware, glass, coal, limestone, steel, silver, gold, etc.

4. Those things that do not clean impurities, such as vinegar.

5. Those things that are eaten by animals, such as straw and grass.

6. Those things that are of value, irrespective of whether they are of little or great value, such as clothing or the extract of some plants.

7. Parts of a human, such as hair, bone, meat.

8. The mat, dirt, or broom of a musjid.

9. The leaves of trees.

10. Paper, irrespective of whether something is written on it or not (this excludes toilet paper).

11. Zam zam water.

12. Someone else’s possessions without their permission, irrespective of whether it be water, clothing, or anything else.

13. Cotton and all similar things from which humans and their animals derive benefit.

Suitable items for istinja

1. Water.

2. Clods of earth.

3. Stones.

4. Clothes that have no value (rags).

5. All those things that are pure, that can remove impurities, that are not regarded as possessions, and are not respected.

PURIFICATION OF IMPURITIES

1. Najaasat (impurity) is of two kinds: one that is very thick or hard, and even if a little touches a person, it will have to be washed. This najaasat is called najaasat-e-ghaleezah (heavy impurity). The other is a little less and lighter, and is called najaasat-e-khafeefah (lighter impurity).

2. The following substances are regarded as najaasat-e-ghaleezah:

blood; stool, urine and semen of humans; intoxicating drinks; the excreta and urine of cats and dogs; the meat, hair, bones, and everything else of pigs; the dung of horses, donkeys, mules, cattle, oxen, buffaloes, etc; the droppings of goats and sheep; in other words the excreta of all animals; the droppings of fowls, ducks and wild ducks; and the urine of donkeys, mules and all haraam animals.

3. The stool and urine of a small child that is still being breast-fed is also najaasat-e-ghaleezah.

4. The excreta of haraam birds and the urine of halaal animals, such as goats, cows and buffaloes. The urine of horses is najaasat-e-khafeefah.

5. With the exception of fowls, ducks and wild ducks, the excreta of all other halaal birds such as pigeons, sparrows, etc. is pure. The urine and stool of bats is pure.

6. If a najaasat-e-ghaleezah that is thin and flowing falls on the body or clothes, it will be excused if the area on which it falls is equal to or less than a fifty cents coin in extent. If the person performs his salaat without washing it off, his salaat will be valid. But to refrain from washing it and to continue offering his salaats in this way is makruh. If it is more than a fifty cents coin, then it will not be excused. Salaat will not be valid if it is not washed off.

If a najaasat-e-ghaleezah is thick and solid, for example stool or the excreta of fowls, etc. and its weight is equal to or less than about 4 grams, then performing salaat without washing it off will be valid. But if it is more than this weight, salaat will not be valid.

7. Najaasat-e-khafeefah falls on the body or clothing. If it is less than a quarter of the area on which it fell, it will be excused. But if it is equal to a quarter or more, it will not be excused. In other words, if it falls on one sleeve, it is less than a quarter of that sleeve. If it falls on one panel of a shirt, it is less than a quarter of it. If it falls on a scarf, it is less than a quarter of that scarf. Only if it is less than a quarter of all these it will be excused.

Similarly, if the najaasat-e-khafeefah falls on one hand or on a leg, then if it is less than a quarter of that hand or leg, salaat will be valid if it is not washed. In other words, on whichever limb the najaasat falls, less than a quarter of that limb will be considered. If it is equal to a quarter or more, then it will not be excused. It will have to be washed. Salaat that is performed without washing it will not be valid.

8. The water in which najaasat-e-ghaleezah falls also becomes najas-e-ghaleez; and the water in which najaasat-e-khafeefah falls also becomes najas-e-khafeef.

9. Impure oil fell on one’s clothing but the extent of it was less than three centimetres in diameter. However, after some time it spread and became more than three centimetres in diameter. As long as it was less, it will be excused. But once it spreads beyond the limit, it will not be excused. Washing it off will be wajib. If it is not washed off, salaat will not be valid.

10. The blood of fish is not impure. There is no harm if it falls on a person. The same applies to the blood of flies, bugs and mosquitos.

11. If a drop of urine equal to the eye of a needle falls, and it cannot be seen except after very careful examination, then there’s no harm in it. It is not obligatory to wash it off, but to do so is preferable.

12. If a najaasat which can be seen, such as stool or blood, falls on the clothing, it should be washed until the najaasat is removed and no stain remains. There is no limit to the number of times it should be washed – the moment the najaasat is removed, it will become pure. The same rule applies when it falls on the body.

However, if the najaasat is removed in the first instance, it will be better to wash it two more times. And if it is removed in the second time, it will be better to wash it one more time. In other words, it is preferable to wash it three times.

13. If the najaasat is such that despite washing it several times and despite it being removed, the foul smell still remains or some stain is still there. Even in this instance, the clothing will be purified. It is not necessary to use any soap or detergents in order to get rid of the smell or stain.

14. If any impurity similar to urine which cannot be seen, falls on the clothing; then it should be washed three times. Each time that it is washed, the water should be squeezed out of it. After washing it the third time, the cloth should be wrung with full force – only then will it be purified. If it is not wrung with full force, the cloth will not be purified.

15. If any impurity falls on such a thing which cannot be wrung or squeezed, such as a bed, mat, jewellery, sand, utensils, bottles, shoes, etc., then the method of purifying these things is as follows: the item should be washed once and then the person should wait. When the water stops dripping from it, it should be washed a second time. When the water stops dripping, it should be washed a third time. In this way it will be purified.

16. If anything is thin and pure like water, it can also be used to wash off any impurity. If a person uses rose-water, or the extract of any herb, or vinegar; even then that thing will be purified. However, it is not permissible to use ghee, oil, milk and other similar substances which are sticky or fatty. That thing will remain impure.

17. Semen fell on the body or clothes and got dried. The body and clothes can be purified by scraping it off and rubbing it thoroughly. But if it has not dried as yet, it will have to be washed. But if a person did not wash himself after passing urine, and at that time semen came out; it will not become purified by rubbing it off. It will have to be washed.

18. If najaasat which can be seen, eg. dung, stool, blood, semen, etc., falls on one’s shoes or leather socks, it could be removed and purified by rubbing it thoroughly on the ground. Similarly, it can also be purified by scraping it off. Even if it is not dry, and it is thoroughly scraped and rubbed off to such an extent that no sign of the najaasat remains, it will be purified.

19. If any najaasat like urine which is not seen, falls on the shoes or leather socks, then it cannot be purified except by washing.

20. As for clothing and the body, these can only be purified by washing. This is irrespective of whether the najaasat can be seen or not.

21. If mirrors, knives, gold and silver jewellery, copper, brass, steel, etc. become impure, they can be purified by wiping them thoroughly, or scraping them, or rubbing them with sand. But if these items have been engraved, they cannot be purified except by washing.

22. Some najaasat fell on the ground and got dried in such a way that there is no sign of it – there is no stain nor any foul smell of that najaasat. If it gets dry in this way, the ground will be pure. However,tayammum on such a piece of ground will not be permissible. However, it will be permissible to perform salaat there. The same rule applies to bricks and stones that have been embedded with limestone or mortar into the ground in such a way that these cannot be removed except by digging them out. That is, once the najaasat dries and no sign of it remains, they will be purified, but tayammum will not be permissible.

23. Those bricks that have just been placed on the ground without being embedded with lime or cement will not get purified with the drying of the najaasat. They will have to be washed.

24. Grass which is growing on the ground also becomes purified with the drying and disappearance of the najaasat. But if the grass is cut, it will not be purified without washing.

25. If impure knives, earthen and copper utensils are placed on a blazing fire, they will also get purified.

26. There was some impurity on one’s hand. Someone removed this najaasat by licking it off three times. It will become purified, but it is prohibited to lick it. A child vomitted milk on one’s chest, and thereafter it licked the vomit and drank it up. The chest will be purified.

27. If an unused earthenware utensil becomes impure, and it is such that it absorbs the impurity, then it will not become purified by merely washing it. Instead, it should be filled with water and when traces of the impurity appear in the water, the utensil should be emptied. It should be filled again, and emptied again. This should be continuously done until no sign of the impurity remains – neither its colour nor its smell. Only then will it be purified.

28. The utensils which a potter makes with impure clay will remain impure as long as they are unbaked. Once they get baked, they will become pure.

29. Honey, syrup, ghee or oil became impure. Whatever the amount may be, add the same amount or more of water to it and keep it to boil. Once the water has evaporated, add more water and do the same three times. In this way it will get purified.

Alternatively, add the same amount of water and stir the contents. Once it comes on top of the water, remove it in some way or another. Repeat the process three times and it will be purified. If the ghee is gone hard, add water to it and heat it. Once it melts, remove it.

30. Clothes were dyed in an impure dye. It should be washed until clean water begins to come out of it. It will now be purified, irrespective of whether the dye comes out of the clothes or not. However it is preferable to wash it at least three times.

31. The ashes of dung-cakes, droppings of goats and other impure things are pure. Their smoke is also pure. If it comes onto one’s bread, there is no harm in it.

32. One corner of a mat is impure and the balance of it is pure. It will be permissible to offer salaat in the corner that is pure.

33. Land that has been plastered by dung is impure. Salaat on it is not permissible without having laid some pure thing over it.

34. If the land which has been plastered by dung is dry, then it is permissible to spread even a wet cloth over it and offer salaat. But it should not be so wet that some soil from that ground comes onto one’s clothing.

35. After having washed his feet, a person walked bare-footed on some impure place and his foot-prints were visible on that place. His feet will not become impure. However, if due to the wet feet, the ground gets so wet, that some sand or impurity from that ground comes onto the feet; then they will become impure.

36. A person slept on an impure carpet and due to perspiration his clothes became damp. The same rule applies here, i.e. his clothes and body will not become impure. However, if they get so wet that some impurity from the carpet gets onto his clothes or body, they will be rendered impure.

37. A woman applied impure henna (mehendi) on her hands or feet. By washing them thoroughly until clean water flows out of them, the hands and feet will be purified. It is not obligatory to remove the colour.

38. A person applied surmah (antimony) or kajal (eye-pencil) which was impure. It is not necessary to wipe or wash it off. However, if it spreads and comes out of the eye, it will be obligatory to wash it.

39. If one applied impure oil onto one’s head or body, then according to the normal procedure, it should be washed off three times. It is not necessary to remove it by putting soap or any such thing.

40. A dog put its mouth in flour or a monkey ate some of it. Whatever portion of the flour got dirty should be removed. It is permissible to eat the rest of it. If the flour was dry, then wherever its saliva is, that place should be removed. The balance of it is pure.

41. The saliva of a dog is impure, but the dog itself is not impure. So if a dog touches anyone’s body or clothes, they will not become impure irrespective of whether the dog’s body is dry or wet. However, it will be a different case if there is some najaasat on the dog’s body.

42. A person passed wind at a time when his underclothing were wet. His clothing will not become impure by passing wind in such a state.

43. The clothes that got wet with impure water were wrapped with clean clothes. The wetness from the impure clothes got into the clean clothes, but no colour or smell of the impurity got into them. If these clean clothes got so wet that by wringing them one or two drops of water fall down, or at the time of wringing them, the hands get wet – then these clean clothes will also become impure. However, if they are not so wet, they will remain pure. And if the clothes that got wet with some specific impurity such as urine, were wrapped with clean clothes, then even if a little dampness or smell of those clothes gets into the clean clothes, they will also become impure.

44. A wooden plank is impure on one side and pure on the other side. If it is so thick that it can be sawed off in the centre, he can turn it over and perform salaat on the pure side. But if it is not so thick, it will not be permissible.

45. A particular cloth is double-folded – one fold is impure and the other is pure. If both the folds are not stitched, it will be permissible to offer salaat on the fold that is pure. But if both folds are stitched, salaat will not be permissible even on the fold that is pure.

RULES REGARDING PURITIES AND IMPURITIES

1. At the time of threshing out the grain, an ox urinates on the grain. Because of necessity, this will be excused. In other words, the grain will not become impure. But if it urinates on it at some other time, the grain will become impure because there is no necessity now.

2. The food prepared by a disbeliever, his utensils, and his clothes will not be regarded as impure until and unless there is some proof or indication of its impurity.

3. It is wrong of some people to use the fat of lions, etc. and to regard it as pure. However, if a religious-minded doctor says that there is no cure other than the fat, then in such a case, some Ulama say that it will be permissible. But it will be necessary to purify oneself from it when performing salaat.

4. Mud and dirty water that is on the roads is excused on condition that the impurity is not seen on the body or clothes. This is the fatwa on this matter. However, caution demands that the person who does not travel to the markets and on the roads very often, should always try and cleanse his body and clothes from this mud and dirty water even if he does not see any impurity.

5. When any impurity is burnt, its smoke becomes pure. If it becomes hard and something is made out of it, then it will also be pure. As has been said of sal ammoniac, that it is made out of impure smoke.

6. Sand and dust that is on top of some impurity is pure on condition that the dampness of the impurity does not make them damp as well.

7. Gases that rise from impurities are pure. Worms that emerge from fruits are pure, but it is not proper to eat them if they are alive (or even dead). The same rule applies to the worms of wild figs, etc.

8. When edibles such as meat, sweetmeats, etc. get stale and begin to stink, they do not become impure. But when taking into consideration the harm that can be caused, it will not be proper to consume them.

9. Musk and the bag from which it is extracted is pure. The same applies to amber.

10. The saliva which comes out from a person’s mouth while he is sleeping is pure.

11. An egg whose colour has changed is pure as long as it is not broken.

12. The skin of a snake is pure.

13. The water with which impure clothes were washed is also impure, irrespective of whether the water was used to wash the first, second or third time. However, the difference in these three waters is that if the water which was used to wash the first time falls on some clothing, this clothing will be purified after it is washed three times. If the water of the second time falls, then the clothing will be purified after it is washed twice. And if the water of the third time falls, then it will be purified after washing it once.

14. The water with which a dead person is given a bath is impure.

15. The skin of a snake is impure, i.e. the skin which is still attached to its body. The skin which it sheds is pure.

16. The saliva of a dead person is impure.

17. On one side of a cloth an excusable amount of impurity falls and seeps through the other side. The impurity that seeps through is also of an excusable amount. However, if both these excusable amounts are added together, they exceed the excusable limit. Even then it will be regarded as less and therefore excusable. But if the cloth is double-folded or two cloths have been placed together, and when added together they exceed the limit, it will not be excusable.

18. If one or two pieces of dung or excreta of a cow or goat fall into the milk while they are being milked, it is excusable as long as the dung or excreta is removed immediately. If it falls at some time other than the time of milking, the milk will become impure.

19. If a four to five year old boy who does not understand what wudu is, makes wudu; or an insane person makes wudu, then the water will not be considered to be musta’mal (in other words that water can be used for wudu by someone else).

20. Water that is used to wash clean clothes, utensils and other pure items can be used for wudu and ghusl as long as its density does not change and as long as it is still referred to as water in normal conversation. But if there was some food or drink in the utensils, then using that water for wudu or ghusl will only be permissible if at least two of the three qualities of water remain unchanged. If two qualities change, wudu orghusl will not be permissible.

21. It is makruh to drink used water, or to use it in cooking. Wudu and ghusl with such water is not permissible. However, it can be used to wash impurities.

22. The one who is in need of wudu should not make wudu with zam zam water. Nor should it be used by the one who has to have a bath. To wash impurities with it and to make istinja with it is makruh.

However, if one is compelled to use it, in the sense that water cannot be found within 1.6 kilometres, and one cannot purify one’s self in any other way, then all these things will be permissible with zam zam water.

23. The water that is left behind by a woman after she made wudu or ghusl should not be used by a man to make his wudu or ghusl. Although this is permissible according to the Hanafi Mazhab, it is not permissible according to Imam Ahmad (Hanbali Mazhab). It is therefore better to abstain from those matters in which there is difference of opinion.

24. To make wudu or ghusl with the water of those places where some nation was punished by Allah Ta’ala, such as the people of Thamud and Aad, is not proper. There is also difference of opinion in this matter. It is therefore better to abstain from this. But if one is compelled, then the same rule as that for zam zam water will apply.

25. An oven which has become impure can be purified by lighting a fire in it on condition that after it gets hot, no traces of the impurity remain.

26. If an impure piece of ground is covered with sand and the impurity gets concealed in such a way that even its smell does not come, then the surface of the sand will be pure.

27. Soap made with impure oil or fat will become pure.

28. If the place of venesection (cutting of veins) or any other wound from which blood or pus came out became impure and washing it will be harmful, then it will be sufficient to wipe it with a wet cloth. It will not be necessary to wash the place after it has healed.

29. If an impure dye falls on the body or clothes or the hair gets coloured with this dye, it will be sufficient to wash them until clear water begins to flow even if the colour is not removed.

30. If a tooth which broke off is refitted with some pure or impure substance; or a broken bone is replaced by an impure bone; or a wound is filled with some impure substance; and all these get healed; then they (i.e. the impure substances) should not be removed. They will automatically become pure.

31. If any sticky substance which is impure, such as oil, ghee, the fat of a dead animal, gets stuck to something and is washed until clear water begins to flow, it will be purified even if the stickyness of that impurity remains.

32. Some impurity falls into pure water. By its falling, the water splashes and a few drops fall on someone. These drops are pure on condition that there are no traces of that impurity on the person.

33. If a cloth having two folds or a cloth that is filled with cotton (such as duvets) becomes impure on one side and is pure on the other side, then the whole cloth will be regarded as impure and salaat on it will not be permissible. This is only if the impure area of the impure side is the area on which the musalli will stand or prostrate. Another condition is that both the cloths must be sewn together.

If they are not stitched together, then impurity on one side will not render the other side impure. In fact, salaat will be permissible on the pure side on condition that the cloth is so thick that the traces and smell of the impurity underneath do not come on top.

34. If a chicken or any other bird is boiled in water before its stomach, intestines and other filth can be removed, as is the custom today, it can in no way be regarded as pure.

WUDU – ABLUTION

1. The person making wudu should face the qiblah and sit on an elevated place so that the water does not splash on him.

2. When commencing wudu, Bismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem should be recited.

3. First of all, the hands should be washed upto the wrists three times.

4. Thereafter, rinse the mouth three times and use a miswaak.

5. If there is no miswaak, a thick cloth or even the fore-finger could be used so that all the dirt is removed.

6. If the person is not fasting, he should gargle the mouth thoroughly. However, if he is fasting, he should not gargle thoroughly because there is a possibility that water will go down the throat.

7. Thereafter, rinse the nose three times and clean it with the left hand. However, the fasting person should not allow the water to go beyond the soft-bone of the nose.

8. Wash the face three times: from the hair-line till below the chin, and from one ear-lobe to the other. Water must reach all these places. Water must also reach below the eye brows – no place should remain dry.

9. Wash the right hand upto and including the elbows.

10. Thereafter wash the left hand upto and including the elbows.

11. Make khilaal of the fingers. That is, pass the fingers of one hand through the fingers of the other hand.

12. If there is a ring or any such jewellery on the fingers, it should be removed so that no part is left dry.

13. Thereafter make masah of the head (passing wet hands over the head).

14. Make masah of the ears by inserting the forefingers into the ears and making masah of the back of the ear-lobes with the thumb of each hand.

15. Make masah of the neck with the back of the fingers of both hands. However, masah of the fore-neck/throat should not be made as this is prohibited.

16. Fresh water need not be used for making masah of the ears. Whatever water is left over after making masah of the head will be sufficient.

17. Thereafter wash the right foot upto and including the ankles. Do the same for the left foot. Make khilaal of the toes of the feet with the little finger of the left hand. When making khilaal, commence with the little toe of the right foot and end with the little toe of the left foot.

This is the correct method of performing wudu. However, there are certain acts, which if even a part is left out or not completed, then the wudu will be regarded as incomplete. In fact, it will be as if wudu was not performed at all. Such acts are called fard. There are other acts, which if left out, the wudu will be regarded as complete. Carrying out these acts will entail reward (thawaab) and these have been emphasised in theShariah. It is a sin to leave out such acts unnecessarily. Such acts are called Sunnats. There are other acts, which if carried out entail reward, and if left out, entail no sin. Neither have they been emphasised in theShariah. Such acts are called mustahab.

Fard (compulsory) acts of Wudu

There are four fard acts in wudu:-

1. To wash the entire face once.

2. To wash both hands upto and including the elbows once.

3. To make masah of one-quarter of the head once.

4. To wash both feet upto and including the ankles once.

These are the fard acts of wudu. Even if one of these acts is left out, or even if a place equal to a hair’s breadth is left dry, wudu will not be complete.

Sunnah acts of Wudu

1. To say Bismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem.

2. To wash both hands upto the wrists.

3. To rinse the mouth.

4. To wash the nose.

5. To use miswaak.

6. To make masah of the entire head.

7. To wash each part three times.

8. To make masah of the ears.

9. To make khilaal of the fingers and toes.

Apart from this, the balance of the acts are mustahab.

1. Once the four fard acts of wudu are carried out, wudu will be regarded as complete, irrespective of whether one intended to make wudu or not, eg.: (a) at the time of bathing, one pours water on the entire body, or (b) falls into a well, or river , or (c) stands in the rain. In all these conditions, if the limbs of wudu get wet, wudu will be regarded as complete. However, one will not obtain the reward (thawaab) of wudu.

2. Sunnah is to make wudu exactly as has been mentioned above. But if anyone alters or reverses the procedure of wudu, eg. by washing the feet first, then making masah, and then washing the hands, and thereafter washing the face, or alters the procedure in any other way – then wudu will still be regarded as complete. However, it will not be considered to be in accordance with the sunnah, and there is always the fear of having sinned.

3. Similarly, if the left hand or the left foot is washed first, wudu will be completed, but it will be contrary to being mustahab.

4. After washing one part, one should not delay in washing the next part to such an extent that the first part gets dry. Instead, he should wash the next part as quickly as possible. If, after washing the second part, the first part gets dry, then wudu will be regarded as complete, but it will be contrary to the sunnah.

5. It is also sunnah to pass the hand on the part that is being washed so that no place is left dry.

6. It is better and mustahab to prepare for wudu and salaat well before the time.

7. As long as there is no genuine excuse, one should perform wudu with one’s very own hands and should not seek assistance from someone else.

8. While making wudu, worldly talk should be avoided. Instead, Bismillah and the kalimah should be read on washing each and every part.

9. No matter how freely water may be available, it should not be wasted. Even if one is at the sea-shore, one should not use more than necessary. At the same time, one should not use so little water that one has problems in washing the parts thoroughly.

10. The parts should not be washed more than three times.

11. When washing the face, water should not be splashed with great force, nor should one splash water by making hissing sounds.

12. One should not close one’s eyes and mouth very tightly. All these things are makruh and prohibited. The reason for this is that if the mouth and eyes are shut so tightly to the extent that the lips or eye lashes remain dry, then the wudu will not be regarded as complete.

13. If rings, bangles, bracelets, etc. are so loose that water will reach under them without having to remove them, it will still be mustahab to remove them. If they are so tight that there is a possibility of water not reaching under them, then it will be necessary and wajib to remove them. A similar rule applies to the nose ring: that is, if it is loose, then it will be mustahab to move it, and if it is tight, then while one is washing the face it will be wajib to move it around so that water reaches everywhere.

14. If some dough or similar substance got stuck under the nails and got dried, and water did not reach there, the wudu will not be complete. If one sees the flour and realizes that water did not reach there, then water should be poured over it. However, if salaat was performed prior to pouring the water, it will be necessary to repeat the salaat.

15. If one has applied tinsel or some other decorative paint on the forehead and does not wash it thoroughly, but just pours water over it, then wudu will not be completed. It should be removed before washing the face.

16. After having performed the wudu, Surah al-Qadr should be recited.

Thereafter the following dua should be recited:

“O Allah! Make me of the repentants, and make me of the purified, and include me among Your pious servants”.

17. After having performed the wudu, it is preferable to read two rakaats of nafl salaat. This salaat is called Tahiyyatul Wudu. Great reward and merit has been mentioned in the Hadith in regard to this salaat.

18. If one had made wudu for a particular salaat, and thereafter the next salaat time entered without the wudu having broken, then it will be permissible to read salaat with that same wudu. However, if the person repeats the wudu, he will be greatly rewarded.

19. Once wudu has been made and has not broken as yet, then as long as no act of worship (ibaadat) has been performed with that wudu, it will be makruh to make a new wudu. Based on this, if a person makes wudu while bathing, then he should read his salaat with that same wudu. Without that wudu breaking, he should not make a new wudu. However, if a person has read even just two rakaats of salaat with that first wudu, then there will be no problem in making a second wudu. In fact, there is reward in making a second wudu.

20. If someone’s hands or feet are cracked and he filled them with wax, an ointment, or some other medicine (and he fears some harm by removing it) then his wudu will be regarded as complete if he just poured water over it without having removed the medicine.

21. If water did not reach the heels or some other place while making wudu, and only after completing the wudu one realized that a particular place is dry, it will not be sufficient to merely pass the hand over that place. Instead, water will have to be poured over it.

22. If there is a sore or some other wound on the hands, feet, etc. and one fears that it would be harmful to pour water over it, then water should not be poured. Instead, the wet hand should be passed over the wound. This is called masah. If this is harmful, masah should not be made and that place should be left out.

23. If a wound has been bandaged and it will be harmful to open the bandage and make masah over the wound, or it will be difficult and painful to open the bandage, then in both cases it will be permissible to makemasah on the bandage. But if this is not the case, the bandage will have to be removed and masah will have to be made on the wound.

24. If the wound is not under the entire bandage, then after opening the bandage, that portion which is not wounded should be washed if possible. However, if it is not possible to open the bandage, masah should be made on both the portions – the wounded and the unwounded portions.

25. In case of a fracture where splints and pads are applied, the above directions will apply. That is, as long as the splints cannot be opened, it will be sufficient to make masah over it. The same rule will apply to plasters – that is, if masah cannot be made on the wound, the plaster should be removed and masah should be made on the gauze. But if there is no one to help in opening and closing the plaster, then it will be sufficient to make masah on the plaster itself.

26. In the case of bandages, splints, plasters, etc. it is preferable to make masah on the entire covering. If this is not possible, then it will be permissible to make masah on more than half of the covering. However, it is not permissible to suffice with masah on half or less of the covering.

27. If after performing masah, the bandage, plaster, etc., opens up and one sees that the wound has not healed as yet, then it should be re-tied and the previous masah will suffice. However, if the wound has healed and there is no need to bandage it again, then the masah will be broken. That portion should be washed and salaat performed. There is no need to repeat the entire wudu.

28. Khilaal (passing of wet fingers) of the beard should be made three times after having washed the face. Khilaal should not be made more than three times.

29. It is fard to wash the chin as long as there is no hair of the beard on it, or if there is, it is so little that the skin can be seen.

30. It is fard to wash that part of the lips which can be seen after the lips are closed.

31. If the hair of the beard, moustache and eyebrows is so thick that the skin cannot be seen, then it is not fard to wash that skin which is hidden. That hair is actually in place of the skin. To pour water over it is sufficient.

32. If the hair of the eyebrows, beard, or moustache is so thick that the skin cannot be seen, then in such a case it is wajib to wash that hair which falls within the boundaries of the face. It is not wajib to wash the hair that is beyond the boundaries of the face.

33. If a person’s piles come out, his wudu will break irrespective of whether it went back inside on its own, or by pushing it back with a stick, a cloth, or his hand.

34. If semen comes out without any desire, wudu will break. For example, a person carried a very heavy weight, or jumped from an elevated place and due to this shock semen came out without any desire.

35. If there is some defect in one’s senses, but this defect does not reach the stage of insanity or unconsciousness, his wudu will not break.

36. If a person sleeps away and laughs (in his sleep) while in salaat, his wudu will not break.

37. By laughing in a janaza salaat or in a sajdah tilaawat wudu will not break irrespective of whether the person is mature or immature.

Factors that break and do not break Wudu

1. The passing of stool, urine and wind breaks wudu. However, if one passes wind from the forepart, as it occassionally happens because of sickness, wudu will not break. If some worms or stones come out from the front or back, then too wudu will break.

2. If a worm comes out from a wound, or from the ear, or if a piece of flesh falls off from a wound and no blood comes out; then in all these cases wudu will not break.

3. If one was bleeding, or his nose was bleeding, or is injured and begins to bleed, or blood comes out from small boils (and pimples,etc.), or bleeds from any other part of the body, or some matter or pus comes out – then in all these cases wudu will break. However, if the blood or pus remains on the mouth of the wound and does not flow over it, wudu will not break. Based on this, if a person is pricked by a pin and blood comes out, but does not flow, then wudu will not break.

4. If a person sneezes and some clotted, dry blood comes out, wudu will not break. Wudu will only break if it is thin and flows. If a person inserts his finger in his nose, and after removing it sees a spot of blood which is more like a stain on his finger but does not flow, wudu will not break.

5. If a pimple or boil in the eye bursts, or the person bursts it himself – and its liquid flows within the eye, wudu will not break. But if it flows out of the eye, wudu will break. In the same way, if a pimple or boil bursts in the ear, then as long as the pus remains in the canal and does not flow to a place whose washing is necessary when making ghusl, wudu will not break. But if it flows to such a place which is necessary to wash when making ghusl, wudu will break.

6. If someone scratches the skin of his boil or pimple and he sees some blood or pus underneath it, and it remains in the same place without flowing out, wudu will not break. But if it flows out, wudu will break.

7. If a wound is very deep, then as long as the blood or pus from it remains there and does not come out and flow onto the body, wudu will not break.

8. If the blood of a sore does not come out on its own, but is forced out, then wudu will also break if it flows.

9. If blood oozes out of a wound and it is covered with some dust, or dabbed with a cloth, and again it oozes out, and again he dabs it – and this is done repeatedly – then he should think for himself and deduce that had he not dabbed at it, the blood would have flowed, and therefore wudu would break. And even if he did dab at it, it would not have flowed, then wudu will not break.

10. Someone notices blood in his saliva: if the blood is very little and the colour of the saliva is whitish or yellowish, wudu will not break. But if the blood is equal to or more than the saliva, and the saliva is reddish in colour, wudu will break.

11. If something is bitten with the teeth and a blood stain is found on that thing, or if the teeth were brushed and some redness is seen on the brush – and despite all this no blood or redness is seen in the saliva then wudu will not break.

12. If one is bitten by a leech and so much of blood flows into it that if the leech is dissected, blood will begin to flow, wudu will break. But if the leech has sucked out very little blood, wudu will not break. If a mosquito, fly, bee, or bug sucks out blood, then wudu will not break.

13. If someone has an ear-ache and, on account of that, water comes out of it continuously – then this water will be regarded as impure even if there is no sore or pimple. The mere flowing of that water will break wudu if it flows to a place which is fard to wash during ghusl. Similarly, if water flows from the nose and this is accompanied by pain, then too wudu will break. Similarly, if there is pain in the eyes and they are sore, and in addition to this they water or tears come out, then too wudu will break (as in the case of pink eyes). But if there is no pain in the eyes nor are they sore, then wudu will not break by the mere flowing of tears.

14. If water comes out from the nipple (of a male or female) and this is accompanied by pain, then this water is also regarded as impure and wudu will therefore break. But if this is not accompanied by pain, the water will not be impure and wudu will not break.

15. If someone vomits out food, water or bile, and it is a mouthful, wudu will break. But if it is not a mouthful, wudu will not break. “Mouthful” here means that the vomit cannot stay in the mouth except with difficulty. If a person vomits phlegm only, wudu will not break irrespective of the amount and irrespective of whether it was a mouthful or not. If blood comes out in the vomit and it is thin and flowing, then wudu will break irrespective of whether it is less or extra, and irrespective of whether it is a mouthful or not. But if the blood comes out in clots or bits and pieces, then wudu will only break if it is a mouthful.

16. If one vomits small quantities several times and all these quantities would have equalled a mouthful, and in addition to this the person still feels nauseous after each time that he vomits, wudu will break. But if a person does not feel nauseous after vomitting the first time, but feels better, and later feels nauseous and vomits a little, and again feels better, and then feels nauseous a third time and vomits a little again – then wudu will not break.

17. If one falls asleep while lying down, or falls asleep while leaning on something for support and gets into such a deep sleep that if that support is removed, he will fall – wudu will break. If one falls asleep while sitting or standing in salaat, wudu will not break. But if one falls asleep while in sajdah, wudu will break.

18. If one is not in salaat and falls asleep while sitting down with his buttocks pressed on his heels and without leaning against a wall or anything else – then wudu will not break.

19. While sitting, if one is suddenly overcome by sleep and falls down, then wudu will not break if the person’s eyes open immediately after falling down. But if even a few moments lapse for the eyes to open, wudu will break. But if, in the sitting position, the person sways from side to side without falling down, wudu will not break.

20. If one falls unconscious, or loses his senses because of insanity, then wudu will break even if the unconsciousness or insanity was for a few moments. Similarly, if some drug or intoxicant is consumed and one is intoxicated to the extent that he cannot walk properly and his steps are unsteady – then too wudu will break.

21. If one laughs so loudly in salaat that he hears the laughter himself and those near him hear it as well, then both wudu and salaat will break. If only the one who laughed hears the laughter and those near him do not hear it, then only salaat will break and not the wudu. But if one only smiles without any sound coming out, neither the wudu nor the salaat will break. However, if an immature person (na-baaligh) laughs aloud in the salaat, or if a mature person (baaligh) laughs while making sajdah-e-tilawat – then wudu will not break. However, the sajdah-e-tilawat (of the mature person) and the salaat (of the immature person) will break.

22. If liquid comes out from the front organ by touching a person of the opposite sex or merely having such thoughts, wudu will break. This liquid which comes out at the time of excitement or passion is calledmazi (pre-coital fluid).

23. If, due to illness, some sticky fluid similar to mucus, comes out from the front organ, then as a precaution it should be regarded as impure. By it coming out, wudu will break.

24. If a drop of urine or pre-coital fluid comes out from the urinary passage, but remains within the foreskin, even then wudu will break. In order for wudu to break, it is not necessary for any liquid to come out from the foreskin.

25. If a man’s organ touches the private part of a woman and there is no cloth or any such barrier between them, wudu will break. Similarly, if the private parts of two women touch each other, wudu will break. But to indulge in such acts is a very serious sin. In both instances, whether any fluid comes out or not, wudu will break.

26. If after performing wudu, one clipped one’s nails, or scratched the dead skin of a wound – then no harm comes to the wudu. It is not necessary to repeat the wudu, nor does one have to wet that place.

27. If after performing wudu, one sees the private area (aurah) of someone, or one’s own private area gets exposed, or one had a bath or made wudu while being naked – then in all these cases wudu will remain and there will be no need to repeat it. However, it is a great sin to intentionally look at someone’s private area, or to intentionally expose one’s own private area.

28. That substance whose discharge causes wudu to break is regarded as najis (impure) and that which does not break wudu will not be najis. Based on this if a little blood oozes out but does not flow out of the mouth of the wound, or if vomitting takes place and it is not a mouthful, and food, water, pus or clotted blood came out – then this blood and this vomit will not be najis. If it falls on the clothing or the body, it will not be obligatory to wash it off. If vomitting was a mouthful, or if blood flowed out of the wound, both will be regarded as impure and necessary to wash. If (immediately) after vomitting a mouthful, one touched a utensil of water with one’s mouth, then that utensil will also become impure. It is therefore advisable to take water in one’s palms.

29. The same rule will apply to a small child who has been fed with milk and thereafter vomits it out. That is, if it is not a mouthful, it will not be impure, and if it is a mouthful, it will be impure. If the mother performs her salaat without washing out that vomit from her clothing, her salaat will not be in order.

30. If one remembers making wudu but is unsure as to whether the wudu is still intact or broken, the wudu will be regarded as not broken. Salaat with that wudu will be proper but it is preferable to repeat the wudu.

31. If someone is in doubt as to whether a particular limb has been washed in wudu or not, then that part should be washed. But if the doubt crops up after completing the wudu, he should not worry, wudu is complete. But if he is certain that a particular thing has been left out, he should complete it.

32. It is not permissible to touch the Quran without wudu. But if it is touched with a cloth which the person is not wearing, then it will be permissible. To touch it with a scarf or sleeve of a shirt while it is being worn will not be permissible. But if he touches it while it (i.e. the scarf or shirt) is not being worn, it will be permissible. It is permissible to read the Quran from memory without wudu. If the Quran is open and one looks into it and reads from it without touching it, then this is also permissible. In the same way, it is not permissible to touch an amulet (ta’wiz) or a plate on which the verses of the Quran are written without wudu.

33. To touch any page of the Quran is makruh tahrimi (not permitted) irrespective of whether he touches that part where something is written or that part which is blank. But if it is not the whole Quran, but one complete verse written on a page, or cloth, or thin skin, and the balance of it is blank; then it is permissible to touch the blank portion if the hand does not touch the verse.

34. It is not makruh to write the Quran (without wudu) as long as the written portion is not touched and only the blank places are touched. But according to Imam Muhammad (rahmatullahi alayhi) even the blank place cannot be touched. As a precaution, this is best. The first ruling was according to Imam Abu Yusuf (rahmatullahi alayhi). The same difference of opinion exists in the previous mas’ala as well. This rule only applies to anything other than the Quran, such as a piece of paper, cloth, etc. on which some verse is written and the balance of it is blank.

35. It is not makruh to give the Quran to immature children if they are in a state which requires wudu.

36. As regards heavenly books other than the Quran, such as Torah, Zabur and Injil; it is makruh to touch only those places where something is written without wudu. To touch the blank places is not makruh. The same rule applies to those verses of the Quran whose recitation has been abrogated or cancelled.

37. After having made wudu one has a doubt that a part has not been washed but he does not know exactly which part it was. In order to get rid of this doubt, he should wash his left foot. Similarly, if in the midst of making wudu he has a doubt, then in such a case, he should wash the last part. For example, if after washing the hands upto the elbows he has a doubt, then he should wash his face. Or, while washing the feet he has a doubt, then he should wash his hands upto his elbows. All this will apply when a person has such doubts occasionally. As for the person who experiences these doubts most of the time, he should not worry about them but regard his wudu as complete.

38. It is not proper to make wudu on the floor of the musjid. But if it is made in such a way that it does not fall on the floor of the musjid, then there is no harm in it. The carelessness of dropping water on the musjid floor is prevalent in many places.

GHUSL (BATH)

1. The person taking a bath should first of all wash both hands upto the wrists. Then wash the private parts. The hands and private parts should be washed irrespective of whether there is any impurity on them or not. Both these have to be washed under all conditions. Thereafter, any impurity found on the rest of the body should be washed. Then make wudu. If one is sitting on a stool or stone while bathing, then the feet should also be washed when making wudu. But if one is sitting in a place where the water accumulates and he will have to wash the feet again after completing the ghusl, then the entire wudu should be made but the feet should not be washed. After performing wudu, pour water on the head three times. Thereafter pour water over the right and left shoulders three times each in such a way that water reaches the entire body. Thereafter move from this place and go to a clean spot and wash the feet. If the feet were washed when making wudu there will be no need to wash them again.

2. Whilst pouring water over the body the first time, rub the body well so that water reaches everywhere properly and no place remains dry.

3. The above method of ghusl is according to the sunnah. Some of the items explained above are fard without which ghusl will not be complete and the person will remain impure. Some other items are sunnah. Observing them entails reward, and by not carrying them out, ghusl will still be complete. The fard acts are only three:

(a) To gargle the mouth in such a way that water reaches everywhere.

(b) To wash the nose upto the soft bone.

(c) To pour water over the entire body.

4. While bathing, one should not face the qiblah. Too much of water should not be used, nor should so little be used, that one is unable to wash thoroughly. The bath should be taken at such a place that no one can see the bather. One should not talk while bathing. After bathing, the body should be wiped with a cloth or towel. The person should hasten to cover his body to the extent that if the feet were not washed when making wudu, then when he moves from the place of ghusl, he should cover himself up first and then wash the feet.

5. If the bathing place is secluded where no one can see, then it is permissible to bath naked, irrespective of whether one is standing or sitting and irrespective of whether the roof is covered or not. However, it is better to sit and bath because there is more modesty in this. To expose the body from the navel to below the knees before anyone is a sin. Many women bath completely naked in the presence of other women. This is a very evil and shameful act.

6. Once water reaches the entire body, and the mouth and nose are washed; ghusl will be complete irrespective of whether one made intention for ghusl or not. Based on this, if someone stands in the rain in order to cool himself, or falls in a pool, etc. and in doing so the entire body gets wet and the mouth and nose are also washed – then ghusl will be complete. Similarly, it is not necessary to read the kalimah or to read it and blow on the water at the time of making ghusl. Whether one reads the kalimah or not, one will still get purified. In fact, it is better not to read the kalimah or any other dua while bathing.

7. Even if an area equal to a hair’s breadth is left dry, ghusl will not be complete. In the same way, if one forgets to gargle the mouth or wash the nose, ghusl will not be complete.

8. If after having a bath, one remembers that a particular area was left dry, then it is not necessary to repeat the entire ghusl. Instead, only that dry area should be washed. However, it is not sufficient to merely pass the wet hand over that area. Some water should be taken and poured over that area. If a person forgets to gargle the mouth, he should gargle it. And if a person forgets to wash the nose, he should wash it. In other words, whichever part has been left out, should be washed. It is not necessary to repeat the entire ghusl.

9. If, due to some illness, it would be harmful to pour water on the head, and he left out the head and washed the rest of the body, even then ghusl will be complete. But once the head has healed, it should be washed and it will not be necessary to repeat the entire ghusl.

10. In ghusl it is fard to wash the foreskin of the front organ. If water does not reach there, ghusl will not be complete.

11. If the hair of the head is not plaited, then it is fard to wet all the hair and the roots of the hair. If even one hair is left dry, or water did not reach even one root, ghusl will not be complete. However, if the hair is plaited, it is not necessary to wash it. But it is fard to wet all the roots of the hair. Even one root should not be left dry.

12. Nose, ear and finger rings should be moved so that water reaches the holes. Even if ear-rings are not worn, one should try and put water into the holes. It should not happen that water does not reach and ghusl remains incomplete. If rings are so loose that without moving them water will reach below them, then it won’t be necessary to move them. Instead, it will be mustahab to move them.

13. If dough gets stuck under the nails and gets dry and water does not go there, then ghusl will not be complete. When one remembers and sees the dough, it should be removed and water poured there. If any salaat was offered prior to pouring water, that salaat will have to be repeated.

14. If the hands or feet get cracked and some wax, ointment, or some other medication is applied; then it is permissible to suffice with pouring water over the area.

15. Care should be taken that water reaches the nose and the navel. If water does not reach, ghusl will not be complete.

16. If the mouth was not gargled at the time of bathing, but instead a mouthful of water was drunk in such a way that the water reached the entire mouth, ghusl will be complete because the object is that water should reach the entire mouth, irrespective of whether one gargles or not. However, if one drinks water in such a way that water does not reach all parts of the mouth, then this drinking will not be sufficient. One will also have to gargle the mouth.

17. If oil has been applied on the head, hands or feet in such a way that when water is poured, it passes off without wetting those parts, then there is no harm in this. Once water has been poured on the entire head and body, the ghusl will be complete.

18. If betel nut (or other such food particle) gets stuck between the teeth, it should be removed with a toothpick. If, for some reason, water does not reach between the teeth, ghusl will not be complete.

19. If there is tinsel or decorative paint on the forehead, or some sort of gum has been applied in such a way that the hair will not get wet properly, then the gum should be removed and the tinsel washed. If water does not reach under the gum but just flows over it, ghusl will not be complete.

20. If someone has applied a lot of lipstick, etc. it should be removed first and then the mouth should be gargled. If not, ghusl will not be complete.

21. Someone has a very sore eye and because of this a lot of pus came out and became dry in such a way that if it is not removed, water will not reach below it. It will therefore be wajib to remove it. Without removing it neither wudu nor ghusl will be complete.

Things or acts which make ghusl obligatory

1. If semen is discharged out of passion while one is awake or asleep, ghusl becomes wajib irrespective of whether it is discharged by touching a person of the opposite sex, or by having any such thoughts or fantasies, or by any other way -in all cases, ghusl will be wajib.

2. If one awakens and sees semen on his clothing or body, ghusl will be wajib irrespective of whether one sees a dream or not.

Note: At the time of excitement, in the beginning a particular fluid which increases the excitement, comes out. This fluid is called mazi (pre-coital fluid). When climax is reached and one is satiated, the liquid which comes out at that time is called mani (semen). That which distinguishes the two is that when semen comes out, one becomes satisfied and his passion is cooled, while the coming out of mazi does not decrease the excitement but increases it. Furthermore, mazi is thin while semen is thick. The

discharge of mazi does not make ghusl obligatory; however, wudu breaks.

3. When the glans of the penis enters the vagina and is not visible, ghusl becomes wajib irrespective of whether semen was discharged or not. The insertion of the penis in the front makes ghusl obligatory irrespective of whether semen is discharged or not. If it is inserted in the anus, then too ghusl will be obligatory. However, it is a major sin to insert or ask someone to insert the penis into the anus.

4. That blood which is discharged monthly is called haid (menstruation, or monthly period). When this blood stops flowing, ghusl becomes obligatory. That blood which is discharged after child-birth is callednifaas. Ghusl also becomes obligatory when this blood stops flowing. In short, ghusl becomes obligatory in four conditions:

(1) Discharge of semen out of excitement.

(2) Entry of the glans of the penis into the vagina (or anus).

(3) At the end of menstruation.

(4) At the end of nifaas.

5. If a person has sexual intercourse with a minor girl, ghusl will not be obligatory on her. But in order to get her into the habit, she should be made to bath.

6. While sleeping, one has a wet dream and even experiences some excitement. However on awakening, one notices that no semen was discharged. Ghusl will therefore not be obligatory. However, if semen was discharged, ghusl will be obligatory. If there is any wetness on the clothing or body, but one is in doubt as to whether it is mazi or semen, then too it will be obligatory to make ghusl.

7. A little semen comes out and one therefore had a bath. After bathing, more semen comes out. It will be obligatory to bath again. If after bathing, the husband’s semen comes out of the wife’s vagina, the ghusl will be complete and it will not be necessary to repeat it.

8. If, due to some sickness, or some other reason, semen comes out of its own accord, and there was no excitement or desire, then ghusl will not be obligatory, but wudu will break.

9. The husband and wife were sleeping on one bed. When they awoke, they saw stains of semen on the bed-sheet. However, neither the husband nor the wife remember seeing any dream. As a precaution, both of them should have a bath because it is not known as to whose semen it is.

10. If any non-Muslim accepts Islam, it is mustahab for him to have a bath.

11. If someone gives ghusl to a dead person, it is mustahab for that person to have a bath.

12. If one upon whom ghusl is obligatory, wishes to eat or drink something before going for a bath, he should first wash his hands, face and gargle his mouth. Thereafter he should eat and drink. But if he eats or drinks without washing his hands and face, there is no sin in this.

13. It is not permissible for the one on whom ghusl is obligatory, to touch the Quran, read it or to enter a musjid. However, it is permissible to take the name of Allah, to read the kalimah or to read durood shareef(salutations upon Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Rules similar to these will Insha Allah be explained in detail in the chapter on menstruation.

14. To touch the books of tafsir (commentaries of the Quran) without bathing or without wudu, is makruh. To touch a Quran with its translation is haraam.(Note: this prohibition is in regard to the one upon whom ghusl is obligatory).

Additional rules concerning ghusl

In order to purify one’s self from hadath-e-akbar, ghusl is fard. There are four causes of hadath-e-akbar:

The First Cause

The first cause is the coming out of semen. That is, the coming out of semen from its place and out of the body with desire. This is irrespective of whether it comes out while one is asleep or awake, unconscious or conscious, through sexual intercourse or without sexual intercourse, by thinking or imagining, or by fondling one’s private part, or in any other way.

1. If the semen was ejaculated from its place with desire, but at the time of actually coming out of the private part there was no desire, even then ghusl will become fard. For example, the semen came out of its place with desire but he sealed the exit by holding it with his hand or placed cotton wool or something else over it. After some time when his desire or excitement subsided, he removed his hand or the cotton wool from the exit and the semen came out without any desire. Even then ghusl will be fard.

2. Semen came out of his penis and he made ghusl. After having made ghusl, semen came out again without desire. In this case, the first ghusl will be nullified and it will be fard to make ghusl again. This is on the condition that this second semen comes out before sleeping, or before urinating, or before taking forty steps or more. But if he read salaat before this semen could come out a second time, the salaat will be valid and it will not be necessary to repeat it.

3. After urinating, semen came out of a persons penis. Ghusl will be fard on him as long as it came out with desire.

4. If anyone (man or woman) awakens from his sleep and notices some wetness on his body or clothing, then there can be many possibilities in this. From among these possibilities, ghusl will become fard in eight conditions: (a) a person has conviction or is quite sure that it is semen and even remembers having a wet dream, (b) he is convinced that it is semen but does not remember having a wet dream, (c) he is convinced that it is pre-coital fluid (mazi) and even remembers having a wet dream, (d) he is not sure as to whether it is semen or pre-coital fluid but remembers having a wet dream, (e) he is not sure as to whether it is semen or wadi (liquid that precedes urine) but remembers having a wet dream, (f) he is not sure as to whether it is pre-coital fluid or wadi but remembers having a wet dream, (g) he is not sure as to whether it is mani, mazi, or wadi but remembers having a wet dream, (h) he is not sure as to whether it is mani or mazi and does not even remember having a wet dream.

5. A person has not circumcised himself and semen comes out from his penis and goes into that skin which is removed when circumcision takes place. Ghusl will become fard on him even though the semen may not have come out of that skin.

The Second Cause

The second cause of hadath-e-akbar is insertion (eelaaj). That is, the insertion of the glans of the penis with desire into the vagina of a living woman or into the anus of any other person irrespective of whether the person is a man, woman or hermaphrodite and irrespective of whether semen comes out or not. Ghusl will become fard on both of them if the condition is found in both of them, i.e. if both of them have reached the age of puberty. If this condition is only found in one of them, ghusl will only be fard on the one in whom the condition is found.

1. If a woman is under age but not so small that if one has intercourse with her there is a fear of the vaginal tissues tearing to such an extent that the vagina and anus will virtually come together; then by the insertion of the glans of the penis into her vagina ghusl will become fard on the man if he has reached the age of puberty. (However, if there is the aforementioned fear in a very minor girl, then mere insertion of the penis does not render ghusl obligatory.)

2. If a person whose testicles have been cut off inserts his penis into the back part of anyone or the vagina of a woman, ghusl will be fard on both of them if both are mature. Alternatively, it will be fard on the one who is mature.

3. If the glans of a person has been cut off, it will be calculated according to the balance of his organ. That is, if from the balance of his organ, he inserts equal to the extent of the glans, ghusl will be fard. If it is less than that, it will not be fard.

4. If a man wraps his private part with a cloth, etc. and then inserts it, then ghusl will become fard if he can perceive the heat of the body. However caution demands that it becomes fard irrespective of whether one feels the heat or not.

5. If a woman inserts the penis of a man who has no desire, the penis of an animal, a stick or any other object, or her own finger into her vagina out of passion – even then ghusl will become fard on her irrespective of whether seminal fluid comes out or not.

The Third Cause

Purification after menstruation.

The Fourth Cause

Purification after nifaas.

Those conditions when ghusl is not fard

1. If semen does not come out with desire from its actual place, ghusl will not be fard even if it comes out from the exit. For example, a person lifted a heavy weight, fell from an elevated place, or someone hit him and out of this shock semen came out without any desire. In this case ghusl will not be fard.

2. If a man has intercourse with any under-aged woman, ghusl will not become fard on condition that semen does not come out and that woman is so young that one fears that by having intercourse with her, her private parts will become connected.

3. If a person wraps his penis with a cloth and has intercourse, then ghusl will not become fard on condition that the cloth is so thick that he does not feel the heat of the body, nor does he get any enjoyment from the intercourse. But as a precaution, it is best to say that the moment the glans is inserted, ghusl becomes wajib.

4. If a man inserts less than the size of the glans of his penis, ghusl will not be fard.

5. By the emission of mazi and wadi, ghusl does not become fard.

6. Ghusl is not fard in the case of istihaada.

7. If a person has the sickness of continuous flowing of semen, then due to this flowing, ghusl will not be fard on him.

8. On awakening, some wetness is noticed on the clothes. In the following cases ghusl will not be compulsory: (a) he is convinced that it is mazi and does not even remember having a wet dream, (b) he is in doubt as to whether it is semen or wadi and does not even remember having a wet dream, (c) he is in doubt as to whether it is mazi or wadi and does not remember having a wet dream, (d) he is convinced that it is wadi, but remembers having a wet dream, (e) he is convinced that it is wadi and does not even remember having a wet dream, (f) he is in doubt as to whether it is manimazi, or wadi and does not remember having a wet dream. Note: As a precaution, it will be wajib to make ghusl in the first, second and sixth cases. If he does not make ghusl, his salaat will not be valid and he will be committing a grave sin. This is because there is a difference of opinion between Imam Abu Yusuf and tarafayn, i.e. Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam MuhammadImam Abu Yusuf says that ghusl is not wajib, while tarafayn say that it is wajib and the fatwa is according to what tarafayn say.

9. By injecting something into the anus, ghusl does not become fard.

10. If a man inserts his penis into the navel of a man or woman, ghusl will not become fard if semen does not come out.

11. In his dream a person sees his semen coming out and he even experiences satisfaction upon its emission. However he does not see any wetness or any other traces on his clothing. Ghusl will not be fard in this case.

Those conditions when ghusl is wajib (obligatory)

1. A disbeliever accepts Islam and while he was in the state of kufr he experienced hadath-e-akbar. He did not have a bath, or if he did, it was not considered to be a valid ghusl in Islam. After accepting Islam, ghusl will become wajib on him.

2. If a person reaches puberty before the age of fifteen and he experiences his first wet dream. As a precaution, ghusl will be wajib on him. If he has any wet dreams after this or after the age of fifteen, ghusl will befard.

3. To give a bath to the dead body of a Muslim is fard-e-kifayah.

Those conditions when ghusl is sunnat

1. It is sunnat to make ghusl on Fridays at any time after Fajr salaat until the time of Jumuah salaat for those upon whom Jumuah is wajib.

2. It is sunnat to make ghusl after Fajr salaat on the days of Eid for those upon whom Eid salaat is wajib.

3. It is sunnat to make ghusl when donning the Ihraam for Hajj or Umrah.

4. It is sunnat for the person performing Hajj to make ghusl after zawaal (mid-day) on the day of Arafah (ninth of Zil Hijjah).

Those conditions when ghusl is mustahab

1. It is mustahab to make ghusl upon accepting Islam if one is pure from hadath-e-akbar.

2. A boy or girl reach the age of fifteen and until now there is no sign that they have reached puberty. It is mustahab for them to make ghusl.

3. It is mustahab to make ghusl after cupping (removing of dirty blood from the body), after recovery from insanity, intoxication, and unconsciousness.

4. After bathing the dead, it is mustahab for the one who gave the bath to make ghusl.

5. It is mustahab to make ghusl on the night of Bara’at, i.e. fifteenth of Sha’baan.

6. Ghusl is mustahab for the one who identifies Lailatul Qadr (the night of power).

7. It is mustahab to make ghusl when one intends entering Madinah Munawwarah.

8. In order to stay in Muzdalifah on the tenth of Zil Hijjah, it is mustahab to make ghusl after Fajr.

9. Ghusl is mustahab for Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat. (this tawaaf is made during Hajj).

10. Ghusl is mustahab at the time of pelting the shaytaan.

11. Ghusl is mustahab for offering the salaats of Kusuf (solar eclipse), Khusuf (lunar eclipse) and Istisqaa’ (salaat read for rains).

12. Ghusl is mustahab for offering the salaat of Khauf (fear and calamities).

13. It is mustahab to make ghusl when repenting for any sin.

14. Ghusl is mustahab for the traveller upon returning to his home or country.

15. Ghusl is mustahab when going to a gathering and when wearing new clothes.

16. Ghusl is mustahab for the one who is about to be killed.

Rules concerning hadath-e-akbar (major impurity)

1. When ghusl becomes fard on a person, it is haraam for him to enter a musjid. However, it will be permissible if there is a dire need. For example, the door of someone’s house opens out into the musjid and there is no other way for him to come out nor is there any other place where he could stay. It will be permissible for him to make tayammum and go into the musjid. Or, for example, there is a fountain, well, or pond of water in the musjid and there is no water anywhere else.; To make tayammum and go into that musjid will be permissible.

2. It will be permissible for such a person to go into the Eid-gah, the madrasah, the khanqah, etc.

3. When a woman is in a state of menstruation or nifaas, it is not permissible to look at the area between her navel and knees, it is not permissible to touch that area if it is not covered with any clothing nor is it permissible to have sexual intercourse with her.

4. It is permissible to do the following things with a woman who is in a state of menstruation or nifaas: to kiss her, to drink her left-over water, etc., to sleep next to her, to touch the areas above her navel and below her knees even if there is no clothing on them, to touch the area between her navel and knees if it is covered with a cloth. However, it is makruh to sleep separately or stay aloof from a woman on account of her bleeding.

5. A person awakes from his sleep and sees some wetness on his private part, and prior to sleeping he had an erection. Ghusl will not be fard on him and that wetness will be regarded as pre-coital fluid. This is on the condition that he does not remember having a wet dream, nor is he convinced that the wetness is semen. If there is wetness on his thighs and clothes as well, ghusl will be obligatory on him.

6. If two men, or two women, or one man and one woman slept together on one bed; and after awakening they noticed some stains of semen on the bed and they do not know whose semen it is, nor did anyone else sleep on that bed prior to that; then in such a case ghusl will be fard on both of them. But if someone had slept on that bed prior to this and the semen is dry, then in both these cases ghusl will not be fard.

7. Ghusl became fard on a person but there is no secluded place. It will be wajib on a man to bath naked in front of other men. The same will apply to a woman in front of other women. But for a man to bath in front of women or a woman to bath in front of men is haraam. Instead, they should make tayammum.

SUITABLE AND UNSUITABLE WATER FOR WUDU AND GHUSL

1. It is permissible to make wudu and ghusl with rain-water and water from rivers, canals, springs, wells, dams and seas irrespective of whether the water is sweet or salty.

2. It is not permissible to make wudu with the juice extracted from any fruit, tree, or leaf. In the same way, the water which comes out from a water-melon or sugar-cane, etc. cannot be used for wudu or ghusl.

3. If something is mixed or boiled in water in such a way that it is no more referred to as water but is called by some other name, then wudu and ghusl with it is not permissible. For example, wudu is not permissible with any syrup, juice, soup, vinegar, rose-water, etc.

4. A pure substance falls in the water and some change has taken place in the colour, smell and taste of the water. However, that thing was not boiled in the water, nor was there any change in the density (liquidity) of the water. For example, some sand falls in flowing water, or saffron falls in the water and slightly changes its colour, or soap, or any such thing falls in the water – in all these cases wudu and ghusl will be permissible with such water.

5. If anything has been cooked or boiled in water and it has changed its colour or taste, wudu with such water will not be permissible. However, if any such thing is boiled in the water which purifies it and does not make it thicker, then wudu with such water is permissible. For example, berry leaves are boiled in water to bathe a dead person. There is no harm in this. However, if a large quantity is boiled which causes the water to get thick, then wudu and ghusl will not be proper with such water.

6. Water in which saffron or powder has been dissolved for dyeing a cloth cannot be used to make wudu.

7. If milk is mixed in water and its colour is dominant, wudu is not permissible. But if the milk was very little and did not affect the colour of the water, wudu with it will be permissible.

8. If a small quantity of water is found in a jungle, one can continue using it for wudu as long as its impurity (najaasat) is not established. Wudu should not be abandoned merely on the premise that perhaps it is impure. If, in the presence of such water, one makes tayammum, that tayammum will not be accepted.

9. Some tree-leaves fell in a well, etc. The water began to smell and its colour and taste also changed. Wudu with such water will still be permissible as long as its density does not change.

10. The water in which some impurity falls cannot be used for wudu or ghusl irrespective of whether the impurity is little or plentiful. However, if the water is flowing, it will not be rendered impure by the falling of some impurity in it until and unless its colour, taste or smell changes. If due to the impurity, the colour, taste or smell of the water changes, then even flowing water will be impure and wudu will not be permissible. That water which carries away grass, straws, leaves, etc. will be regarded as flowing water no matter how slowly it flows.

11. A large pond or tank which measures about 5 x 5 metres and is so deep that when a handful of water is scooped from it, its bed is not visible – is also regarded as flowing water. If such an impurity falls into it which cannot be seen after having fallen into it, eg. urine, blood, wine, etc. then wudu can be made from any of the four sides. But if an impurity which is visible, falls into it, eg. a dead dog, then wudu cannot be made from that side in which it fell. Any of the other sides can be used.

But even in such a tank, if some impurity falls and changes the colour, taste or smell of the water, it will become impure.

12. The water of a tank measuring about ten by two and half metres or twelve and half by two metres, is also treated as 5 x 5 metres.

13. Impurity fell on the roof. When it rained, the water came down the drains. If half or more of the roof was impure then that water will be impure. If less than half of the roof was impure, that water will be pure. If the impurity is only near the drain and it is such that all the water comes down from that drain alone, then that water will be impure.

14. If water is flowing very slowly, wudu should not be performed very hastily so that the water which was used does not come back in the hands.

15. If, from a tank measuring about 5 x 5 metres, water is taken from the place where the used water had fallen, this is also permissible.

16. If a non-Muslim or child puts his hand in the water, it will not become impure. However, if it becomes known that there was some impurity in the hands, the water will be impure. But because children cannot be trusted, it would be preferable not to use that water until some other water is not found.

17. If a living creature whose blood does not flow, eg. a mosquito, fly, wasp, gnat, scorpion, bee, etc. dies in the water or falls into it after dying, the water does not become impure.

18. If creatures which are born in water and remain in water all the time die, the water does not become polluted but remains pure. Such creatures are: fish, frogs, turtles, crabs, etc.

If such creatures fall in anything else besides water, eg. vinegar, syrup, milk, etc. then even these liquids will not become impure. The rule is the same for the land and water frogs, i.e. their dead bodies do not pollute the water. However, if the land frog has flowing blood, then by its death the water, etc. will become impure. Note: The distinguishing feature between the land and water frog is that the feet of the water frog are webbed while those of the land frog are not webbed.

19. Creatures which live in water but are not born in water, such as ducks and water-fowls, if they die, the water becomes polluted and impure. Similarly, if they die outside and then fall in the water, it becomes impure.

20. If a frog, turtle, etc. dies in the water and disintegrates and breaks down into minute fragments and gets completely mixed in the water – even then the water will be pure. However, it is not proper to drink that water or cook food with it. Wudu and ghusl can be made with it.

21. By using water heated directly by the sun there is a fear of contacting leprosy. Therefore, wudu and ghusl should not be made with such water.

22. When the skin of a dead animal is dried or treated chemically in such a way that the water is removed completely and when stored it does not get decomposed – then it becomes purified and salaat can be offered on it. It can also be used for making water bags. However, the skin of a pig can never be purified. All other skins can be purified. But to use or utilise the skin of a human being is a major sin.

23. The skins of dogs, monkeys, cats, lions, etc. which become pure after treating them chemically can also be made pure by reciting Bismillah and slaughtering them. This is irrespective of whether they have been treated chemically or not. However, by slaughtering them, their meat does not become pure nor is it permissible to eat them.

24. The hair, horns, bones and teeth of dead animals are pure. If they fall in water, it will not become impure. However, if the bones, teeth, etc. have some fat of the dead animal on them, they will be regarded as impure, and if they fall in water, it will also be rendered impure.

25. The bones and hair of human beings are also pure. But to use them in any way is not permissible. Instead, they should be buried in the ground with respect.

RULES RELATING TO WELLS

1. When any impurity (najaasat) falls into a well, it becomes impure. By drawing out the water, it becomes purified. Irrespective of whether a little or a lot of impurity falls in it, all the water will have to be drawn out. Once all the water has been drawn out, it will become purified. It is not necessary to wash the gravel and walls of the well. All these will be automatically cleaned. In the same way, the rope and bucket will also be automatically cleaned once the well is purified. There is no need to wash these things.

Note: Drawing out all the water means that so much of water is drawn out that all of it is finished to such an extent that even half a bucket cannot be filled.

2. If the excrement of a pigeon or sparrow falls into a well, it will not be rendered impure. However, the excrement of chickens and ducks will render it impure and all the water will have to be drawn out.

3. If a dog, cat, cow or goat passes urine in a well, or some other impurity falls into it, all the water will have to be removed.

4. If a human being, dog, goat, or any similar animal falls into a well and dies in it, all the water will have to be drawn out. If it dies outside and then falls into the well, the same rule will apply, i.e. all the water will have to be drawn out.

5. If any living creature, big or small, dies in a well and gets bloated or bursts, even then all the water will have to be drawn out. Based on this, if a rat or sparrow dies and gets bloated or bursts, all the water will have to be drawn out.

6. If a rat, sparrow, or any similar sized creature falls and dies, but does not get bloated or does not burst, then it is obligatory to draw out twenty buckets of water from the well. But drawing out thirty buckets is preferable. However, first the dead rat, etc. should be taken out, then only should one commence drawing out the water. If the rat was not taken out first, then whatever water was drawn out will not be considered. After removing the rat, that amount of water will have to be drawn out again.

7. The same rule applies to a chameleon which has flowing blood, i.e. if it dies without getting bloated, twenty buckets will have to be drawn out and thirty will be preferable. However, the death of a lizard which does not have flowing blood does not render the water impure.

8. If a pigeon, fowl, cat, or any similar sized creature falls and dies without getting bloated, then it is obligatory to draw out forty buckets of water and preferable to draw out sixty buckets.

9. The water will be drawn out according to the bucket which is normally used for that well. If a bucket larger than the normal one is used, water should be drawn out proportionately: if it equals two buckets, it should be estimated accordingly. And if it equals four buckets, it should be estimated accordingly as well. In short, the water will be drawn out in proportion to the number of buckets that can be accomodated by this one bucket.

10. If there is such a large spring in the well that all the water cannot be drawn out and as you draw out of it, it begins to fill again – then in this case one should estimate the amount of water that is presently in the well and then draw out accordingly. Note: There are several ways of estimating the amount of water. One method is that for example the depth of the water is equal to five hands. So draw out 100 buckets continuously and then see the extent to which the water level has decreased. If it has decreased by one hand, then accordingly, five hands will equal 500 buckets. Another method is to call two pious Muslims who have knowledge about water and are able to estimate it. Water should be drawn out according to whatever estimate they give. However, if it is not possible to employ these methods, 300 buckets should be drawn out.

11. If a dead rat or any other creature came out of the well and it is not known as to when it fell into the well, nor has it burst or bloated, then whoever made wudu from this well should repeat his salaat of one day and one night. And the one who washed his clothing in this well, should re-wash them. But if that dead creature got bloated or burst, then the salaat of three days and three nights should be repeated. However, those who have not made wudu from this well do not have to repeat their salaat. All this is done as a precaution. Some ulama say that the well should be regarded as impure from the time its impurity has been established and all the previous wudu and salaat will be proper. If anyone acts on this, it will also be proper.

12. If anyone upon whom ghusl is necessary goes down a well in search of its bucket and there is no impurity on his body or clothes, the well will not be rendered impure. Similarly, if a non – Muslim goes down and there is no impurity on his body or clothing, the well will remain pure. But if there is some impurity, the well will become impure and all the water will have to be drawn out. If one is in doubt as to whether the clothing is clean or not, even then the well will be regarded as pure. However, there is no harm if 20-30 buckets are drawn out in order to keep one’s heart at ease.

13. If a goat or rat falls into a well and comes out alive, the water will be pure and there is no need to draw out anything.

14. If a rat is caught and wounded by a cat biting at it, thereafter it is left free and in this bleeding condition it falls into a well – then all the water will have to be drawn out.

15. A rat comes out of a drain and its body is covered with impurity. Thereafter it falls into a well. All the water will have to be removed irrespective of whether it dies in the well or not.

16. The tail of a rat was cut off and it fell into a well – all the water will have to be drawn out. The same rule applies to the tail of that lizard which has flowing blood.

17. If the thing with which the well becomes impure cannot be removed despite trying to do so, then the nature of the thing should be established. If the object is pure in itself, but is rendered impure by some other impurity, eg. impure clothing, a dirty ball, dirty shoes, etc. then one is excused from removing the object. Only the water should be drawn out. If the thing is impure by nature, eg. a dead creature, a rat, etc. then as long as it is not established that that thing has decomposed and turned into mud, the well cannot become pure. But once this has been established, all the water should be drawn out and the well will now be pure.

18. The quantity of water which has to be drawn out could be drawn out all at once or little by little. It will be purified in any way.

THE LEFTOVER WATER OF ANIMALS

1. The leftover water of human beings is pure irrespective of whether the person is a disbeliever, or a woman is in her monthly period, or in nifaas. In all cases it will be pure. In the same way, the perspiration of all these persons is pure. However, if there is any impurity on the hands or mouth, that leftover water will become impure.

2. The leftover water of a dog is najis. If a dog puts its mouth in a utensil, it will become purified after washing it three times irrespective of whether the utensil is of clay or copper, etc. All these will be purified once they are washed. However, it is preferable to wash it seven times and thereafter to scrub it once with sand (or soap) so that it is thoroughly washed.

3. The leftover water of a pig is also impure. In the same way, the leftover water of lions, wolves, monkeys, jackals and all other ferocious animals is impure.

4. The leftover water of a cat, although pure, is makruh. In the presence of other water, it should not be used for wudu. However, if no other water is found, it can be used for wudu.

5. If a cat puts its mouth in milk or curry, etc. then a man whom Allah Ta’ala has bestowed with wealth should not consume it. But if a man is poor, he can consume it. There is no harm or sin in this. In fact, for such a person, its consumption is not even makruh.

6. A cat killed a rat. Immediately thereafter it put its mouth in a utensil. This will render it impure. But if it does so after some time, after having licked its mouth, it will not be impure but will remain makruh.

7. The leftover water of a fowl which is not encaged and which eats filth and dirty things is makruh. The leftover water of a fowl that is encaged is pure.

8. The leftover water of birds of prey such as hawks and falcons is also makruh. But those that are domesticated and are unable to eat dead animals, nor is there any doubt about any impurity being on their beaks – their leftover water is pure.

9. The leftover water of halaal animals such as sheep, goats, cows, buffaloes, antelopes, etc.; and halaal birds such as nightingales, parrots, doves, sparrows, etc., is all pure. Similarly, the leftover water of horses is also pure.

10. The leftover water of creatures which inhabit houses, such as snakes, scorpions, rats, lizards, etc. is makruh.

11. If a rat nibbles at a piece of bread, it will be better to break off that portion and then consume it.

12. The leftover water of a donkey or mule is pure but doubtful for wudu. If only this water is present and no other water can be found, wudu as well as tayammum will have to be made. One has the choice to make any one of the two first.

13. The sweat of animals whose leftover water is impure is also impure. And the sweat of those whose leftover water is pure is also pure. And those whose leftover water is makruh, their sweat is also makruh. The sweat of a donkey or mule is pure. If it comes on the clothing, washing it will not be obligatory but preferable.

14. If a domesticated cat comes and sits on someone or licks the hands or some other part of the body, then where ever it licks or where ever its saliva goes – all these will have to be washed. If it is not washed, but left as it is, then this is makruh and detestable.

15. The leftover food and drink of an unrelated person of the opposite sex is makruh if it is known that it is of a particular person. But if it is not known by whom it has been left behind, it will not be makruh.

THE VIRTUES AND REWARDS OF WUDU AND GHUSL

It is mentioned in a Hadith that whoever reads Bismillah when commencing with wudu (and to read Bismillahi wal hamdolillah is better), and when washing every limb he reads:

Ash hado al la ilaha illa Allaho wahdaho la shareeka laho, wa ash hado anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluh”and on completing his wudu he reads:

“Allahumma ij’alni minat tawwaabeena waj’alni minal mutatahhireen.” Translation: “O Allah! Make me among the repenters and among the purified ones.”

then after he dies, the eight doors of paradise will be opened for him and he can enter from whichever one he wishes. If immediately after that, he reads two rak’ats of nafl salaat, reciting the Quran therein with full concentration, and he also reads all his other salaat in this way, i.e. with presence of mind, then when he completes his salaat, he will be purified of all his sins just as the day when his mother had given birth to him. He will be told to start with his deeds from the beginning, and until now, all his past sins will be forgiven. The ulama say that here it refers to minor sins. How will he know that he has been told to start his deeds again? The answer to this is that by Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam mentioning this in the Hadith, we have come to know of it. To mention it in this way and to get glad tidings and practise on it is sufficient.

It is mentioned in a Hadith: “That person’s wudu is not complete who does not send salutations (durood) upon me.” And in another Hadith, the time for sending durood is after completing the wudu.

It is related in a Hadith that: “When a person makes wudu and washes his face, all those sins which he committed with his eyes are washed off with the water or the last drop of water. When he washes his hands, all those sins which he had committed with his hands are washed off with the water or the last drop of water. When he washes his feet, all those sins which he had committed with his feet are washed off, until he is completely purified from all sins.” (Muslim) Here sins refer to minor sins as explained by the ulama. The sin of the eyes is to look at something evil. The sin of the hands, for example, is to touch someone with an evil intention. The sin of the feet is to go somewhere with an evil intention. Ensure that you make wudu thoroughly. Value the virtues and rewards that have been mentioned in regard to wudu.

Hadrat Anas radiallahu anhu (he is a senior Sahabi who had remained in the service of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam for ten years) has related a lengthy Hadith. He says that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: “O Anas! wash thoroughly when you are making ghusl of janabat (major impurity). If you do this, then without doubt you will come out from that place of bathing in such a state that no sin will remain on you.(here too it refers to minor sins) I asked: “O Rasulullah! how does one wash thoroughly?” He replied: “It means that you wet the roots of the hair and clean the body thoroughly.” (it is mustahab to cleanse the body by rubbing it. It cannot be cleaned properly without rubbing it. “Thoroughly” means to wash it very well as has been explained by Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam then said: “O my dear son! (here son is used out of love) if you have the strength, try to be in a state of wudu all the time. The one who dies while he is in a state of wudu will get the reward of martyrdom.” (Abu Ya’la).

Rules Concerning Ma’zur (Excused)

Rules Concerning Tayammum

Rules Concerning Masah On Leather Socks

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