Rules for Qadha Salaat
(Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanwi)
FATWASQ. An Aalim says that if one has numerous Qadha Salaat, one should not perform the Sunnat Salaat. Instead of the Sunnats, Qadha should be made. He says that Qadha takes preference over Sunnat. Is this correct?
A. Even if one has Qadha Salaat, one should not omit the Sunnatul Muakkadah Salaat. Along with Qadha, the Sunnatul Muakkadah should also be performed. In fact, as far as the masses are concerned, even the Sunnatul Ghair Muakkadah, Ishraaq, Dhuha (Chaasht), Awwaabeen, etc. should not be abandoned or neglected on the basis of the Qadha argument. The meaning of Qadha ‘taking preference over Sunnat is like eating, drinking, sleeping, going to work, going to toilet, etc. Whilst Qadha takes preference over these acts, it does not follow that these acts will be abandoned. Similarly, Qadha is more important than Athaan. But it does not mean that Athaan must be abandoned because one has Qadha to fulfil. Making a full Sunnat Wudhu may not be abandoned with the argument that one is in a hurry to perform one’s Qadha. Tilaawat of the Qur’aan can not be abandoned with the Qadha argument despite Tilaawat not being Waajib. Durood Shareef may not be abandoned because of Qadha. The Qadha will go hand in hand with Sunnat Salaat, Tilaawat of Qur’aan, Istighfaar, Durood, etc.
Even whilst a man has numerous Qadha Salaat, you will see that he goes for drives, for holidays, and he has time to entertain guests and sit in conversation with friends. He engages in all these affairs despite the fact that Qadhaa overrides everything and demands the devotion of every spare minute. There is therefore no valid reason for the abandonment of Sunnah Salaat whilst one has the liability of Qadha. Both should be executed simultaneously. Directing the Qadha argument to only Sunnat Salaat is a trap of Shaitaan. The thought never develops: ‘Let me abandon all idle talk, merrymaking, going for Nafl Umrah and answering invitations to enable me to devote all this time to secure rapid release from my Qadha obligation.” Only the Sunnat Salaat is victimized. This is clearly a shaitaani deception.
Q. I have missed some Salaat many years ago but am unaware of how many. How should I make qadha of such Salaat?
A. Regarding missed Salaat, you have to reflect deeply, then make an estimate as best as you can of the number of Salaat you think you have missed. For example, after reflecting, you come to a conclusion that the number of Salaat could be two years. Make a note of this. Then start performing Qadha of one, or two, or three or as much as you wish at a time. Start with Fajr, then Zuhr, then Asr, then Maghrib, then Isha, then Witr as well. This gives you qadha of one day. Record the one day in your note book. Whenever you perform Qadha, make a note. Perform it in the sequence mentioned above so that it is easy to record a day. In this way continue until the Salaat of the 2 years is completed. Whenever beginning a Qadha, make niyyat as follows: “O Allah! I am making the first Fajr qadha of all the Fajr Salaat which I had missed.” If it is Zuhr, then mention Zuhr. For each qadha mention this very same niyyat because every Qadha you will be performing will be the first of the balance you owe Allah Ta’ala. You need not verbally utter the niyyat. You may just intend it in your mind.
Q. After a person embraces Islam, should he perform Qadha Salaat from the age of puberty or from the time he accepted Islam?
A. A person who has embraced Islam should calculate his qadha Salaat from the time he took Shahaadat, not from the age of puberty.
Q. I embraced Islam about 3 years ago. At that time I was a Salafi, not following any Math-hab. I was taught to make masah on ordinary socks. Now that I have become a Hanafi I have learnt that Salaat performed in this way is not valid. Should I make qadha of the past Salaat which I had performed with a wudhu in which masah was made on woollen/cotton socks?
A. Yes, you should make qadha of such invalid Salaat. Make a sincere estimate of the number of Salaat which you had performed with defective wudhu and commence the duty of Qadha.
Q. A man was in a coma for several days. Does he have to make qadha of all the Salaat?
A. When a person is unconscious for six or more Salaat, then there is no Qadha. The Salaat is waived. If he remains unconscious for five Salaat, then qadha has to be made.
Q. Is Salaat which had not been performed in the past forgiven when Hajj is performed?
A. Hajj does not cancel out Qadha Salaat. All Qadha Salaat has to be compulsorily performed. As long as one is alive, the Qadha will have to be made.
Q. Is it better to engage in Qazaa Salaat or Nafl Salaat?
A. Excluding the Sunnatul Muakkadah, Salaatud Dhuhaa, Ishraaq, SalaatutTasbeeh, Tahyatul Musjid, the four Nafl before Asr Salaat and such other Nafl Salaat expressly mentioned in the Ahadith, it is better to engage in Qazaa Salaat than Nafl Salaat.
Q. If a person dies without having discharged all his qadha Salaat and Saum, can his heirs perform the Salaat and fast on his behalf?
A. It is not valid to fast and perform Salaat on behalf of the mayyit or on behalf of anyone. Only Fidyah will absolve the mayyit (deceased) of his obligation. If the mayyit had made a wasiyyat (bequest) for the Fidyah (monetary compensation) of his Salaat and Saum to be paid, then it will devolve as an obligation on the heirs to pay the Fidyah from one third the value of all of his assets.
Q. Is it permissible to perform qadha Salaat before sunrise and after Asr Salaat?
A. It is permissible. Only after Asr when the sun’s rays have become very cool or yellowish, say about 15 minutes before sunset, then it is not permissible to perform any Salaat except the Asr Fardh of that particular day if it has not yet been performed. But it is a grave sin to delay the Asr Salaat until this time.
Q. Is it permissible to perform Qadha Salaat immediately after the Fajr Salaat?
A. Yes, you may perform Qadha Salaat immediately after Fajr Fardh Salaat or even before the Fardh. However, the Qadha if made after Fajr Salaat or after Asr Salaat should not be performed in the Musjid because others will know that one is making qadha. These times are not valid for Nafl Salaat, but Qadha is permissible. To perform Qadha in such a manner which reveals this fact to others is not permissible. Therefore perform Qadha at home.
Q. Is it permissible to perform Qadha Salaat during Fajr time and after Asr Salaat?
A. It is permissible. However, it is not permissible to perform Qadha after Asr when the rays of the sun have cooled down, i.e. close to sunset, perhaps about 15 or 20 minutes before sunset.
Q. Is it permissible to make qadha Salaat during Fajr and Asr times after the Fardh of Fajr and Asr? And is Sajdah Tilaawat permissible during these times?
A. It is permissible to make qadha Salaat during Fajr time even after the Fajr Salaat, and also after Asr Salaat. However, after Asr when it is close to sunset, perhaps 15 minutes, then it is not permissible to make qadha Salaat unless it is the Asr Salaat of that particular day.
Q. Is it permissible to perform Qadha Salaat after Fajr, at Zawwaal and after Asr?
A. No Salaat, including Qadha, may be performed at the time of sunrise, zawwaal and sunset. While Nafl may not be performed after Fajr Salaat, it is permissible to perform Qadha. The same permissibility applies for Qadha after Asr. However, when the sun’s rays have become cool, say about 15 minutes before sunset, then it is not permissible to perform even Qadha.
Q. Is it permissible to perform Qadha Namaaz after Asr Namaaz?
A. Yes, it is permissible to perform Qadha Salaat after Asr. However, when it is about 15 minutes before sunset, then it is not permissible at such a time.
Q. Is it permissible to perform Qadha-e-Umri (Salaat missed during one’s lifetime) during a journey?
A. Yes, it is permissible. However, if one is performing the Qadha for a Salaat missed whilst at home, then the full Salaat should be performed, i.e. if one is performing the Qadha for a Zuhr Salaat missed when one was at home, then the full 4 Rakaats should be performed. Similarly, if one is performing Qadha at home, of a Salaat missed during a journey, Qasr should be performed, i.e. if one missed Zuhr Salaat whilst on a journey, only two rakaats Qadha will be performed, even if one is performing this Qadha at home.
Q. If Qadha is made of Fajr, Maghrib and Isha during the night time, is it permissible to recite the Qiraa’at audibly?
A. It is permissible even if the qadha of these Salaat is made during the daytime. However, one should not recite audibly if one happens to making the qadha in a Musjid.
Q. My husband and I constantly argue about Namaaz. He does not make his Qadha Namaaz. When I question him about his neglect of his Qadha Namaaz, he takes offence and says that I am nagging too much. He says that I should not worry about his Qadha Namaaz as it is his sin. Please comment.
A. Your husband is most ungrateful for the favour you are doing him. He does not realise what a valuable wife he has, hence he reacts like a shaitaan. If he had to suffer a huge monetary loss and you save him in some way from sustaining such a loss, he will applaud and praise you. He will appreciate your act. Since he understands the value of money, he will be grateful to you for saving him from a loss. But because he has absolutely no understanding of the colossal loss he will be suffering in the Aakhirah nor does he have any understanding of Allah’s Punishment, he reacts in this irresponsible way. He cannot see the good you are doing for him. Continue to remind him of his Qadha Salaat. It is among your duties to your husband to try your best to see that he follows the Deen.
Q. I missed Fajr Salaat. I made qadha of it after Zuhr Salaat. Is this correct?
A. If a person has no Qadha Salaat or he has, but not more than five, then it is not permissible for him to perform the Ada Salat (i.e. the Salaat of the present time) unless he first performs the five Qadha Salaat. Thus, if a person has no Qadha, but today missed Fajr Salaat, then it is not permissible for him to perform Zuhr first. He has to compulsorily perform the qadha of Fajr, then engage in Zuhr. If he did in fact perform Zuhr without first performing qadha of Fajr, then he should repeat the Salaat – first Fajr, then Zuhr.
Q. If I delay Witr for Tahajjud time, but overslept and woke up only during Fajr. Should Fajr be performed first?
A. If one overslept and missed Witr, then before performing Fajr, it is compulsory to make qadha of Witr. After performing Witr, then only should one perform Fajr. However, if one’s eyes opened at such a time that there is only sufficient time for Fajr Salaat, then first perform Fajr and make qadha of Witr after sunrise. It is best to perform Witr before going to bed when there is the fear of oversleeping.
Q. A man has numerous Qadha Salaat to perform. Such a person is allowed to perform his Qadha in any order. He will obviously perform the Salaat of the present time without the need to perform Qadha first. What happens if the number of Qadha after some time remains less than five? Does he have to observe tarteeb when performing the Salaat of the time?
A. This person does not revert to being a Saahib-e-Tarteeb as long as he has not completed all his Qadha Salaat. Only after he has completed all the Qadha Salaat, if again he misses one, two, three, four or five Salaat, will it not be permissible for him to perform the Adaa Salaat (i.e.Salaat of the present time) until he has not yet performed his Qadha. He will first have to perform the Qadha Salaat in proper order, i.e. first Fajr, then Zuhr, then Asr, etc. Only then may he perform his Adaa Salaat. However, if the time left for the Adaa Salaat is so less that the Adaa Salaat too will become Qadha if he engages in Qadha, then he has to perform the Adaa Salaat first.
Q. I started Zuhr Salaat very late. After having made one raka’t, Asr time commenced. What is the position of my Zuhr Salaat which I completed during Asr time?
The Salaat is valid. However, if this delay was due to carelessness, then you had sinned.
Q. Sunrise started just as I was reciting At-Tahiyaat. Is my Salaat valid?
A. The Salaat is not valid. You have to make qadha of Fajr Salaat.
Q. Should qadha of Sajdah Tilaawat be made for Sajdahs which were not made years ago?
A. Qadha does not apply to Sajdah Tilaawat. Entire lifetime is valid time for Sajdah Tilaawat. Although the Sajdah Tilaawat should preferably be made immediately, the time for its discharge remains valid throughout one’s lifetime. It is Waajib to make all Sajdahs which have not yet been made. If these Sajdahs are not made and Maut arrives, one will be guilty of having grieviously sinned. And, there is no fidyah compensation for Sajdah Tilaawat.
Q. In prison sometimes the prison guards prevent me from performing Salaat on time. Should I defy them?
A. In the circumstances you find yourself in prison it is permissible to perform Salaat qadha when the prison guards prevent you from performing it on time. Don’t defy them. You will not achieve anything by defiance in your situation. They will only utilize force, brutally oppress and injure you, and prevent you from performing Salaat. You will also adversely affect your parole chances. Prison is a filthy abode for shayaateen. You should not do anything to prolong your stay in such an evil place.
Q. If there is time for making only the Fardh of Fajr, should the qadha of the Sunnats be made?
A. If there is time for only the Fardh of Fajr, then the two Sunnat raka’ts should be made Qadha after sunrise, but well before midday.
Q. Our father who has passed away had a number of qadha Salaat. The number is unknown. What should his heirs do regarding payment of kaffaarah?
A. If the deceased did not make a wasiyyat (bequest/ issue a directive), then it is not obligatory on the heirs to pay Kaffaarah and Fidyah. However, if the heirs wish to aid their deceased father, they may, out of their own shares, but not from a minor’s share, give any amount as Sadqah and supplicate to Allah Ta’ala to forgive the marhoom (deceased).
Q. I have a whole stack of qadha Salaat still to perform. Is it permissible to omit the Sunnat Salaat in order to catch up with the Qadha?
A. While the Nafl and Sunnatul Ghair Muakkadah may be omitted to perform Qadha, the Sunnatul Muakkadah may not be omitted. The Sunnatul Muakkadah are the two Sunnats of Fajr, the four and two of Zuhr, the two of Maghrib and the two of Isha’.
Q. Is it permissible to perform Sunnat Salaat when one has many Qadha Salaat still to discharge?
A. It is permissible, in fact necessary, to perform the Sunnat Salaat even when one has Qadha to perform. Neither the Qadha nor the Sunnat Salaat should be neglected.