Kitaabut Taharah (Book of Purity)
(Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanwi)
Rules Concerning Ma’zur (Excused)
(Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanwi)
Rules Concerning Tayammum
(Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanwi)
Rules Concerning Masah On Leather Socks
(Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanwi)
FATWASQ. Please explain fully the proper Masnoon way of making ghusl.
A. This is a tall and an inconsiderate order. How do you expect us to fill a whole page explaining an act which is explained in a number of elementary kitaabs which are readily and cheaply available? Kitaabut Tahaarat, Ta’leemul Islam, Ta’leemul Haq, Baheshti Zewer and several other similar kitaabs are easily available in English. Provide your postal address. We shall forward Kitaabut Tahaarat to you, Insha’Allah.
Q. A person has braces in his mouth and a plastic palate. Is his ghusl valid?
A. Ghusl will be valid for the person who has braces and a plastic palate. Since these cannot be removed while the treatment is continuing, ghusl will be valid.
Q. Is ghusl valid if there is cement filled in one’s teeth?
A. Since the tooth cement becomes a permanent part of the teeth, ghusl will be valid.
Q. I have gold teeth and gold braces in my mouth. What is the status of my ghusl?
A. Firstly it is haraam to have gold braces and gold teeth unless this is medically necessary. If the gold teeth, etc. have been inserted merely for adornment, then it is compulsory to have them removed for ghusl to be valid.
Q. When making niyyat for ghusl, is it necessary to recite the niyyat?
A. Niyyat is the intention in the mind. The validity of niyyat is not reliant on verbal recitation.
Q. Does the discharge of seminal fluid necessitate ghusl in all circumstances?
A. The term seminal fluid is ambiguous. There are three types of such fluid which is released — mathi, mani and wadi. Mani is the semen which is released when orgasm (climax) is attained during sexual relations. After the release of mani, sexual gratification has been attained. This mani necessitates ghusl. The fluid which is released while sexual lust is in the process of building up is called mathi. Wadi is a urine-like fluid which is caused by some ailment. Mani and Wadi break wudhu and the affected parts should be washed. But ghusl is not necessary.
Q. In the morning a person wakes up and finds mazi on his clothes, but he cannot remember having seen any sexual dream. Is ghusl fardh?
A. Ghusl does not become fardh when mazi is released. The release of mani (sperm) with shahwat (lust) makes ghusl compulsory whether any dream was seen or not. If the person is sure that it is mazi and not mani, then ghusl is not necessary. Only the affected parts should be washed.
Q. Some people are under the notion that it is necessary to have a shower daily. They say that it is necessary to bath children daily whether summer or winter. Even clean clothes worn for only half a day are put in the washing machine. Is there any Shar’i significance in this?
A. Personal habits should not be propagated as if they are requirements of the Deen. If anyone wishes to shower daily, he/she may do so. But it is wrong to impose one’s personal habits on others. It is Islamically not necessary to shower daily nor is it necessary to wash clothes which have been worn a day or part of a day. Of Shar’i significance is the Masnoon ghusl once a week on Fridays.
Q. A person who has read a translation of Bukhari Shareef, quotes several Hadith narrations as proof for his claim that ghusl is not Waajib if semen is not discharged during sexual relations. This is what is said in the narrations he has quoted from Bukhaari Shareef. Please clarify the issue. It has created doubt and confusion.
A. For fourteen centuries since the inception of Islam, has the Ummah understood and believed that ghusl of janaabat is the compulsory consequence of sexual relations even if mani (semen) is not discharged. The act of sexual relations renders ghusl Waajib. It is haraam for morons to read translations of Hadith kitaabs. Morons are usually accompanied by shayaateen who become their ustaadhs (teachers). These devil teachers whisper into the fossilized brains rubbish and kufr such as this moron has blurted out without thinking of the consequences of his kufr. In effect the moron is implying that the Sahaabah, the Aimmah Mujtahideen, the Ulama and Fuqaha of the Taabieen, Tabe Taabieen and of all ages had not understood the Ahaadith which the moron has cited from the translation of Bukhari Shareef. In fact the moron displays conspicuously his jahaalat by saying ‘Buhary’. He is not aware of even the proper name of Imaam Bukhari (rahmatullah alayh), hence he says ‘Buhary’. The moron denies the validity of the Consensus (Ijma’) of all Four Math-habs and of even deviant sects on this issue. The Sahaabah, Taabieen, Tabe Taabieen, the Fuqaha-e-Mujtahideen, the Muhadditheen, Mufassireen and the illustrious Four Imaams – all of them – according to the moron wallowing in the darkness of kufr, have failed to understand the Ahaadith which he has cited for his corrupt and haraam opinion which is the product of his jahaalat, and only he who excels in the attribute of sensorial density has understood this mas’alah today, in this belated century – fourteen hundred years after the inception of Islam.
The entire Ummah according to the stupid supposition of the moron had laboured in error and deviation for 14 centuries while he (the jaahil) has appeared as the ‘mujaddid’ to unravel a ‘mystery’ which had remained locked on the Sahaabah and the entire Ummah. There is no need to present an academic exposition for the Ahaadith cited by the moron. This is neither the occasion for it nor is the audience equipped with the necessary knowledge for comprehension. There are numerous Ahaadith which no longer – that is from the age of the Sahaabah – have practical application. For example, there are Saheeh (authentic) Ahaadith which clearly state that wudhu is necessary after eating cooked food. Such narrations are not meant for morons. In fact, it is haraam for morons to read translations of the Hadith books, and even of the Qur’aan Majeed. They lose their Imaan in the process of their stupid reading.
Q. If someone does not make wudhu during ghusl, will his Salaat be valid?
A. His Salaat will be valid.
Q. If one takes a full shower without making wudhu, can Salaat be performed?
A. The shower takes the place of wudhu. Salaat is valid. However, if niyyat of ghusl/wudhu was not made, then there is no thawaab for the shower although Salaat will be valid.
Q. Is it correct that according to the Hanafi Math-hab, ghusl will not be valid if one has fillings in one's teeth. I have been advised to emulate the Shaafi' Math-hab on this particular issue.
A. The advice to emulate another Math-hab for the purposes of ghusl is baseless. Even with your teeth filled, your ghusl is valid in terms of the Hanafi Math-hab.
Q. After making ghusl janaabat I performed Salaat. After Salaat, I remembered that I did not wash my feet. Should the ghusl be repeated?
A. If any portion was left unwashed during ghusl, then as soon as one realizes, one should wash that portion. If it was a Waajib ghusl, and Namaaz was performed, and one realizes the deficiency after Salaat, then the Salaat has to be repeated after washing the dry portion. The whole ghusl does not have to be repeated.
Q. I forgot to rinse my mouth whilst taking a Waajib ghusl. I remembered this after performing Salaat. What should be done? Should ghusl be repeated?
A. There is no need to repeat the ghusl. Only the mouth should be rinsed and the Salaat repeated. This rule applies whenever any portion of the body was not washed. Only that specific area should be washed.
Q. While taking a waajib ghusl I forgot to rinse my mouth. After performing Salaat, I remembered the omission. What should be done in this situation?
A. The mouth should be rinsed and the Salaat repeated.
Q. After a Waajib ghusl I performed Salaat. Then I remembered that I had not washed my the feet. Should ghusl be repeated?
A. In the case mentioned by you, it is not necessary to repeat the ghusl. You only have to wash your feet and repeat any Salaat which you have already performed.
Q. Is it permissible to use the new kind of ‘auto wudhu’ washer for making wudhu?
A. Obviously the auto ‘wudu’ washer is in conflict with the Sunnah. As far as possible one should avoid using such contraptions which change the Sunnah system. However, if the water runs off into a drain, and there is no accumulation of used water which is re-used, then the wudhu will be valid. We believe that this type of contraption is fitted in some airports. As long as the parts of the body are washed correctly, wudhu will be valid and the contraption may be used at the airports for the sake of convenience. But one should not install this type of washer in the home.
Q. Is it permissible for a person to make Salaam and to respond to Salaam whilst in the state of janaabat?
A. It is permissible. In the state of janaabat it is not permissible to recite anything from the Qur’aan Majeed even from memory.
Q. Can one cut one’s hair and nails whilst in the state of janaabat (impurity)?
A. No. Hair and nails should not be cut whilst in the state of impurity.
Q. Please comment on the benefits of Wudhu.
A. Wudhú is not a mere worldly act of washing. In addition to its function of physical cleanliness it is an act of ibádat of considerable virtue. When the Shar’í rules related to Wudhú are observed, the effect is not only physical purity, but spiritual purity as well. Sins are washed way with the water. The spiritual dimension of Wudhú comes into effect when the Sunnah method is observed. The Sunnah method comprises of the niyyat, the specific way of washing, the recitation of the Mas noon du’ás, etc. Rasulullah (sallalláhu alayhi wasallam) emphasised the observance of a ‘Beautiful’ Wudhú. As a result a Beautiful Wudhú the body parts washed during Wudhú will glitter with a wonderful Noor in Qiyámah. By means of this Noor, R asulullah (sallalláhu alayhi wasallam) will recognize the members of his Ummah among the vast multitudes in the plains of Qiyámah.
Q. Is there any significance in maintaining one’s state of ritual purity at all times.
A. While we are not expected to emulate the extreme measures of austerity and renunciation of the former Auliyá, we are expected to walk in their shadow so that practising the Sunnah of Rasulullah (sallalláhu alayhi wasallam) does not appear to be an onerous task. For example, Hadhrat Sufyaan Thauri (rahmatullah alayh), on the day of his demise, made Wudhú 60 times. Due to extreme physical weakness and indisposition he was unable to maintain his Wudhú for any length of time. He could not bear the notion of his Rooh departing from his body while he was without Wudhú. Now when we read such a narration, we gain the understanding of Rasulullah’s ta’leem pertaining to perpetual Wudhú. He said, “Wudhú is the weapon of the Mu’min.”The Mu’min is expected to be with his weapon at all times. He is surrounded by enemies – physical and spiritual enemies.
Q. Before making wudhu should Ta-awwuz as well as Tasmiah be recited?
A. Reciting Bismillaah (Tasmiah) before Wudhu is Sunnat. Ta-awwuz (Authubillaah) is also permissible although it is better to begin the Wudhu with only Tasmiah.
Q. I have been told that making masah on the neck during wudhu is bid'ah. Is this true? I checked a Hadith book and could not find it. What is the proof for this practice?
A. It is false. For fourteen centuries the Ummah has been making masah on the neck. The new-fangled stunts of rejection and personal opinion of the Salafis are devoid of Shar’i substance. We teach the masaa-il of the Shariah as these have been transmitted from generation to generation by reliable narration. We don’t extract masaa-il from Hadith books. If you are interested in ‘proofs’, devote five years to study the Deen at a Madrasah. You will then understand the proofs.
Q. Some people say that the face and arms should not be dried after wudhu. Is this correct?
A. It is permissible to dry the face or to refrain from wiping it.
Q. After having performed Salaat I realized that a particle of food was stuck between my teeth. Was my wudhu valid? I repeated my wudhu and Salaat.
A. Rinsing the mouth during wudhu is Sunnat. It is not Fardh. Therefore, even if someone forgets to rinse the mouth, wudhu will be valid. The particle of food in your teeth did not affect your wudhu. Your wudhu was valid and would have remained valid even if you had not rinsed your mouth again. However, if ghusl is Waajib, then it is Fardh to rinse the mouth. In that case too it would have been necessary to only rinse the mouth again, not make the whole ghusl from the beginning.
Q. What does it mean to do takhleel of one’s fingers during Salaat?
A. Takhleel means to pass the fingers of one hand through the fingers of the other hand to ensure that water has reached the spaces in between the fingers. “Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) comman ded: “When you make wudhu then make Takhleel between your fingers and your toes.” Takhleel of the toes is made with the little finger of the left hand. Rasulullah(sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Make takhleel of your fingers so that Allah does not make takhleel of (your) fingers with fire on the Day of Qiyaamah.”
Q. Can one make wudhu with contact lenses on?
A. When making wudhu, it is necessary for water to reach into the wells of the eyes. This is also stated in Beheshti Zewer. The explanation of contact lenses which was given to us some years ago led us to believe that the entire inside surface of the eye is covered by the contact lenses, thus preventing water reaching into the eye-wells. However, when this was clarified to us, we retracted the incorrect answer and inserted a correction in a subsequent issue of The Majlis. The wudhu is valid.
Q. While using a toothpick, I noticed some blood on it. Does this break wudhu?
A. If you spat and the colour of the saliva was more red, then the wudhu had broken, otherwise not. The mere appearance of a red mark on the toothpick does not break wudhu.
Q. My work entails me to work with superglue on a daily basis. It is extremely difficult to remove it from the fingers before a Salaat. How do I offer my Salaat?
A. Wudhu will just not be valid with the glue on your fingers. You have to remove it even if the delay causes qadha of your Salaat. You should wear some kind of gloves. If there is just no way to avoid this calamity, then abandon your job. Find work elsewhere. Allah Ta’ala is The Raaziq, not your job.
Q. A man with a wig on his head makes masah on the wig during wudhu. Is the masah valid?
A. The masah is not valid. His wudhu is not valid. His Salaat is not valid. Wearing a wig is haraam.
Q. Does looking at the pictures of semi-nude women in newspapers break wudhu?
A. While wudhu will physically not be nullified, it will be utterly destroyed spiritually. It is haraam to look at such evil pictures. The spiritual effect of wudhu is ruined, and the soul is tarnished. It is best to renew wudhu, and making Taubah (repenting) is Waajib. One of the fundamental conditions of Taubah is to pledge to Allah Ta’ala not to revert to the sin.
Q. Does television affect wudhu?
A. Viewing television is haraam. It is Mustahab to renew wudhu after committing a sin.
Q. Washing the hands before eating is Sunnat. Is this Sunnat fulfilled if one sits down to eat immediately after wudhu?
A. Washing the hands for meals is a separate Sunnat apart from Wudhu. Wudhu will not suffice for this Sunnat. After Wudhu, the hands should be again washed specifically for meals. When eating, the hands should be moist with water.
Q. Some people regard the vomit of an infant to be paak (taahir). What is the correct ruling? If it is impure, how many times should a garment be washed to render it paak?
A. The vomit of even an infant is impure (najis). The garment or the body on which it fell must be washed. It should be washed until one is confident that all the impurity has been eliminated. This confidence is attained usually by washing three times, squeezing out the water after each rinse.
Q. I have a parrot at home and the droppings - does that break wudu? Or what about when it gets on your clothing - like when the parrot sits on your shoulder and dropping is found later- does that null your wudu or your salat that you completed and then noticing the droppings dried up?
A. The droppings of a parrot and all halaal birds (besides fowl and duck) do not render the clothing impure (najis/napaak). Such droppings do not affect the wudhu and the Salaat is valid.
Q. Does touching a pig nullify wudhu?
A. It is not permissible to touch a pig. Nevertheless, whilst touching a pig does not nullify wudhu, it is only proper to renew wudhu.
Q. How should a carpet soiled with urine be purified?
A. In the same way as najis (impure—napaak) garments are cleansed by washing and squeezing. To facilitate purification of the carpet, a vacuum cleaner with water could also be used. Fresh water should be flushed onto the soiled area and sucked out with the machine. The process should be repeated several times until one feels confident that all impurity has been eliminated. If a machine is not available, the carpet will simply have to be removed, washed and placed in the sun to dry. It does not matter how expensive the carpet may be. The Deen is priceless and the Ahkaam of the Shariah are invaluable. If the carpet is too big and has been fitted wall to wall, then the affected part has to be cut and removed. It may later be sewn again.
Q. If I wash the soiled napkins of my baby or my baby does my wudhu break?
A. Your wudhu does not break if you wash your baby or the soiled napkins.
Q. Is the urine of an infant najis (impure)?
A. The urine of even a breast-fed baby is najis (impure). Salaat in such soiled clothes is not valid.
A: Hazrat Zirr Ibn Hubaish (Rahmatullahi alayhi) relates: ‘I went to Hazrat Safwan Ibn Assal (Rahmatullahi alayhi) to enquire about the wiping out with the hands over the leather socks in the course of ablutions. He asked me: ‘Zirr, what brings you here.’ I replied, ‘acquisition of knowledge.’ He said: ‘Angels spread their wings out of pleasure for one who seeks knowledge at what he seeks.’ I told him that some doubt has arisen in my mind concerning the wiping out the hands over leather socks in the course of ablutions after one has been to the privy of the urinal. ‘Now, you are one of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and I have come to ask you. Did you hear him say anything on this subject?’ He answered, ‘Yes, he directed us that while on a journey, we need not take off our leather socks for washing the feet in the course of ablutions consecutively for three days and nights, except after consorting with your wives. In other cases, e.g. sleep, answering the call of nature, etc. mere passing of the hands over leather socks.’ (Tirmizi and others).
‘Khuf-fain’ are a special type of socks. ‘Masah’ here means to lightly pass the moist hand over the upper surface of the khuf-fain. Throughout this answer, the act of passing the moist hand over the ‘socks’ will be called ‘Masah Alal Khuffain.’ Instead of washing the feet during wudhu, Masah Alal Khuffain is permissible. In place of washing the feet, Masah Alal Khuffain will suffice. It is permissible to make Masah on only such Khuf-fain or socks which fulfill the following four requirements:
(1) The socks must be strong enough to enable walking in them on roads for three miles without the socks breaking or tearing.
(2) The socks, if not tied on the foreleg, must not slip down. Socks kept in position by elastic sewn into the socks material will be regarded as being tied.
(3) Water must not be able to seep through.
(4) The socks must not be transparent or even semi-transparent.
If any of the four conditions are lacking, Masah on such socks will not be permissible.
Khuffain on which Masah is made are generally made of leather. The type of socks – woolen, nylon, etc. – generally worn nowadays are not classified as “Khuffain”. It is, therefore, not permissible to make Masah on them. If socks are made of a material other than leather and the aforementioned four requirements are met, Masah will be permissible on them.
Q. Some Muftis, especially in India and Pakistan, including Hazrat Mufti Taqi Saheb Uthmani also examined sealskin socks and deemed them impermissible (i.e. for masah). According to them the condition of imsaak (being thick enough to remain on the shin without any added fastener) is not found because thin elastic bands sewn into the socks are holding them up. Furthermore, the condition of being able to walk for several kilometres without them tearing is also questionable. A brother who used them whilst in Jamaat showed me that the threads at the bottom and the seams were already coming out in spite of using them with shoes. When such doubts are created, should one not exercise caution by advising people to abstain from making masah on these socks, especially when such an important ibaadat as Salaat is at stake?
A. Yes, it is best to advise people to abstain from making masah on these new type of socks which some say are the equivalent of khuffain. We have not examined these socks, hence we cannot comment with certitude. However, since senior Muftis in Pakistan and India have examined and failed these socks, caution dictates that masah be declared impermissible.
Q. Is masah valid on the new synthetic socks worn by divers?
A. Yes, masah is valid. However we advise that masah should not be made on these socks in public. The resemblance with ordinary socks is stark. Anyone seeing you making masah on these socks may assume that you have become a Salafi.
Q. The time for masah on Khuffain had expired. I forgot to wash my feet and performed Salaat with the Khuffain on. What is the status of my Salaat?
A. If the time for the masah on the Khuffain expires, and you forget to remove them and wash the feet, then the Salaat you perform in this condition has to be repeated after washing the feet.
Q. When I travel I use leather socks and make masah. A friend told me that leather socks are permissible only for the sick, and that my wudhu and Namaaz are not valid with these socks. Is this correct?
A. Leather socks (Khuffain) are permissible for everyone, not only for the sick. Your friend is ignorant.
Q. If leather sock are permissible for even those who are not sick, will it be permissible to use at home or only when traveling?
A. It is not necessary to travel to use Khuffain. These socks may be used anywhere, even at home.
Q. Briefly explain the rules of leather socks.
A. The masaa-il (rules) of Khuffain are explained in detail in our book, Kitaabut Tahaarah. Briefly, for a nontraveller, masah is valid on Khuffain for 24 hours, and for a traveler 72 hours. This time is calculated from the time wudhu breaks. For example, you donned the Khuffain after having made a complete wudhu at 1 p.m. At 2 p.m. your wudhu broke. You may continue wearing the Khuffain until 2 p.m. the next day. Each time you make wudhu, simply make masah on the Khuffain. At 2 p.m. the next day, even if your wudhu is still intact, you have to remove the Khuffain and wash the feet only. Remember, that the Khuffain must be put on after a complete wudhu has been made. A person without wudhu may not put on Khuffain, then make masah on the Khuffain. He first has to be with wudhu, then don the Khuffain.
Q. Is it permissible to wear leather socks (mozahs) on top of normal socks?
A. It is permissible to wear khuffain (mozahs) or leather socks on top of the normal socks.
Q. If khuffain are removed whilst one has wudhu, does the wudhu have to be repeated?
A. Removal of the khuffain does not break wudhu. If masah had been made on the khuffain, then only the masah is nullified. After removal of the khuffaain, only the feet should be washed. If the khuffain are removed before wudhu had broken, that is after donning the khuffaain wudhu had not broken, there is no need to wash the feet.
Q. If khuffain are put on after ghusl will masah on the khuffain be valid or is it necessary to make wudhu then put on the khuffain?
A. Ghusl is an adequate substitute for wudhu. Masah on the khuffain is valid if put on after ghusl.
Q. Is it permissible to wear ordinary socks under khuffain?
A. It is permissible. Masah on the khuffain (leather socks) will be valid even if ordinary socks are on the inside.
Q. Masah on Khuffain for a resident is valid for 24 hours. After 24 hours when the
khuffain are removed, should the whole wudhu be renewed?
A. No, only the feet should be washed.
Q. Is it permissible for a musaafir to make masah on his normal shoes?
A. It is not permissible in normal situations to make masah on shoes. While travelling, people undergo many inconveniences which they tolerate with patience. But for the sake of the Deen, they present a variety of baseless excuses. We have travelled many many thousands of miles all over the world in all types of conveyances and in many different places. We never saw the need to make masah on shoes. Masah should be made on khuffain. If one is not wearing khuffain, then remove the shoes and wash the feet.
Q. What are the Sunnats when going to the toilet?
A. To cover the head. Never enter the toilet with a bare head. The shayaateen which may be present in the toilet can possess one via the head. The head-covering acts as a barrier. Enter with the left foot. Recite the relevant dua outside the toilet. After having completed the istinja process (purifying with water), then as quickly as possible cover up the satr. Sit in the squatting position. The high toilet is un-Islamic. It is the western system and detrimental for the physical well-being of the body. After emerging from the toilet with the right foot, recite the relevant Masnoon Dua outside the toilet. Immediately take wudhu.
Q. Will it be permissible to face the qiblah in an enclosed toilet or when bathing in the nude in an enclosed bathroom?
A. Even if you are in an enclosure it is not permissible to face the qiblah or to have one’s back to the qiblah while naked or taking a bath in nudity or relieving yourself in the toilet.
Q. Is it permissible to go to the toilet with a cell phone in which the Qur'an Majeed or portions of it have been downloaded? A senior Mufti from India has given the fatwa of permissibility if the phone is switched off. Since no texts of the Qur'aan Shareef are visible on the screen it is permissible. The Mufti Sahib basis his fatwa on a ruling found in the Fatawa Kutub that if the name of Allah Ta'ala or Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is engraved on a ring, then it is Mustahab when entering the toilet to cover the ring with one's sleeve. Please comment.
A. We agree with the Mufti Sahib’s view of permissibility, but not with the basis on which he has structured his view. In fact, the basis appears wrong and baseless to us. Firstly, the fatwa of permissibility to enter the toilet with a ring on which Allah’s Name is engraved is itself the subject of attack. It is not permissible to enter a toilet with any material on which Allah’s Name, Rasulullah’s Name or Qur’aanic verses are inscribed, engraved or written. It is highly disrespectful to do so. This impermissibility relates to normal circumstances. We are not considering here an abnormal occasion when circumstances constrain one to enter the toilet while having such holy material on one’s body.
For example, the official Ruling of the Shariah is the prohibition of haraam medicine and remedies. This prohibition is not cancelled by the mas’alah of Tadaawi bil haraam (medication with haraam) because such haraam medication applies to abnormal and compelling circumstances. The same reasoning applies to the consumption of pork and haraam food in general. We are presently discussing a normal situation.
It is not permissible to enter the toilet with material on which Allah’s Name is written. The claim that it is permissible normally and that the only requirement is to cover it, even with one’s sleeve, and that such covering is Mustahab is devoid of Shar’i basis. If by ‘mustahab’ the Mufti Sahib intended the Fiqhi classification, then we believe that he has erred. Technically Mustahab applies to such acts for which there is express mention of it in the Sunnah. For awarding the act of covering with the sleeve the Mustahab status, the Mufti Sahib needs to present a basis from the Sunnah. On the other hand, if the term has been used in its literal sense to mean ‘preferable’ or ‘good’ or ‘advisable’, then too we do not agree.
If a person is constrained to enter the toilet with a ring on which Allah’s Name is engraved, then it will be Waajib to properly cover and conceal it. This is the best in a bad situation beyond one’s control. It is unacceptable that a person sits semi naked in the toilet relieving himself of his load of najaasat with Allah’s glorious Name exposed, and that covering the Glorious Name is only preferable, not obligatory. Furthermore, How will the ring be covered by the sleeve when the hand will be in operation in the Istinja process? The water-jug has to be handled. The suggestion to cover the ring with the sleeve is incongruous.
A better basis for the Mufti Sahib’s fatwa of permissibility with which we agree, is a covered Ta’weez in which is written a Qur’aanic verse or Allah’s Name. The Mashaaikh say that it will be permissible as long as it is properly covered. Although an objection could be raised here as well, nevertheless, it appears more logical. The Holy Name is also properly covered than in the sleeve act.
The most logical basis for the permissibility is the human being himself. A Haafiz has the entire Qur’aan in his head/ heart. With the whole Qur’aan within him, he enters the toilet. The same applies to the Qur’aan Shareef inside a cell phone. Just as the Qur’aan is neither in the verbal nor written form in the human head, so too is it with the cell phone. And Allah knows best.
Q. Is it permissible to stand for urinating?
A. It is not permissible to unnecessarily stand and urinate. This is according to all Math-habs. It is the filthy practice of the kuffaar to stand like asses and urinate.
Q. Is Tayammum valid with talc (powder)?
A. Tayammum is not valid with talc powder. Tayammum is valid only on a substance which is naturally produced by the earth such as sand, soil, lime, stone and the like. Tayammum is not valid on manmade substances
Q. The Majlis in Vol. 20 No. 3, in answer to a question, said that Tayammum is not valid on talc (powder). A reader writes: 'Talc is soapstone. It is a white stone (soft) which is found/mined. In short it is a white soft stone.'
A. If talc or talcum powder is indeed a stone or derived from stone, then Tayammum will be valid. The dictionary defines talc as follows: ‘white, grey, brown, or pale green mineral, found in metamorphic rocks. It is used in the manufacture of talcum powder…. A powder made of purified talc, usually scented, used for per fuming the body….’ It is therefore clear that Tayammum is valid on the original substance, viz., talcum powder.
Shall the same ruling of permissibility apply to manufactured products such as baby powders, body powders, etc? For the present we shall not extend the permissibility to such powders. Although it does appear that Tayammum may be valid on all such powders, it is best to make further enquiries to ascertain the constituents of manufactured body powders. From the dictionary definition it seems that body powders are not talcum powders. Rather, talcum powder is used in the manufacture of body powders.
Q. A latecomer made Tayammum in order to participate in Janaazah Salaat. If he had engaged in wudhu, he would have missed the Janaazah Salaat. Can he perform his Fardh Salaat with this same Tayammum?
A. No, he cannot perform any Salaat with this Tayammum. The Tayammum was valid for only the Janaazah Salaat which was about to be missed. He has to make wudhu for Salaat.
Q. Is it permissible to perform Salaat with Tayammum on a plane?
A. As long as water is available on the plane and you are able to make wudhu, Salaat with Tayammum will not be valid. Making wudhu on the plane, although inconvenient, can be done. All those who perform Salaat on planes, perform with wudhu. Wearing Khuffain makes Wudhu easier.
Q. I suffer from an ailment on my finger. The only treatment which helps is a kind of a liquid which is waterproof. If this is not applied, the ailment spreads to the other fingers as well. What is the position of my wudhu and ghusl?
A. Both wudhu and ghusl are valid. This is similar to a bandage or plaster. Masah on the bandage/plaster suffices. Since water is passed over the impervious layer which the liquid forms, it is an adequate substitute for masah. Your ghusl and wudhu are valid as long as the ailment is not cured.
Q. Due to a weak urinary bladder, when one sneezes or coughs, urine drips out. What is the status of wudhu/salaat?
A. Wudhu and Salaat break. Wudhu and the Salaat should be repeated.
Q. The latest contraceptive method is the application of a plaster to one’s arm. For this method to be effective, the plaster has to be kept on for a few days. What should be done if ghusl has become Waajib?
A. If ghusl is incumbent, the plaster simply has to be removed. Ghusl is not valid with the plaster applied. Since there is no valid need for the plaster, masah on it will not be permissible.
Q. Does extraction of blood with a needle break wudhu?
A. Wudhu will break.
Q. A disease is spreading on a person’s foot. According to the doctor the only cure is to apply wax which may not be removed for many days. What is the position of wudhu and ghusl?
A. It will be permissible to apply the wax and make masah over it.
Q. Due to an eye operation, the patient has been instructed not to apply water to the eyes. How should she make wudhu?
A. When making wudhu, she should cover her eyes with a cloth or an eyecover, then make masah on the cover.
Q: Could you expound on the differences between Tahaarah, Nazaafah, and Lataafah?
A: Literally the words tahaarat and nazaafat, are synonymously used to convey purity or cleanliness. In the Shar’i concept, these terms have different and more subtle meanings than mere physical cleanliness. A modern non-Muslim ‘gentleman’, for example, with a clean-shaven face, sporting an immaculate suit and tie, reeking of all the roll-ons and sprays and wearing polished shoes, will be regarded as ‘clean’ by worldly standards. But according to Islam he is filthy inspite of his external appearance of cleanliness. His ceremonial impurity or his state of hadth and janaabat renders him Islamically unclean and impure.
In contrast a Muslim wearing old, patched garments which have been washed, is Islamically clean (Taahir) since his body and his garments are ceremonially pure. Neither is his body in the state of hadth or janaabat nor are his garments najis (contaminated with impurities such as urine, faeces, blood, and the like) as the garments of non-Muslims always are. The perpetual uncleanliness (najaasat) of non-Muslim garments, be it the clothing of any Mr. President or of his royal highness, is due to the fact, that he does not utilize water for Istinja (thorough washing of private parts after use of toilet). In fact, there is no concept of Istinja among them. Their garments are perpetually tainted with traces, if not with blobs, of the heaviest impurities known to man. Hence, the issues of Tahaarat and Nazaafat, leave alone Lataafat, are not applicable to non-Muslims. There is no surprise in this because an inherent attribute of kufr is spiritual and physical najaasat. Kufr and Najaasat can coexist in the same substratum in a harmonious relationship.
Tahaarat in the meaning of the Shariah is the Muslim’s state of superb cleanliness. In the highest state of Tahaarat he is free from hadth, janaabat and najaasat-ehaqeeqi. Hadth is the state of being without wudhu. Janaabat is the condition of greater impurity when ghusl is compulsory. Najaasat-e-Haqeeqi refers to physical substances of impurity, e.g. faeces, urine, blood and pus. A lesser or imperfect state of Tahaarat is the state in which the Muslim is in hadth, i.e. without wudhu, although he iss free of janaabat and najaasat-e-haqeeqi. In this state of lesser Tahaarat it is not permissible for him to touch the Qur’aan Majeed or even an aayat written on a page, nor is it permissible for him to enter a Musjid.
Every Muslim is expected to be in the perfect state of Tahaarat 24 hours of the day. He is at all times surrounded by enemies — physical enemies whom he can see with his corporeal eyes, as well as spiritual enemies whom he cannot see with his eyes. The spiritual enemies and dangers are calamities descending from above, evil jinnaat, evil acts of sihr by sorcerers / magicians, etc. Hence, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Wudhu is the weapon of the Mu’min.” The Mu’min should at all times carry with him his weapon.
With regard to Nazaafat, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Verily, Allah is Nazeef. He loves nazaafat. Therefore, make nazeef (i.e. clean thoroughly) the portion of the ground infront of your homes.” Nazaafat is a state of purity/cleanliness higher than Tahaarat. Before proceeding with the explanation of Nazaafat, this Hadith is very significant in this regard. Islam requires the Muslim to maintain the cleanliness of even the ground outside his house — the ground which is not even his property. Nowadays, municipalities are supposed to carry out this function.
When the emphasis of the Deen is on nazaafat of the space outside the house, then the Mu’min will readily comprehend the greater emphasis on nazaafat of the inside of his home, and the even greater emphasis on the nazaafat of his bedding, his clothes and his body. When this has been understood, then it will be easy to understand the far greater emphasis of maintaining the nazaafat of the soul, nafs and heart. Acquisition of spiritual nazaafat is the function of Tasawwuf, discussion of which is not intended here.
Nazaafat is a finer state of cleanliness above Tahaarat. Without Tahaarat, there can be no nazaafat because Allah Ta’ala Himself is Nazeef. Nazaafat does not unnecessarily tolerate even such garments which are taahir/paak but which are soiled with pure substances, e.g. food, dust or reeking with the smell of fish, which occurs when one comes out from a fish-shop, etc. The attitude of Nazaafat does not tolerate untidiness, whether in the garments or in the home. Nazaafat demands that everything be free from untidiness and any vestige of uncleanliness. For example, having separate sandals for the interior of the home and the toilet; not walking into the house with muddy shoes although the mud may be perfectly taahir; ensuring that every nook and cranny of the home is free from dust, grime, cockroaches and the like. Such acts fall within the purview of Nazaafat. The Mu’min is supposed to imbue in him both attributes —Tahaarat and Nazaafat. Allah Ta’ala is Nazeef, hence He loves Nazaafat of which Tahaarat is an imperative requirement.
Lataafat is a state of fineness or delicateness which is a spiritual state of ‘cleanliness’ and purity of the celestial Soul. Its opposite is termed kathaafat which means density. A person with untidy habits, be he in the state of Tahaarat, is termed Katheefut Taba’ (of dense and grossly untidy disposition). Cleanliness is a strange concept to such a person. Lataafat is generally an inherent attribute in some people. This attribute attains greater fineness with Taqwa. It goes without saying that Tahaarat and Nazaafat will at all times be with a person in whose disposition (tabiyat) there is Lataafat. The following examples of attitudes will better illustrate the meaning of Lataafat:
— The feeling of nauseousness when seeing another person using a toothpick in public.
— Feeling nauseous when someone speaks about impurities while having meals.
— Some people, instead of tissue paper, place a toilet roll on the dastarkhwaan since it is cheaper than tissue paper. A person of Lataafat is irritated and feels nauseous at the sight of a toilet roll placed next to the food because it draws his attention to the toilet. (Dastarkhwaan is the cloth spread on the floor on which the food is laid. It is a tablecloth, but laid on the floor, not on a table in non-Muslim style.)
— The inability to tolerate the smell of paraffin and similar other substances. The Akaabireen always instructed that a paraffin lamp should not be placed in the Musjid nor should a candle be lit with matches inside the Musjid. If there is a need for a candle, light it outside the Musjid. The smell of the sulphur and paraffin is highly disturbing to the Malaaikah who are always in the Musaajid. The Angels are beings of the highest degree of perfection in Lataafat, hence only oil lamps are used in the Musaajid where there is no electricity.
— Hadhrat Mirza Jaan Jaanah (rahmatullah alayh) was shot by a bid’ati. He succumbed to the bullet wounds and died after a few days. On his death bed, someone asked him about his condition. He responded: “Alhamdulillah! I am fine. However, the stench of the gunpowder in the bullet (which was still lodged in his body) is causing me great distress.” From this, one can understand the Lataafat in him.
— In the early part of the British occupation of India after they had defeated the Muslims, the forces of aggression had apprehended a member of the royal family. He was sentenced to death by hanging. on the day he was to be executed, he pleaded to be taken to the gallows through a certain street which was inhabited by a community of scavengers (bhangis) whose occupation was to remove faeces buckets and the like. The street through which they led him had a horrible stench of faeces and rotting hides. As they were taking him through the street, the young prince collapsed and died. The ostensible cause of his death was the terrible stench which his brains could not tolerate. Having a very subtle disposition of Lataafat, the young prince was convinced that he would die with the horrible stench in the neighbourhood of the scavengers. It would save him the ignominy of hanging from the gibbet.
— A Shaikh was very fond of grapes. once his mureed brought some grapes as a gift. The Shaikh lifted a grape to his mouth, but quickly put it down without even tasting it. He commented: “The smell of dead bodies comes from these grapes.” Everyone present was surprised at this comment. What relationship do dead bodies have with grapes? The Shaikh asked the Mureed: “From where did you get these grapes?” The mureed said that he had picked the grapes from a tree growing in the qabrustaan. The Shaikh commented: “Did I not say that these grapes had the smell of dead bodies?”
— The habit of showering after cleaning a toilet although this is not an incumbent requirement, is due to the attribute of Lataafat. In fact, the Shariah exhorts the cultivation of Lataafat, hence it is Mustahab to take ghusl after having given ghusl to a dead body although one does not become impure by bathing a dead body.
— Becoming irritated when seeing a person eating gluttonously.
There are innumerable examples of Lataafat. This is an attribute in most Auliya. It is a product of Taqwa and it is also inborn, but gain greater subtlety with Taqwa.
Q. Is solar heating permissible? I have heard conflicting views.
A. While we cannot say that solar-heated water is not permissible, it is advisable to abstain. It is possible that the Hadith which prohibits the use of water heated by the sun could also apply to solar-heated water. It is also possible that the Hadith refers to only water exposed to sunlight. Allah knows best.
Q. I swam in a napaak public swimming pool. I have been told that that some vulgar persons even urinate in the pool. Is ghusl necessary?
A. In addition to ‘several’ ghusls, you need to make Taubah for your love for filth and indulgence therein.
Q. Is it necessary to make ghusl after swimming in a pool?
A. Your question is ambiguous. If by pool you mean a public pool where all and sundry swim, then firstly it is not permissible to swim in such a filthy najaasat-filled pool. Such a diseased pool is polluted with both physical and spiritual najaasat. In addition to it being forbidden to swim in filth, ghusl is necessary. If by pool you mean your house swimming pool, then there are different cases. * If the pool is small, i.e. it is less than the Dahdardah size (10 x 10 cubits), and you are in the state of janaabat, the water is rendered impure with your first plunge. Ghusl is Waajib and all the water has to be drained. * If the pool is Dahdardah size and you are not in the state of janaabat, there is no need for ghusl afterwards. * If the pool is a large one, i.e. Dahdardah or more, and you are in the state of janaabat, the swim will substitute for the ghusl. Water has to be applied into the nose, and the mouth must be rinsed since this too is Fardh. Dahdardah is approximately 25 square metres.
Q. Does a slight film of oil on the surface of the water render the water impure? Is wudhu valid with such water? Please answer according to the Maaliki Math-hab.
A. The slight film of oil on the surface of the water will not eliminate the Tuhurriyah of the water according to the Maaliki Math-hab. The water remains fit for wudhu. Only if the oil becomes mixed with the water, i.e. the oil is diffused into the water, will wudhu not be permissible with such water despite the water remaining Taahir (pure). Tuhuriiyah is the cleansing property of the water. It is water that can purify impurified items. Taahir means clean. While it remains clean, it has lost its property of cleansing impurified items.
Q. There is a new product called miswak-paste. Will the reward for using this paste be the same as using a miswak?
A. The paste of a miswak is not the same as the Miswak. While one may use the paste, one should not abandon the miswak. The rewards for the miswak are confirmed by the Hadith. There is no confirmation of reward for using the paste.
Q. I have seen some people using the miswaak inside the Musjid just before beginning with Salaat. Is it proper to use miswaak in the Musjid, especially when about to begin Salaat? Some say that this is Sunnat.
A. It is improper to use miswaak in the Musjid and just before beginning Salaat. It is not Sunnat. Those who have adopted this practice have misunderstood the Hadith. Miswaak should be used at the time of wudhu or at any other time, not inside the Musjid when about to perform Salaat. Without water, the miswaak does not serve its purpose of cleaning the mouth.
Q. Is the wudhu of a ma'zoor taken after sunrise valid for Zuhr Salaat?
A. The wudhu taken by a ma’zoor after sunrise is valid for Zuhr Namaaz because there is no naaqis-e-wudhu (an act which breaks wudhu) in this case. There is no khurooj-e-waqt (expiry of Salaat time) taking place. Khurooj-e-waqt in this context refers to expiry of a Salaat time. The Ma’zoor’s wudhu will break when the Salaat time expires.
Q. A Ma’zoor makes wudhu for Tahajjud time during Sehri. Is Fajr valid with the same wudhu?
A. The Ma’zoor’s wudhu made during Sehri is not valid for Fajr Salaat. Howevery, his wudhu made for Ishraaq is valid for Zuhr Salaat.
Q. Is the Ma’zoor’s wudhu valid for Maghrib Salaat if he makes wudhu a few minutes before sunset?
A. The wudhu made just before sun set is not valid for Maghrib. The Ma’zoor should make wudhu for Maghrib immediately after sunset.