Principles of Business Part Seven

CONTENTS FOR THIS SECTION

Shuf’ah – The right of pre-emption

Muzâra‘ah – Temporary Sharecropping Contract 

Intoxicants (Addendum)

The Pursuit Of Halâl Wealth (Supplement)

The Detestation Of Taking Credit Unnecessarily (Supplement)

 

Shuf’ah – The right of pre-emption

1. The moment a shafî’ gets the news of a sale and he does not verbally state that he will pre-empt, his right of pre-emption will be invalid. It will not be permissible for him to make any claims later. Making a verbal statement immediately is so important that if a shafî’ receives a letter wherein it is mentioned at the beginning that a certain house has been sold and he does not make a verbal statement that he will exercise his right of pre-emption until he completes reading the entire letter, then in such a case his right of pre-emption will become invalid.

2. A shafî’ says, “Pay me a certain amount of money and I will forgo my right of preemption.” In such a case, since he is happy to forgo his right, his shuf’ah will be considered to be surrendered. However, since this amounts to bribery, it is therefore harâm to give or to receive this money that he is willing to pay.

3. If the shafî’ asks for the property but passes away before he can receive it, his inheritors will not have the right of pre-emption. But if the actual purchaser of the property passes away, the right of pre-emption will remain with the shafî’.

4. The shafî’ heard that the house was sold for a certain price. He therefore relinquished his right of pre-emption. Thereafter he learnt that it was sold for a lesser price. At such a time he can exercise his right of pre-emption. Similarly, in the beginning he heard that a certain person is the buyer. Later he learns that the buyer is someone else. Alternatively, in the beginning he heard that half the property has been sold. Later he learns that the entire property has been sold. In all these cases, his relinquishing his right in the beginning, will not invalidate his right of pre-emption.

 

Muzâra‘ah – Temporary Sharecropping Contract

1. A person gave an empty piece of land to another person telling him, “You cultivate this land. Whatever you harvest will be divided between us according to a certain percentage.” This is known as muzâra’ah and is permissible.

2. A person cultivated a piece of land and said to another person, “You irrigate this land, tend to it and do whatever else is necessary. Whatever fruit is produced, irrespective of whether it is up to one-two years or 10-12 years, we will share it between ourselves either equally (i.e. 50% each) or by dividing it in thirds (or whatever the percentage may be).” This is known as musâqât and is also permissible.

3. In muzâra’ah, the following conditions apply:

(a) the land must be cultivable.

(b) the landlord and the cultivator must be mature and in their senses.

(c) the period of cultivation must be specified.

(d) the ownership of the seeds must be specified – whether they will belong to the landlord or the cultivator.

(e) the crop must be specified – whether it will be wheat, barley or whatever else.

(f) the share of the cultivator must be specified, i.e. what percentage or how much will he receive from the total harvest.

(g) the land must be vacated and given to the cultivator.

(h) the landlord and the cultivator must remain partners in the harvest.

(i) the land and the seeds must be from one person while the ox, ploughing tools and labour must be from the other person. Alternatively, the land must be from one person and the rest of the things from the other person.

4. If any one of these conditions are not found, the muzâra’ah will be fâsid.

5. When a muzâra’ah becomes fâsid, all the produce will go to the person who gave the seeds. If the other person is the landlord (i.e. if he did not give the seeds), he will receive a rental for his land, the rate of which will be according to the market value at that time. If the other person is the cultivator (i.e. if he did not give the seeds), he will receive a payment for his labour, the rate of which will be according to what is normally paid at the time.

This rental and this payment for the labour will not be more than what they had agreed upon at the beginning of the contract. For example, if they had agreed that they will share it out equally (i.e. 50% each), either of them will not receive more than half of the total produce.

6. Once the muzâra’ah contract has been drawn and thereafter one of them refuses to work, he will be forced to carry out his work. However, the person who gave the seeds will not be forced.

7. If any one of the parties of the contract passes away, the muzâra’ah will become invalid.

8. If the specified time of muzâra’ah expires and the crops have not ripened as yet, the cultivator will be paid for the extra days that he works on the land. He will be paid according to the normal rate at that time.

9. In certain places the custom is that the crops are divided according to the contract that they had made. As for other crops such as unripe corn, etc. they do not divide between them. Instead, the landlord charges the cultivator a cash fee per acre of land. Since this condition falls contrary to the rule of muzâra’ah it ought to be impermissible. However, this law can be re-interpreted and circumvented to exclude such crops from the contract of muzâra’ah. Therefore, the ‘urf (current custom) will be considered and it will be assumed that both parties have agreed to execute muzâra’ah in certain crops while in other crops it will be considered as though the land was rented out. Such a re-interpretation can make the afore-mentioned custom permissible. However, the consent of both parties is conditional.

10. It is the habit of some landlords that when the crops are being divided, then apart from their own share, they take out something extra from the share of the cultivator for the other labourers and workers. If he specifies a certain number by saying that he will take one or two tons (or whatever the case may be), this will not be permissible. However, if he says that he will take a certain number of kilos from each ton, it will be permissible.

11. Some people do not clearly state what will be planted. Thereafter, they end up in disputes and court cases. This is not permissible. They should either clearly state what will be planted or grant an open permission to the cultivator to plant whatever he wishes.

12. In certain places it is the habit of the cultivator to plant the seeds and thereafter hand over the responsibility of cultivating the land to a few persons. He hands over this responsibility to them on the condition that whatever produce they yield, they will receive one third (or whatever the case may be). This is also called muzâra’ah. This will be permissible wherever the landlords permit this sort of contract. If not, it will not be permissible.

13. In the previous mas’ala (no.9), the above-mentioned mas’ala (no.12) is also applicable. That is, certain crops are divided with these labourers, while for the other crops they are paid in cash per acre (or whatever the case may be). In this mas’ala as well, as with the above-mentioned mas’ala, it is apparently not permissible and the same explanation for its permissibility will also apply over here.

14. The custom of claiming inheritance or ownership over a land after renting it for 10-12 years or after entering into a muzâra’ah contract for a similar period is bâtil (invalid), harâm, zulm (oppression), and ghasab (illegal seizure). Without obtaining a voluntary permission from the owner, it is not permissible to use this land or property. If a person does this, the produce of this land will be evil and eating it will be harâm.

15. The rules of musâqât are the same as that of muzâra’ah.

16. If a tree has fruit on it and the tree is given in order to be taken care of, and the fruit is in such a state that by irrigating it and tending to it, it will grow, musâqât will be permissible. However, if the fruit has already matured, musâqât will not be permissible just as muzâra’ah is not permissible once the plantation has already been prepared.

17. Once the musâqât contract becomes fâsid, all the fruit will go to the person who owns the trees. The person who tended to the trees will receive a basic wage, as had been mentioned for muzâra’ah.

 

Intoxicants (Addendum)

1. If any intoxicant is thin and flows, whether it be alcohol, toddy (an intoxicating drink made from palm juice) or anything else, and by drinking a considerable amount of it one becomes intoxicated, then even a single drop of such an intoxicant will be harâm even if one does not become intoxicated with such a meagre amount.

Similarly, it is also not permissible to use it in any medicine irrespective of whether the medicine is in the form of a syrup or in the form of an ointment. And irrespective of whether the intoxicant remains in its original form or whether its form changes due to certain chemical reactions. From this we can gauge the impermissibility of modern medicines in which alcohol is found in most of them.

2. As for that intoxicant which is not thin and flowing and is instead a solid, such as tobacco, nutmeg, opium, etc. the rule with regard to this is that the amount which intoxicates a person or causes him severe harm will be harâm. As for that amount which does not intoxicate nor does it cause severe harm, that is permissible. If it is used in an ointment, plaster, etc. there is no harm in this.

 

The Pursuit Of Halâl Wealth (Supplement)

Hadith One:
It is mentioned in a Hadith that to earn halâl wealth is a fard after other farâ’id. In other words, it is fard to earn halâl wealth after other farâ’id which are the pillars of Islam, such as salât, fasting, etc. This means that although it is fard to earn halâl wealth, the status of this fard is less than that of the other farâ’id which form part of the pillars of Islam.

This fard (of seeking halâl wealth) is fard on the person who is in need of spending on the necessities of life. This is irrespective of whether it be for his own necessities or for the necessities of his wife and family. As for the person who has the basic necessities, this is not fard on him. Such as a person who owns a few properties or has received wealth through some other means. This is because Allah Ta‘âla has created wealth for the fulfilment of one’s needs and so that man will fulfil his basic necessities and occupy himself in the ‘ibâdah of Allah Ta‘âla. This is because one cannot engage oneself in ‘ibâdah without eating and clothing oneself. From this we can deduce that wealth is not the main object, instead, it is merely a means towards the fulfilment of another object (i.e. the ‘ibâdah of Allah).

Once a person has acquired sufficient wealth, he should not unnecessarily seek more wealth out of greed, nor should he unnecessarily try to increase his wealth. It is not fard on the person who has acquired sufficient wealth to seek more wealth. In fact, it should be clearly understood that the greed to increase wealth is something that causes one to be neglectful of Allah, and the abundance of wealth makes one prone to committing sins.

One should always be cautious in acquiring halâl wealth. At no time should Muslims turn towards haraam earnings. This is because such a type of wealth has no barakah, such a person is disgraced in this world and in the hereafter, and he is punished by Allah. Some ignorant persons are under the misconception that in present times it is impossible to earn halâl wealth and that there is no hope of earning halâl wealth. This is absolutely wrong and is actually a delusion of shaytân. You should remember that the person who acts in accordance with the Sharî‘ah is assisted in unseen ways. The person who has the intention of earning halâl and abstaining from harâm is provided with such type of wealth by Allah. This has been experienced by many, and the Quran and Hadith have promised this in numerous places. Even in these turbulent times, those servants of Allah who have controlled their nafs from harâm and doubtful things, have been provided with the best of halâl wealth from Allah. Such servants are living with greater comfort and honour than those who are devouring harâm wealth. The person who experiences this himself, who notices this in other persons as well, and finds this mentioned in several places in the Quran and Hadith cannot even bother about what these ignorant persons have to say. If you read this (what the ignorant persons have to say) in any reliable book, then the meaning of it is not what these ignorant persons have taken it to be. When you happen to read such an article, refer to a religious-minded and qualified ‘âlim and ask him to explain the meaning of it to you. Inshâ Allah, your doubts will be cleared and such foolish thoughts will disappear from your heart.

When it comes to wealth, people are extremely neglectful and indifferent. They take up prohibited professions and employments and also violate the rights of others. All this is harâm.

Remember that there is no shortage in the treasures of Allah. You will definitely receive what has been predestined for you. So where is the intelligence in having evil intentions and making preparations for entry into the fire of jahannam?

Since people pay very little attention towards halâl wealth, this subject has been mentioned time and again with great emphasis. The actual purpose for the creation of man and jinn is that they engage in the ‘ibâdah of Allah. You should therefore bear this in mind in all your dealings and transactions. You have been asked to eat and drink in order to gain strength to remember Allah. This does not mean that you should occupy yourself night and day in the pleasures of this world thereby forgetting Allah and disobeying Him. Some ignorant persons are under the misconception that they have come into this world in order to eat, drink and enjoy the luxuries of this world. This is an extremely blasphemous concept. May Allah destroy this affliction of ignorance.

Hadith Two:
Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “No person has partaken of a meal better than that which he has eaten through the earning of his own hands. Without doubt, Dâ’ûd ‘alayhis salâm used to earn with his own hands.” This means that it is best for one to earn with one’s own hands, e.g. one should engage in some occupation, business, etc. and should not be a burden to others. Nor should one show any contempt for any occupation or menial job. When the Ambiyâ ‘alayhimus salâm had taken up such occupations, who is there who is greater than them in honour and respect? In fact, no one’s rank is equal to theirs, where can it ever be higher or greater than theirs? It is mentioned in a Hadith that there isn’t a prophet who did not graze sheep. Understand this well and save yourself from ignorance.

It is the belief of certain persons that if you receive halâl wealth through inheritance or through any other avenue, i.e. it is not acquired through your own hard work, then they feel that they should still work and they regard this as an act of ibâdah. This is a gross error. Instead, it is preferable for such a person to occupy himself in the ibâdah of Allah. When Allah has given you peace of mind and removed the concern of acquiring sustenance, it is a sign of great ingratitude that you do not remember Him and instead worry about increasing your wealth. All halâl wealth is good no matter how it comes to you provided you do not have to bear any disgrace. This is a great bounty of Allah, one has to value it, spend it in the proper manner, and do not allow any wastage and extravagance.

The import of the Hadith is that people should not burden others and should not beg from others as long as there is no alternative which has been recognized as such by the Sharî‘ah. The Hadith also teaches that no occupation should be regarded as contemptible, halâl wealth should be pursued, and that earning should not be considered to be a blemish. This topic has been discussed in detail so that people do not consider earning with their own hands to be below their dignity, and that they can eat, feed and spend in charity from their earnings.

This Hadith does not mean that halâl wealth other than that which has been earned through one’s own hands is not halâl or that it cannot equal wealth that has been earned with one’s own hands. In fact, at times, other wealth is better than that which has been earned with one’s own hands. Certain ignorant persons criticize and condemn those pious persons who have placed their trust in Allah and use this Hadith as a proof that such persons ought to earn through their own hard work and that they should not merely sit back, have tawakkul, and depend on gifts from others. This is actually a sign of their immaturity and this objection of theirs goes right up to Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Such persons should fear Allah in this regard, as there is the possibility that by their showing disrespect, criticizing and censuring these pious servants, they will be punished in this world and in the hereafter. By being disrespectful to the auliyâ of Allah, there is the fear of one losing one’s îmân and dying in a state of kufr. May Allah make such a person extinct before he can criticize the auliyâ because this will be best for him.

If one ponders over the Quran and Hadith with an open mind, one will learn that it will be preferable for a person who fulfils the qualities of tawakkul to practice tawakkul instead of earning a living. This is the highest stage of wilâyat. Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself was a mutawakkil. The income that a person receives as a mutawakkil is much better than the income that one earns through one’s own hard work. There is special barakah and special nûr in such income whereby Allah Ta’ala has granted such a person such a high status, foresight, understanding and nûr. The person can see the barakah of this with his open eyes.

This subject will be dealt with in detail at another place. Because this is a concise article, it is not possible to go into much detail. It will be sufficient to understand over here that such an opinion is absolutely wrong as has already been explained. Furthermore, it is an act of great injustice that a person is not pious himself and yet when someone else has any piety in him, he begins to criticize and censure him. How will the person have the courage to face Allah when he is causing such harm to His auliyâ?

Apart from the above-mentioned benefits of tawakkul, there are many other Dînî benefits. As for the mutawakkilîn who are engaged in teaching and guiding the masses, it is fard to serve them to the extent that their necessary expenses are paid for. So if they are accepting this right of theirs, why should it be considered to be wrong? More so when those who are not mutawakkilîn also demand their rights by arguing and fighting, while the mutawakkilîn accept their rights with great respect and by honouring the people. It is apparent that there is only good in accepting gifts – when there is no possibility of disgrace, the person is independent, he takes it without really worrying about it, and especially when the person who gave it will be greatly perturbed if it were returned to him. The reality is that persons who are true mutawakkilîn receive their sustenance with great honour. However, their intention and their attention is only directed towards having complete trust in Allah. Their eyes are not set on the creation. As for the one who hopes to receive something from the creation and sets his eyes on their wealth, he is an imposter and is not included in our discussion. We have only confined ourselves to explaining the condition of the true mutawakkilîn. It is a major sin to despise anyone especially if such a person is one of the special servants of Allah. These pious servants are not harmed in any way by your criticisms. Instead, they only benefit from them because on the day of judgement they will receive the good deeds of those who spoke ill of them. Harm will only come to those who speak ill of them and they will be destroyed in this world and in the hereafter.

It should also be remembered that the Sharî‘ah has not granted permission for tawakkul to every one. It is extremely difficult to take up the task of tawakkul and to fulfil all its conditions. It is for this reason that we find so few persons like this. In fact, there are so few, it is as if there is no one. It should be remembered that something that is very good is very scarce. We express our gratitude to Allah that through a little pondering and thinking, this subject has been written very well. May Allah grant you and me the ability to practice on this. Âmîn.

Hadith Three:
It is mentioned in a Hadith that Allah is tayyib and that He only accepts that which is tayyib. Allah has commanded the believers with that which He commanded the prophets. Allah addressed the prophets saying: “O prophets! Eat that which is pure (i.e. halâl) and do good deeds.” And He addressed the believers saying: “O you who believe! Eat of the pure things which We have provided for you.” Thereafter, Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam mentioned a person who has undertaken a very long journey and who is in a very untidy and dishevelled state (on account of his journey). He raises his hands towards the heavens saying: “O Allah! O Allah!” (i.e. he beseeches Allah again and again asking Him for His mercy and the fulfilment of all his needs), while his food is harâm, his drink is harâm, his clothing is harâm, and he has been brought up in harâm. So how can his du‘â be accepted?”

In other words, despite his bearing such burdens, on account of this harâm wealth, his du‘â will never be accepted. Even if he realizes his goal and ambition, it will not be on account of his du‘â but on account of it already being predestined in his favour. Just as the goals and ambitions of the kuffâr are realized.

The meaning of a du‘â being accepted is that Allah looks at a person with mercy. It is through this mercy that He grants him whatever he wishes for, and because of his asking, Allah rewards him. So this can only be attained by the person who confines himself to the dictates of the Sharî‘ah and asks for whatever he wishes from Allah alone. From this we learn that halâl wealth has an abundance of barakah and that it has a great influence (on the person’s life). By consuming halâl wealth, one gets the power to do good and one’s limbs act in accordance with one’s intellect.

Abu Hâmid al-Ghazzâlî rahmatullâhi ‘alayh narrates from a great sûfi by the name of Suhayl rahmatullâhi ‘alayh who said that when a person eats harâm, his limbs give up following his intellect. That is, his intellect commands his limbs to do good but they do not obey it. However, this is only known to those whose hearts are illuminated. As for those whose hearts are black, they are preoccupied day and night in luxuries and following their desires, and this has no effect on them. May Allah protect the sensitivity and insight of our heart. Âmîn.

Malfûz Four:
‘Abdullah bin Mubârak rahmatullâhi ‘alayh says: “I prefer returning one dirham which is doubtful than giving 600 000 dirhams in charity.” From here we can deduce the serious nature of doubtful wealth. It is extremely sad that today people do not even give up haraam wealth. All they are interested in is acquiring wealth irrespective of how it is obtained while the pious servants of Allah used to regard doubtful wealth with abhorrence. It is necessary to safeguard oneself from haraam wealth and essential to exercise extreme caution in this regard. By consuming haraam wealth, numerous evils are born in the soul. This is what destroys man.

Hadith Five:
It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The halâl is clear and the harâm is clear. In-between these two, there are many doubtful things. The person who abstains from these doubtful things has in fact safeguarded his Dîn and his honour. As for the one who consumes the doubtful things, he will soon consume that which is harâm. Similar to the shepherd who grazes his flock around the sanctuary of a king. It is highly possible that he will very soon fall into that sanctuary. Beware, every king has a sanctuary, and the sanctuary of Allah is all those things which He has made harâm. Behold, there is a piece of flesh in the body, if it is sound, the entire body will be sound. But if it is unsound, the entire body will be unsound. Behold, it is the heart.”

Hadith Six:
It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “May Allah destroy the Jews. Fat was made harâm upon them, but they melted it and sold it.”

Hadith Seven:
Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “It is not possible for a person to earn harâm wealth, give it in charity, and expect to receive any reward for it. Nor is it possible for him to spend such earnings and expect to receive any blessings in it. Nor is it possible for him to leave it behind and expect it to be a source of provision for him in the future. Instead, he will enter hell. Without doubt, Allah does not wipe out evil with evil. Instead, He wipes out evil with good. Without doubt, harâm wealth does not wipe out sins.”

Hadith Eight:
It is mentioned in a Hadîth that the flesh which has been brought up and nurtured with harâm wealth will not enter jannah. And all such flesh is most suitable for jahannam. In other words, a person who devours harâm will not enter jannah without expiating for his sins. This does not mean that he will never enter jannah like the kuffâr. Instead, if he dies a Muslim but was involved in devouring harâm wealth, he will be punished for his sins and eventually admitted into jannah. If he repents for his sins before his death and fulfils the rights of those whom he owes, Allah will forgive him and he will be safe from the punishment which has been mentioned in the Hadîth.

Hadith Nine:
It is mentioned in a Hadîth that a person will not be a complete believer until he abandons those things in which there is no fear (of it being harâm) because of something in which there is fear. In other words, there are certain things which are absolutely halâl, while others are merely permissible. However, by turning one’s attention towards the latter and consuming such wealth, there is the possibility and fear of committing a crime. Therefore, even such halâl wealth should not be consumed nor should such halâl activity be carried out. This is because although there is no sin in engaging in such halâl activity or consuming such halâl wealth, there is still the possibility of falling into sin. And we know that the means to an evil is also considered to be an evil. For example, it is permissible and halâl to eat and wear expensive food and clothing. But because by one becoming pre-occupied in such luxuries beyond the limits, there is the possibility and fear of committing sins. Piety and righteousness demands that such food and clothing be abstained from.

It is makrûh to consume wealth that is doubtful. By consuming it, there is a great possibility that one will lose control over one’s nafs and thereby fall into harâm. Such wealth should therefore be abstained from.

Hadith Ten:
‘Â’ishah radiyallâhu ‘anhâ narrates that Abû Bakr radiyallâhu ‘anhu had a slave who used to give him khirâj. Abû Bakr radiyallâhu ‘anhu used to consume this income. One day, this slave brought something and Abû Bakr radiyallâhu ‘anhu ate it. The slave then asked him: “Do you know what you ate?” Abû Bakr radiyallâhu ‘anhu asked: “What was it?” He replied: “In the times of jâhilîyyah (days of ignorance or pre-Islamic era) I had given certain information to a person according to the rules and regulations of the fortunetellers. However, I did not know this art (of fortune telling) very well. I deluded this person into believing whatever I had told him. This person met me and gave me that which you ate as a compensation for the information that I had given him. That which you have eaten is actually what he gave me.” Upon hearing this, Abû Bakr radiyallâhu ‘anhu inserted his hand down his throat and vomited everything that was in his stomach.

In other words, as a precaution and out of complete piety, he expelled everything from his stomach as it would have been impossible to expel only that which was given by this slave. Even if he did not vomit it out, he would not have been committing any sin.

Hadith Eleven:
It is mentioned in a Hadîth that a person who purchases a garment for 10 dirhams and one dirham from it was harâm, Allah will not accept his salât as long as he is wearing that garment.

Although the person will absolve himself of this duty, he will not receive the full reward for his salât. Other acts could also be based on this. We should fear Allah in this regard. First of all, our acts of ‘ibâdah are not offered in the proper manner. And those that are offered go to waste in this way (by harâm wealth). What answer will we give to Allah on the day of judgement and how will we bear the severe punishment?

Hadith Twelve:
It is mentioned in a Hadîth that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “There isn’t anything which will take you near to jannah and keep you away from jahannam except that I have ordered you to do it. And there isn’t anything which will distance you from jannah and take you closer to jahannam except that I have prohibited you from doing it. Jibra’îl has informed me that no person will die until his sustenance has been completed for him even though he may receive it late. Fear Allah and try to restrict yourself in seeking your sustenance. Don’t ever allow a delay in receiving your sustenance from seeking something through the disobedience of Allah. This is because it is the grand status of Allah that nothing can be attained from Him through disobedience, irrespective of whether it be your sustenance or anything else.”

Hadith Thirteen:
Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Out of ten parts, nine parts of one’s sustenance is in business.” In other words, business is a great source of income. You should therefore opt for it.

Hadith Fourteen:
It is mentioned in a Hadîth that Allah befriends a believer who is hard working and who is a tradesman, and who does not worry about what he is wearing.

In other words, because of his hard work and toiling, he wears ordinary, dirty clothes. He does not have so much of time nor the opportunity wherein he can keep his clothes clean. As for the person who is not forced to do so, he should wear clean and simple clothes.

Hadith Fifteen:
Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “It was not revealed to me that I should gather wealth or that I should become a businessman. However, it has been revealed to me that I should glorify Allah, praise Him, be of those who prostrate to Him and that I engage in His ‘ibâdah until death overtakes me.”

In other words, do not occupy yourself in this world more than necessary because it is wâjib on everyone to make arrangements for living according to necessity only (and not more). As for the person who has the power of tawakkul and fulfils all the conditions of tawakkul, such a person can leave all the occupations of this world and occupy himself with theoretical (‘ilmi) and practical (‘amali) ‘ibâdah.

Hadith Sixteen:
Jâbir radiyallâhu ‘anhu narrates that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “May Allah have mercy on the person who is lenient and soft-hearted when he sells something, purchases something, and when he asks for repayment of loans given.”

Glory be to Allah! How great it is to display leniency and soft-heartedness at the time of buying, selling and asking for repayment of loans given that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is making a special du‘â for such a person. We know for sure that his du‘â will be accepted. If this was the only virtue of displaying leniency and there was no other reward, then this virtue in itself is very great. However, one will still be rewarded for this leniency and soft-heartedness. It would therefore be appropriate for the traders and businessmen to act upon this Hadith and thereby make themselves eligible for the du‘â of Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Apart from this, the benefit of such behaviour in this world is that people will be happy with such a person and his business will prosper. Generally, people refer to such a person time and again. At times, they even make du‘â for him out of happiness. The reality of the situation is that the person who lives and acts according to the Sharî‘ah lives in this world and in the hereafter like a king and in great comfort. Who can be more fortunate than this person who has the blessings of both the worlds and who is beloved and honoured by Allah and by most of the people as well?

Hadith Seventeen:
Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Be cautious of taking too many oaths when selling anything. This is because too many oaths cause the goods to become popular among the people (and because of these oaths they begin attaching value to the goods). This results in a lack of barakah and one is thereby deprived of any profits both in this world and in the hereafter.

Hadith Eighteen:
Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The businessman who is honest in his dealings and trustworthy will be with the prophets, siddîqîn, and martyrs on the day of judgement.”

In other words, the businessman who possesses the above-mentioned qualities will be in the company of the Ambiyâ ‘alayhimus salâm, the siddîqîn, the martyrs, and will gain salvation from jahannam. Being with such persons does not mean that they will enjoy the same status as them. What it means is that they will attain a special type of greatness which is normally acquired by remaining in the company of such persons. This is similar to a person who invites a pious person to his house and also hosts the attendants of this pious person. It is obvious that the place where these attendants will eat their food and the food that they will eat will be the same as that of the pious person. Despite this, the status and respect that these persons will have for this pious person will be higher than that which they will have for these attendants. But being in his company, sitting at one place and partaking of the same food is also a great feat accomplished by the attendants. Attaining the company of Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam itself is a great virtue. Assuming that they do not even receive any food nor any honour and respect from being in his company, merely being in his company is sufficient for those Muslims who love Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Let alone being in his company being a great achievement, even being his neighbour is a great virtue. It is therefore extremely appropriate for Muslims to be entitled to this blessed du‘â of Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Hadith Nineteen:
Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “O traders! Without doubt, business is such a thing that a lot of foolish talk takes place and many oaths are taken. Therefore include charity in it.”

In other words, it is reprehensible to engage in foolish talk and to take too many oaths. You should therefore give in charity so that it may be an expiation for those oaths and indiscreet conversations which you may unwittingly engage in, and so that it may also remove the filth and grime that may have accumulated in your heart because of this.

Hadith Twenty:
It is mentioned in a Hadîth that the businessmen will rise as sinners and shameless persons on the day of judgement except for that businessman who feared Allah and spoke the truth. The person who did not commit any sin in his transactions will be saved from this calamity.

 

The Detestation Of Taking Credit Unnecessarily (Supplement)

Hadith One:
Abû Sa‘îd radiyallâhu ‘anhu narrates that he heard Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallamsaying: “I seek refuge in Allah from kufr and debts.” A person asked: “O Rasulullah! Do you regard kufr and debts to be equal that you are mentioning them together?” He replied: “Yes.”

Hadith Two:
‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar radiyallâhu ‘anhu narrates that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Debts is the flag of Allah on earth. When He wishes to disgrace anyone, He burdens him with the weight of debts.”

Hadith Three:
‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar radiyallâhu ‘anhu narrates that he heard Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam advising a person in the following manner: “Reduce your sins so that your death will be easy. Reduce your debts so that you may live a free person.”

Hadith Four:
Abû Hurayrah radiyallâhu ‘anhu narrates that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Allah will fulfil the debts of a person who takes on credit with the intention of fulfilling his debt. Allah will destroy the person who takes on credit with the intention of not paying it and cheating people.”

Hadith Five:
‘Â’ishah radiyallâhu ‘anhâ narrates that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “I will help the person who is involved in debts and thereafter makes every effort to fulfil them, but passes away before he can fulfil them.”

Hadith Six:
Maymûn Kardî radiyallâhu ‘anhu narrates that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The person who marries a woman with mahr, whether it be a small amount or a large amount, and has this intention that he will not pay her the mahr and passes away without paying her, then on the day of judgement he will rise as an adulterer in the presence of Allah. And the person who takes a loan with the intention of not paying it back and passes away without fulfilling it, will rise as a thief in the presence of Allah on the day of judgement.”

Hadith Seven:
‘Umar bin Shurayd narrates from his father (who is a Sahâbî) that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The delaying of a person who is able (to pay his debts) makes his honour and wealth halâl.”

In other words, if a person is able to fulfil his debts and yet does not do so, then his creditors can disgrace him, speak ill of him, announce his dishonesty in his transactions, and when possible, they can claim back their rights either openly or in secret.

Hadith Eight:
Abû Dhar radiyallâhu ‘anhu narrates that Rasûlullâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Allah abhors three persons: (a) an old man who is an adulterer, (b) a poor person who has a lot of pride, (c) a rich oppressor (who oppresses his creditors by delaying in paying his debts).”

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