Prostration For Forgetfulness

Relevant Material

Prostration for Forgetfulness (Sajdah-e-Sahw)
(Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanwi)

The Fard and Waajib Acts of Salaat
(Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanwi)

FATWAS

Q. During Salaat if one makes a mistake but is not sure whether Sajdah Sahw should be made or not, what should be done?

A. It is best to make Sajdah Sahw in this case.

 

Q. If a person forgot to make Sajdah Sahw and while engaging in Tasbeeh, etc., remembers, what should he do?

A. As long as he did not turn away from the Qiblah nor did anything which breaks Salaat, e.g. speak, walk, etc., then he should immediately make the Sujood Sahw, then recite Tashahhud, Durood, Dua and make Salaam even if he remembers after having recited Tasbeeh, etc.

 

Q. If a fardh act, e.g. Ruku’ or one Sajdah is mistakenly omitted, what should be done?

A. If a Fardh is omitted in Salaat, then it should be compensated by performing it as soon as one recalls the omission. Then Sajdah Sahw has to be made. If a Waajib is missed out, then there is no compensation besides Sajdah Sahw. The omitted Waajib act does not have to be repeated later. Only Sajdah Sahw should be made.

 

Q. After one makes Sajdah Sahw for an error, one again commits another error. Should Sajdah be made again?

A. Sajdah Sahw is made only once in a Salaat even if more than one mistake has been committed.

 

Q. The Imaam who is a Shaafi’ makes Sajdah Sahw without making one Salaam to the right. What should the Hanafi muqtadis do?

A. According to the Shaafi’, Mathhab, Sajdah Sahw is made without making one Salaam to the right as Hanafis do. Hanafi Muqtadis should follow the Shaafi’ Imaam in this act. It is not a serious difference.

 

Q. The Imaam did not make Sajdah Sahw when it was Waajib. What has to be done in such a situation?

A. If Sajdah is not made when it is necessary, the Salaat has to be repeated before expiry of the time of that Salaat.

 

Q. I am a Hanafi. The Imaam who is a Maaliki makes Sajdah Sahw without first Salaam to the right. What should I do?

A. According to the Hanafi Math-hab the Sujood Sahw is done after making one Salaam to the right. According to the other Math-habs, it is made before the Salaam. It is permissible for you to join the Imaam in Sajdah Sahw even if he makes the Sajdah before Salaam. However, you should not make Salaam.

 

Q. The Imaam forgot to make Sajdah Sahw. After the Salaat, he was reminded. Then after speaking, he made the Sajdah. Was his action valid? Is our Salaat valid?

A. If the Imaam did not make Sajdah Sahw during Salaat, and makes the Sajdah only after Salaat after speaking or being reminded, then you should repeat your Salaat.

 

Q. In Fardh Salaat, the musalli was supposed to have made Sajdah Sahw but forgot to make it. He did not repeat the Salaat during the time. Does he have to repeat it even after expiry of the time of that particular Salaat?

A. Yes, he has to repeat it even after the time of that Salaat has expired.

 

Q. The Masbooq erroneously made the Salaams with the Imaam. What should he do? Does he have to make Sajdah Sahw?

A. Sajdah Sahw is made for this error. The Masbooq should rise immediately after he realises the error and complete his Salaat.

 

Q. A Masbooq joined the Salaat after the Imaam had made Sajdah Sahw. Is this Masbooq’s Salaat valid?

A. Yes, his Salaat is valid.

 

Q. The masbooq by mistake made Salaam with the Imaam. Is he required to make Sajdah Sahw?

A. Yes, he has to make Sajdah Sahw. (A masbooq is a late-comer who has missed one or more raka’ts of the Jama’t Salaat.)

 

Q. If a Masbooq commits an error whilst behind the Imaam, should he perform Sajdah Sahw?

A. There is no Sajdah Sahw for the Masbooq (late-comer) if he commits any error whilst behind the Imaam, i.e. before the Imaam has terminated the Salaat. Thus, if in the Imaam’s last raka’t, after Tashahhud he recites Durood Ibraaheem, Sajdah Sahw is not necessary.

 

Q. According to the Hanafi Math-hab, Sajdah Sahw has to be made after making the Salaam whereas according to the Shafi Math-hab it is made before the Salaam. Now, if a Hanafi happens to be reading his Namaaz after a Shafi Imam, and the Shafi Imam makes Sajdah Sahw in accordance with his Math-hab, should the Hanafi follow the Imam in making the Sajdah Sahw before the Salaam?

A. The Hanafi Muqtadi should follow the Shafi Imam in this case. (Fataawa Darul Uloom).

 

Q. After Sajdah Tilaawat in Salaat, the Imaam recited Surah Faatihah, then a Surah before going into Ruku’. Was Sajdah Sahw necessary?

A. Although he should not have recited Surah Faatihah, Sajdah Sahw is not incumbent.

 

Q. What if Surah Faatihah is recited twice during Salaat?

A. If Surah Faatihah is recited twice in succession in the first and second raka’ts of Fardh Salaat, in any raka’t of Witr, Sunnat and Nafl Salaat, Sajdah Sahw has to be made.

 

Q. If one forgets to recite Surah Faatihah in the last raka’t of a four raka’t Fardh Salaat, is Sajdah Sahw necessary?

There is no Sajdah Sahw for this error. Reciting Surah Faatihah in the last two raka’ts of Fardh is not Waajib.

 

Q. In the third raka’t of Fardh Salaat, if someone recites a Surah after Surah Faatihah, should Sajdah Sahw be made?

A. If in the third raka’t of Fardh even a Surah is recited, there is no need for Sajdah Sahw. However, in the third raka’t of Fardh it is better to recite only Surah Faatihah.

 

Q. After Surah Faatihah in the third raka’t, qiraa’t was not recited. Should Sajdah be made?

A. If you omitted reciting qiraa’t after Surah Faatihah in the third raka’t of Fardh Salaat, then Sajdah Sahw is not necessary. If it is omitted in the third or in any raka’t of Sunnat, Witr and Nafl Salaat, then Sajdah Sahw is incumbent.

 

Q. If one forgets to recite ‘Aameen’ at the end of Surah Faatihah, should Sajdah Sahw be performed?

A. Forgetting to recite ‘Aameen’ at the end of Surah Faatihah in Salaat, does not affect the Salaat. Sajdah Shaw is not to be made.

 

Q. If one or two aayats of Surah Faatihah were not recited, should Sajdah Sahw be made?

A. When one or two aayats of Surah Faatihah are omitted by mistake/ forgetfully, then it was necessary to make Sajdah Sahw.

 

Q. While reciting a Surah in Salaat, if one mistakenly omits a whole aayat, does Sajdah Sahw have to be made?

A. The erroneous omission of a verse does not necessitate Sajdah Sahw.

 

Q. If one remembers in Ruku’ that one did not recite a Surah after Surah Faatihah, should one get up and recite a Surah? What is the procedure in this case?

A. When a Surah is not recited after Surah Faatihah, you have to make Sajdah Sahw. When you remember in Ruku’ that you had forgotten to recite a Surah, then continue with the Salaat. Don’t emerge from the Ruku’ to recite a Surah. Proceed with the Salaat as usual, and make Sujoodus Sahw.

 

Q. If a Surah is omitted in either the first or second raka’t of Fardh Salaat, but recited in the third or fourth raka’t, will Sajdah Sahw still have to be made?

A. If a Surah is omitted in any of the first two raka’ts of Fardh Salaat, then Sajdah Sahw is obligatory despite having recited it in the last two raka’ts.

 

Q. I forgot to read a Surah in each of the first two rakaats of Zuhr Fardh. Is it permissible to add the omitted Surahs in the last two rakaats?

A. It is permissible to recite the omitted Surahs in the third and fourth rakaat. However whether the Surahs were recited in the third and fourth rakaat or not, Sajdah Sahw will have to be performed for the omission of the Surahs in the first and second rakaat.

 

Q. Is it correct that if nothing is recited in the third and fourth raka’t of Fardh Salaat, the Salaat is valid. One only has to stand for the duration of three Subhanallaah tasbeeh?

A. In the third and fourth raka’t of a Fardh Salaat, the Salaat will be valid even if nothing is recited. However, one should recite Surah Faatihah if one is a munfarid (that is, performing alone). But the Salaat will be valid even if the munfarid does not recite anything.

 

Q. If one recites Bismillaah and Surah Faatihah in the third or fourth raka’t of Fardh Salaat, is Sajdah Sahw Waajib?

A. Sajdah Sahw is not incumbent if one recites Bismillaah and even a Surah after Surah Faatihah in the third and fourth raka’t of Fardh.

 

Q. In the fourth raka’t of Fardh Salaat I recited a Surah. Should Sajdah Sahw be made?

A. Sajdah Sahw should not be made. Although it is not a requirement to recite a Surah in the third and fourth raka’t of Fardh, Sajdah Sahw does not have to be made if a Surah is recited in these raka’ts. Nevertheless, one should not intentionally recite a Surah in these raka’ts.

 

Q. Instead of four raka’ts, the Imaam performed five raka’ts, but made Sajdah Sahw. Is the Salaat valid?

A. If the Imaam did sit in Tashahhud in the fourth raka’t, then stood up and completed the fifth raka’t, the Fardh Salaat will be valid. He has to make Sajdah Sahw. However, if he had not sat in Tashahhud in the fourth raka’t, and completed the fifth raka’t, then the Fardh Salaat has to be repeated since it is not valid due to the omission of the Fardh sitting in the fourth raka’t.

 

Q. In the third raka’t the Imaam sat, thinking that it is the fourth raka’t. Immediately upon sitting the muqtadis proclaimed: ‘Subhaanallaah!’, and the Imaam simultaneously got up. He had remained seated only about three seconds. Is Sajdah Sahw necessary in this case?

A. Sajdah Sahw is not necessary. A slight sitting in the first and third raka’t known to the Shaafis as Jalsah Istiraahah, does not necessitate Sajdah Sahw. But Hanafis should not sit at all in the first and third raka’t. However, if by error a Hanafi sits very briefly in these raka’ts, Sajdah Sahw is not Waajib.

 

Q. If in a four raka’t Fardh Salaat, I forget to sit in Tashahhud in the second raka’t, but went into Qiyaam, should I return to the Tashahhud position and make Sajdah Sahw?

A. If in any four raka’t Fardh Salaat or the three raka’t Maghrib Salaat or the three raka’t Witr Salaat or a four raka’t Sunnatul Muakkadah Salaat, you forget to sit in Tashahhud in the second raka’t, then after you have stood up into the Qiyaam position, continue with the Salaat. Don’t return to the Tashahhud position. At the end of the Salaat perform Sajdah Sahw. This will rectify the Salaat. If Sajdah Sahw was not made, then the Salaat should be repeated. If someone returns to the Tashhhud position, he has acted incorrectly. Nevertheless, Sajdah Sahw will still have to be made and the Salaat will be discharged.

 

Q. If one forgets to sit in the first Qa’dah when performing 4 raka’rs Fardh Salaat, should one return to Qa’dah from Qiyaam?

A. If you are performing a four raka’t Fardh Salaat, and in Qiyaam you realized that you did not sit for Qa’dah in the second raka’t, you should continue with the Salaat, and not return to Qa’dah. You have to make Sajdah Sahw for this error.

 

Q. I am performing four raka’ts Nafl Salaat. I forget to sit for Attahiyaat in the second raka’t and remember this omission while reciting qira’at in the third raka’t. What is to be done in this case?

A. Abandon the third raka’t. Sit and recite Attahiyaat, then rise for the third raka’t. In this case Sajdah Sahw has to be made.

 

Q. The Imaam completed Maghrib Salaat after two raka’ts. Although the muqtadis drew his attention by exclaiming ‘Subhaanallaah!’, the Imaam ignored them and continued to complete the Salaat. Some muqtadis did not follow the Imaam and completed the third raka’t. Is their Salaat valid?

A. No one’s Salaat is valid. The Imaam and the Muqtadis have to repeat their Salaat.

 

Q. A person misses one raka’t of Jamaa’t Salaat. In the last raka’t the Imaam after reciting Tasahhud mistakenly goes into the fifth raka’t. He and the muqtadis complete the fifth raka’t, and the Imaam makes Sajdah Sahw. What should the masbooq muqtadi who had missed one raka’t do when the Imaam rises to perform the fifth raka’t?

A. The Masbooq muqtadi should not follow the Imaam in the fifth raka’t. When the Imaam rises towards the fifth raka’t, the masbooq should get up and complete his raka’t and make his own Salaam.

 

Q. The Imaam had missed out Qa’dah Ulaa (the first sitting). None of the Muqtadis reminded him. After the Salaat, this was brought to the Imaam’s notice. The Salaat was repeated in Jamaat. However, some persons arriving late, joined this second Jamaat. Was their joining proper? Was their Fardh Salaat discharged?

A. When the Fardh Salaat is repeated due to the omission of a Waajib act for which Sajdah Sahw was not made, then the repeated Salaat is Nafl. The first Salaat which was performed defectively remains the Fardh Salaat. As such, the Fardh Salaat of those who had joined in the repeated Salaat is not valid.

 

Q. If a person forgets to sit in Tashahhud in the second raka’t of a two raka’t Sunnat Salaat such as the two Sunnats of Zuhr, what should he do if he is already in qiyaam (standing)?

A. As long as he has not completed the third raka’t with Sajdah, he should sit down and after Attahiyaat perform Sajdah Sahw and complete the Salaat as usual. If he has completed the third raka’t, he should add another raka’t, making it four. In this case too he should make Sajdah Sahw. All four raka’ts will become Nafl. He should repeat his two raka’ts Sunnatul Muakkadah.

 

Q. The Imaam, instead of sitting in the last raka’t, went straight into qiyaam from the Sajdah. Despite the `Subhaanallaah’ exclamations of the muqtadis, the Imaam continued with the fifth raka’t. When he had already commenced the qiraa’t, the muqtadis got up from qa’dah and joined the Imaam in the fifth raka’t. The Salaat was completed with five raka’ts. But the Imaam did make Sajdah Sahw. Was the Fardh Salaat properly discharged?

A. No, the Fardh was not discharged. Four raka’ts were Nafl and one raka’t had gone wasted. Since the Imaam had omitted Qa’dah Akheerah (the last sitting) which is Fardh, the Fardh Salaat is not valid. The Fardh has to be repeated in this case. If the Fardh was not repeated, then qadha has to be made. In an error of this kind, the muqtadis should not follow the Imaam. They were supposed to have remained seated and wait in expectation of the Imaam realising his error and returning to the Qa’dah of the fourth raka’t before making the Sajdah of the fifth raka’t. If he realises his error and returns to the Qa’dah before completing the fifth raka’t, then the muqtadis will be with him. Sajdah Sahw has to be performed, and the four raka’ts Fardh will be valid. However if the Imaam, instead of returning to the fourth raka’t, completes the fifth raka’t with Sajdah, then the waiting muqtadis should make Salaam and complete their Salaat. In this case their Fardh will be valid.

 

Q. If one recites Attahiyaat twice, should Sajdah Sahw be made? Will the Salaat become invalid?

A. If it is the first sitting (Qa’dah) of Fardh, Witr or Sunnatul Muakkadah Salaat, then reciting Tashahhud twice will necessitate Sajdah Sahw. It will not invalidate Salaat. If Tashahhud is recited twice in the last sitting of any Salaat, then there is no need for Sajdah Sahw. Also if it is recited twice in the first Qa’dah of a four raka’t Nafl Salaat, then too Sajdah Sahw is not necessary.

 

Q. If in Qa’dah Akheerah by mistake one recite’s Attahiyaat twice, will Sajdah Sahw be necessary?

A. Sajdah Sahw is not necessary. If Attahiyaat is recited twice in Qa’dah Ulaa, it will be incumbent to make Sajdah Sahw. (Qa’dah Akheerah is the final sitting, i.e. in the last raka’t).

 

Q. If Attahiyaat is recited twice in Qa’dah Akheerah, should Sajdah Sahw be made?

A. No, Sajdah Sahw should not be made. However, if this happens in Qa’dah Ulaa (the first sitting) of Fardh Salaat, Sajdah Sahw will be incumbent.

 

Q. What if one reads Tashahhud twice in Salaat?

A. Sajdah-e-Sahw should be made, if it is Fardh, Witr or Sunnatul Muakkadah Salaat. If Nafl, then Sajdah-e-Sahw is not made.

 

Q. In the four raka’ts Sunnatul Muakkadah, if the musalli recites Durood Shareef after Attahiyaat in the first Qa’dah, is Sajdah Sahw necessary?

A. Sajdah Sahw is necessary. Sunnatul Muakkadah should be treated as Fardh for this purpose. If this happens in any four raka’t Nafl Salaat, Sajdah Sahw will not be necessary.

 

Q. I recite Durood Shareef in the first Qa’dah of Fardh Salaat which I was performing alone. Was Sajdah Sahw necessary?

A. For having recited Durood in the first Qa’dah of Fardh Salaat, Sajdah Sahw is necessary. If it is a Nafl / Sunnah Salaat, then Sajdah Sahw is not necessary.

 

Q. My wife who is a Shaafi' followed me in Zuhr Salaat. After the completion of the Salaat, she made two Sajdah. When I questioned her, she said that in Qa'dah Ula she forgot to recite Durood, hence she had made Sajdah Sahw. Was she correct? What is the Shaafi' and the Hanafi view?

A. According to the Shaafi’ Math-hab, reciting Durood in the first Qa’dah (sitting position after two raka’ts) after Tashahhud is among such Sunnats called Ab’aadh. Omission of such a Sunnat necessitates Sajdah Sahw according to the Shaafi’ Math-hab. However, your wife erred in having made Sajdah Sahw because even if a muqtadi makes a mistake behind the Imaam, there is no Sajdah Sahw for him/her. Yes, if she was performing alone and had missed the Durood, then Sajdah Sahw would have been necessary. According to the Hanafi Math-hab, it is not permissible to recite Durood in Qa’dah Ula of Fardh and Witr Salaat. If mistakenly it is recited, then Sajdah Sahw is necessary. If mistakenly it is omitted in the last sitting, then there is no Sajdah Sahw. Durood is among the Sunnats according to the Hanafi’ Math-hab.

 

Q. In the Fardh Salaat which I performed individually, I recited Durood after Attahiyaat in the second raka’t. Is Sajdah Sahw necessary?

A. Sajdah Sahw is incumbent for this error.

 

Q.Is it bi’da in salaah if I proceed to recite salaatul Ibraaheem instead of stopping at kalimatuttayyiba during tashahud?

A. In Fardh, Witr and Sunnat-e-Muakkadah, the musalli should rise immediately after completing Attahiyaat in the first Qa’dah. He should not proceed with Durood. If by mistake he recited even so much of the Durood, namely: ‘Allahumma salli ala Muhammad’: , then Sajdah Sahw becomes Waajib.

 

Q. For some reason a muqtadi did not make the ruku’ in one raka’t. The Imaam had made an error, hence performed Sajdah Sahw. This muqtadi also joined in the Sajdah Sahw. Is his Salaat valid?

A. His Salaat is not valid. Ruku’ is Fardh. When a Fardh act is omitted, the Salaat is not valid and Sajdah Sahw does not rectify the Salaat. When a Fardh act is omitted, it should be done immediately one remembers. Sajdah Sahw should also be performed. This Muqtadi should have performed the ruku’ after the Salaam of the Imaam, then make Sajdah Sahw.

 

Q. In the third raka’t of Witr, a musalli forgot to recite Dua Qunoot. He remembers the omission in Ruku. Should he rise and recite Qunoot?

A. No, he should continue with the Salaat, and make Sajdah Sahw.

 

Q. The Imaam forgot to recite Dua Qunoot in Witr. He went straight into Ruku’ where he realized his error. He came back into Qiyaam and recited Dua-e-Qunoot. He did make Sajdah Sahw. Is the Salaat proper?

A. The Salaat is valid. However, the Imaam had erred by coming out of Ruku’ to return to Qiyaam for the Qunoot. He should have proceeded and make only Sajdah Sahw.

 

Q. The Imaam mistakenly went into Ruku’ in Witr Salaat after Taraaweeh. Then he came back up. Is Sajdah Sahw necessary?

A. If the Imaam had forgotten to recite Dua Qunoot, then it was improper for him to reverse back into Qiyaam. Sajdah Sahw is Waajib in both instances, whether he came back to the Qiyaam position or not.

 

Q. In the third raka’t of Witr the Imaam went in Ruku’ without reciting Takbeer and Dua Qunoot. He completed the Salaat with Sajdah Sahw. Should this Witr Salaat be repeated?

A. The Witr does not have to be repeated. The Sajdah Sahw compensated for the error of omission of Dua Qunoot.

 

Q. The lmaam in error, forgot to recite the Takbeer for the Ruku aloud. In other words, he went into Ruku without saying “Allahu Akbar” aloud. Is Sujood Sahw to be performed for such an error?

A. The reciting of the Takbeeraate lntiqaalaat (the Takbeers for changing from one position to another) aloud is Sunnat, hence Sajdah Sahw is not performed. Sajdah Sahw is only performed for errors of omission or commission concerning the Waajib acts of Salaat.

 

Q. A musalli remembers during the Ruku’of the second raka’t that he had made only one Sajdah in the first raka’t. What should he do?

A. He should immediately go into Sajdah. After Sajdah, he should return to the ruku’. Sajdah Sahw is also Waajib.

 

Q. Is Sajdah Sahw necessary when the following errors are made? (a) Instead of Attahiyaat, Surah Faatihah is recited. Thereafter Attahiyaat is recited. (b) Instead of Dua Qunoot in Witr, Thana is recited. (c) In the last raka't after Attahiyaat, Durood is recited twice. (d) In Sajdah, instead of the Tasbeeh, Thana is recited. After realizing the error, the normal Tasbeeh is recited. (e) In the 3rd and 4th raka'ts of a Fardh Salaat, a Surah is recited after Surah Faatihah.

A. Sajdah Sahw is Waajib in only (a), the first listed error.

 

Q. The musaafir Imaam performed four raka’ts Zuhr instead of two. The muqtadis followed him and completed four raka’ts. Is the Salaat valid?

A. The Salaat of the muqtadis is not valid. They have to repeat the Salaat. If the musaafir Imaam had sat in Qa’dah Ula (the first sitting after two raka’ts), then in error performed another two raka’ts, he was required to make Sajdah Sahw. His Fardh is valid, but discharged defectively if he did not make Sajdah Sahw. If he had not sat after two raka’ts, then his Salaat is also not valid. If he had intentionally performed four raka’ts, but sat in Qa’dah Ula, then although his Fardh will be valid, he has committed a major sin which the Fuqaha say is punishable with the Fire of Jahannum.

 

Q. If the Qiraa’t is recited aloud in Zuhr and Asr, what is the ruling?

A. If the Qiraa’t is recited aloud in Zuhr and Asr, Sajdah Sahw becomes necessary. If Sajdah was not made, the Salaat should be repeated.

 

Q. If one recites the Ruku’ Tasbeeh in Sajdah, should Sajdah Sahw be made?

A. Sajdah Sahw is not necessary if one recites the Tasbeeh of the Ruku’ in Sajdah although one should not do so intentionally. If whilst still in Sajdah, you realize the error, then recite the correct Tasbeeh. Sajdah Sahw is not incumbent.

 

Q. Should Sajdah Sahw be made if one recites the Sajdah Tasbeeh in Ruku’ by mistake?

A. Reciting the Sajdah Tasbeeh in Ruku’ does not necessitate Sajdah Sahw.

 

Q. If an error is made in the number of Tasbeehs in Salaatut Tasbeeh, will Sajdah Sahw be necessary?

A. Sajdah Sahw is not necessary.

 

Q. If the Imaam recites Bismillaah aloud in Salaat, is Sajdah Sahw necessary?

A. If the Imaam recites Bismillaah aloud in a Jahri Salaat, Sajdah Sahw is not Waajib. If he does so in a Sirri Namaaz, then Sajdah is necessary. This is according to the Hanafi Mathhab.

 

Q. If some of the Tasbeehs are omitted by error in Salaatut Tasbeeh, should Sajdah Sahw be made?

A. Sajdah Sahw should not be made. The Tasbeehaat which have been missed, should be recited in the next rukn of the Salaat, e.g. if the Tasbeehaat were not recited in Ruku’, then these should be recited in Sajdah at the time of reciting these special Tasbeehaat during Sajdah. If the Tasbeehaat are omitted in the second Sajdah, these should be recited in Qiyaam when the Tasbeehaat of the Qiyaam position are recited. Qadha of the omitted Tasbeehaat should not be made in Qaumah, i.e. the short standing after Ruku’, nor in Jalsah, i.e. the sitting between two Sajdahs.