Hadiths Related to the Issue of Composite Nationalism

1. Narrated from Abu Hurayrah in a long hadith, raised [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)]: “Verily, Allah has removed from you the high-mindedness of Jahiliyya [pre-Islamic ignorance] and its glorification of forefathers. It is only a pious believer or a wretched sinner. Men are all the sons of Adam, and Adam is from dust.” Al-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud narrated it. (Mishkat al-Masabih, p. 418)

2. Narrated from ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amir, he said: Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “These ancestries of yours are not an insult upon one [another]. All of you are the children of Adam. The measuring container is nearly full; you will never fill it [a metaphor served to illustrate everyone’s deficiency, no matter their lineage after Adam]. No one has any superiority over another except by religion and piety; ([to the end of] the hadith).” Ahmad narrated it and al-Bayhaqi in Shu’ab al-Iman. (Mishkat al-Masabih, p. 418)

3. Narrated from Abu Dharr, that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said to him: “Ponder! You are no better than a black person or a red person, unless you are superior to him in piety.” Ahmad narrated it, and its narrators are trustworthy.

4. Narrated from Abu Sa’id, he said: Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “Verily, your Lord is one, and your father [Adam] is one. Thus, there is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab or a red man over a black man, except by piety.” Al-Tabrani narrated it, and al-Bazzar the like of it; the narrators of al-Bazzar are the narrators of the Sahih.

5. Narrated from Humayd ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf, he said: ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf heard a man say: “I am the closest of people to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace).” Thereupon, he said: “Others besides you are closer to him, though you have his ancestry.” Al-Tabrani narrated it.

6. Narrated from Abu Hurayrah, he said: Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “When it is the Day of Resurrection, Allah will command a caller to announce: ‘Know that indeed I appointed a caste and you appointed a caste. Thus, I made the noblest of you the most pious amongst you, and you refused but to say so-and-so the son of so-and-so is better than so-and-so the son of so-and-so. Thus, today I will elevate my caste and debase your caste. Where are the pious?‟” Al-Tabrani narrated it. [Al-Haythami said]: “In the first [hadith] (no. 5) is his [i.e. Tabrani’s] teacher, al-Miqdam ibn Dawud who is weak, and in the second is Talhah ibn ‘Amr [who is] rejected.” (Majma„ al-Zawa‟id, 8:84)

I [Mawlana Zafar Ahmad al-‘Uthmani] say: As for al-Miqdam (d. 283), he is differed upon. Maslamah said: “There is no harm in his narrations.” Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Kindi said: “A jurist, jurisconsult.” Al-Mas’udi said in Muruj al-Dhahab: “He was from the great jurists and the senior fellows of Malik [i.e. his school].” They only criticised his narration from Khalid ibn Nizar with a weak criticism as mentioned in Lisan al-Mizan (6:89).

As for Talhah ibn ‘Amr, if he is [Talhah ibn ‘Amr] al-Hadrami al-Makki, then Jarir ibn Hazim, al-Thawri, Abu Dawud al-Tayalisi and others narrated from him. Ibn ‘Adi said: “A group of trustworthy individuals narrated from him and most of what he narrated is not followed-up.” ‘Abd al-Razzaq narrated from Ma’mar that he, Shu’bah, al-Thawri and Ibn Jurayj met, and then a shaykh approached and dictated to us four thousand hadiths by heart and he did not err except in two places while we were looking in the book. The error was not from us or from him. It was only from above [i.e. Allah]. The man was Talhah ibn ‘Amr. End [quote] from Tahdhib al-Tahdhib.

In this is the greatest indication of his [good] memory, his ascertainment and his precision. And if he is [Talhah ibn ‘Amr] al-Qannad, then Ibn Abi Hatim mentioned him and did not mention any criticism of him, and al-Bukhari narrated from him without chain, and Ibn Hibban mentioned him in Kitab al-Thiqat, while Abu Dawud said: “He is not strong,” (Tahdhib al-Tahdhib) which is a light weakening. Hence, the two narrations are acceptable as proof, especially since they have corroborants which we mentioned previously.

7. ‘Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah narrated to us: Abu al-Nadr, meaning Hashim ibn al-Qasim narrated to us: ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Thabit narrated to us: Hassan ibn ‘Atiyyah narrated to us from Abu Munib al-Jarashi from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them), he said: Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “Whoever resembles a people (qawm), he is from them.” Abu Dawud narrated it. Ibn Taymiyyah said: “This is a good chain, since Ibn Abi Shaybah and Abu al-Nadr and Hassan ibn ‘Atiyyah are trustworthy, famous and eminent narrators of the two Sahihs; Yahya ibn Ma’in, Abu Zur’ah and Ahmad ibn ‘Abd Allah said [about] ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Thabit ibn Thawban: ‘There is no harm in him.’ ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ibrahim Dahim said: ‘He is trustworthy.’ Abu Hatim said: ‘He is upstanding in hadith.’ As for Abu Munib al-Jarashi, al-‘Ijli said about him: ‘He is trustworthy, and I do not know anyone who mentioned him negatively.’ Hassan ibn ‘Atiyyah heard from him. Imam Ahmad and others used this hadith as proof.” (Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim, p. 39)

It was [also] narrated in this hadith from Ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) that he forbade resemblance with the [non-Muslim] non-Arabs and he said: “Whoever resembles a people he is from them.” Al-Qadi Abu Ya’la narrated it. Many of the scholars used this as proof for the detestability of things like the dress of the disbelievers. (Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim, p. 40)

8. Narrated from Jabir in the hadith of the Farewell Pilgrimage and its sermon on the Day of ‘Arafah, while mentioning the hadith he said: He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “Everything from the matter of Jahiliyyah is laid under my feet [i.e. cancelled].” Muslim narrated it. (Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim, p. 53)

9. Through the route of Malik from al-Zuhri from Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman, he said: Qays ibn Matatiyya arrived at a circle in which Suhayb al-Rumi, Salman al-Farisi and Bilal al-Habashi were [present], and he said: “This is Aws and Khazraj, they have undertaken to help this man [i.e. the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], so what is the matter with these [non-Arab] people [that they are helping an Arab]?” Thereupon Mu’adh ibn Jabal stood up and seized his collar, and took him to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and informed him of his statement. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) stood up angered, dragging his cloak until he entered the mosque. Then it was announced: “The prayer is congregating.” Thereupon, he ascended the pulpit, praised Allah and glorified Him, and he said: “As for what follows: O people! Verily, the Lord is One Lord. The father is one father. The religion is one religion. Verily, Arabic is not for any one of you a mother and a father; it is only a language, so whoever speaks Arabic, he is an Arab.” Al-Silafi narrated the hadith. Ibn Taymiyyah said: “This hadith is weak, and it appears to be invented upon Malik. However, its meaning is not farfetched, rather it is sound from some routes as we have mentioned previously.” (Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim, p. 39)

10. Narrated from ‘Amr ibn Murrah regarding His statement “They do not witness falsehood,” (Qur‟an 25:72) “[meaning,] they do not support the idolaters with their idolatry and do not mix with them.” Abu al-Shaykh narrated it and Ibn Taymiyyah was silent about it in Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim, p. 81.

11. Narrated from ‘Ata ibn Yasar, he said: ‘Umar said: “Avoid the speech of the non-Arabs, and entering upon the idolaters into their temples on the day of their festival.” Abu al-Shaykh also narrated it (p. 86), and al-Bayhaqi narrated it with an authentic chain from Sufyan al-Thawri from Thawr ibn Zayd from „Ata ibn Dinar the like of it.

12. With the chain from al-Thawri from ‘Awf from al-Walid or Abu al-Walid from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr, he said: “Whoever builds in the lands of the foreigners and performs their Nayruz and their Mahrajan, and resembles them until he dies while he is like this, he will be gathered with them on the Day of Resurrection.” It has multiple authentic and good chains, mentioned by Ibn Taymiyyah. (Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim, p. 95)

13. ‘Isa ibn Yunus narrated to us from Thawr from „Umar ibn Yazid, he said: ‘Umar wrote to Abu Musa (Allah be pleased with them): “As for what follows: Gain understanding of the Sunnah and gain understanding of Arabic, and understand the Arabic of the Qur’an, for it is in Arabic.” Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated it. (Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim, p. 98)

14. Isma’il ibn ‘Aliyyah narrated to us from Dawud ibn Abi Hind that Muhammad ibn Sa„d ibn Abi Waqqas heard a people speaking in Persian, so he said: “What is the matter with this Zoroastrianism after pure monotheism?!” Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated it. (Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim, p. 97)

15. Al-Silafi narrated from the hadith of Sa’id ibn al-‘Ala’ al-Barda’i: Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Balkhi narrated to us: ‘Umar ibn Harun al-Balkhi narrated to us: Usamah ibn Zayd narrated to us from Nafi’ from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them), he said: Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “Whoever is proficient at speaking in Arabic must not speak in non-Arabic, for indeed it causes hypocrisy in him.” He also narrated it with another recognised chain to Abu Suhayl Mahmud ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Abkari: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Muqri’ narrated to us: Ahmad ibn Khalil narrated to us in Balkh: Ishaq ibn Ibrahim al-Hariri narrated to us: ‘Umar ibn Harun narrated to us from Usamah from Nafi’ from Ibn ‘Umar with it [i.e. the hadith]. Ibn Taymiyyah said: “This statement resembles the statement of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab. As for raising it [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], it is a clear forgery.”

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