(From Beheshti Zewar)
Purifying with dust or sand where water is not available
1. If someone is in a jungle and does not know where water could be found, nor is there anyone from whom he could find out, then in such a case he should make tayammum.
But if he found someone who pointed out water within 1.6 kilometres and he is confident that this person is speaking the truth, or the person himself feels confident of finding water within 1.6 kilometres – then it will be necessary to search for water in such a way that it does not cause any harm or inconvenience to him or to his fellow companions. It is not permissible to make tayammum without searching for water. If one is definite that there is water within 1.6 kilometres, it will be obligatory to bring the water.
2. If water is available, but it is beyond 1.6 kilometres, it is not obligatory to go for the water. It will be sufficient to make tayammum.
3. If a person is about 1.6 kilometres from an inhabited area and water cannot be found before that, it will still be permissible to make tayammum. This is irrespective of whether one is a musaafir (traveller) or just came out for a short distance.
4. If one found a well on the way, but there is no bucket or rope to draw the water nor is there anyone from whom he can ask, even then tayammum will be permissible.
5. If water was found somewhere, but it is so little that the face, hands and feet can only be washed one time each, then tayammum will not be permissible. Instead, these parts should be washed once and masah of the head should be made. The other sunnah acts of wudu could be left out. But if even this much is not available, tayammum should be made.
6. If, due to some illness, water is harmful and wudu or ghusl will increase the illness or delay its healing, tayammum will be permissible. But if cold water is harmful and warm water is not, it will be obligatory to use warm water. However, if warm water is not available, tayammum may be performed.
7. If water is near, i.e. definitely within 1.6 kilometres, then it is not permissible to make tayammum. It is obligatory to bring the water and make wudu. It is not permissible for women to abstain from going for the water and sufficing with tayammum merely because of shyness or hijaab. Hijaab of this sort which causes one to forego any ruling of the Shariah is not permissible and haraam. It will be obligatory for her to cover herself with a veil or sheet and bring the water. However, she should not make wudu nor open her face and hands in front of others.
8. As long as wudu cannot be made, one can continue making tayammum. No matter how many days pass, one should not allow any doubts or misgivings to creep in. Whatever purity is obtained from wudu and ghusl, the same purity is obtained from tayammum. One should not think that by making tayammum the same purity is not obtained.
9. If water is being sold and one does not have the money, tayammum is permissible. If one has the money and it is more than what one will require for the fare, freight etc. of the journey, then to purchase the water will be obligatory. However, if the price of the water is so exorbitant that no one can afford it, then it will not be obligatory to purchase the water. Tayammum will be permissible. If one does not have any spare money, it will not be obligatory to purchase the water. Tayammum will be permissible.
10. If it is extremely cold somewhere and there is a fear of dying or falling ill if one takes a bath and there is no blanket or any such warm thing with which one could warm one’s self after bathing, then in such dire circumstances tayammum could be made.
11. If someone has wounds on more than half of his body, or is suffering from small-pox, then it is not obligatory on him to bath. Instead, tayammum could be made.
12. If tayammum was made in a field and there was water nearby but he did not know about it, then both the tayammum and the salaat are proper. When he comes to know about the water, there is no need to repeat the tayammum and salaat.
13. While on a journey, if someone else has water, then one should judge for oneself and see what one’s heart says: “If you ask for the water the person will give you.” In such a case it will not be permissible to make tayammum without asking for the water. And if the heart says: “If you ask for the water, that person will not give you.” In such a case it will be permissible to make tayammum even without asking for water. But if after performing the salaat, he asked for the water and the person gave it, then the salaat will have to be repeated.
14. If zam-zam water is kept in cans, tayammum is not permissible. It will be obligatory to open the cans and make wudu and ghusl with it.
15. A person has got water with him, but the journey is so bad that no water is obtainable. He therefore has the fear of death or illness on account of thirst. Wudu should not be made. Tayammum will be permissible.
16. If making ghusl is harmful and wudu is not, then instead of ghusl, tayammum should be made. If wudu breaks after the tayammum of ghusl, then for this broken wudu, tayammum should not be made. Instead, for the broken wudu, wudu should be made. If before making the tayammum for ghusl, one experiences something which breaks wudu and thereafter one made tayammum for ghusl, then this tayammum will be sufficient for both wudu and ghusl.
17. The method of making tayammum is as follows: Both palms should be placed on pure ground and the entire face must be wiped with them. Place the palms on the ground for a second time and wipe each hand upto and including the elbows. The areas under the bangles, bracelets, etc. should be thoroughly rubbed. If, according to the person, even a place equal to a nail is left out, tayammum will not be complete.
18. After placing the palms on the ground, they should be dusted so that no dirt goes on the face and hands thereby making them unsightly.
19. Tayammum is also permissible with things other than soil if they also have the same qualities, eg. sand, lime-stone, lime, sulphurate of arsenic, antimony (surmah), brick dust, etc. Those things which do not have the qualities of soil cannot be used for tayammum, eg. gold, silver, tin, wheat, wood, clothing, corn, etc. However, if dust or sand has fallen on these things, tayammum on them will be permissible.
20. Matter which neither burns in fire nor melts, possesses the qualities of earth and tayammum with it will be permissible. Tayammum is not permissible on that which burns and turns into ash or melts. In the same way, tayammum with ash is not permissible.
21. Tayammum is not permissible on copper utensils, pillows, mattresses and other clothing. However, if there is so much of dust on them that if by striking them with the hands, a lot of dust comes on the palms, tayammum will be permissible. If very little dust comes on the palms by striking them, tayammum will not be permissible. Tayammum on clay pots and pitchers is permissible irrespective of whether they are filled with water or not. But if something is written or painted on them, tayammum will not be permissible.
22. If there is no dust whatsoever on a stone, even then tayammum will be permissible. In fact, even if it is thoroughly washed with water, tayammum will be permissible. It is not necessary for the dust to come on the hands. Similarly, tayammum on a baked brick is permissible irrespective of whether there is dust on it or not.
23. Tayammum with mud is permissible but not desirable. If one cannot find anything besides mud, one should fill a cloth with the mud and once it dries, make tayammum with it. However, if the salaat time is about to expire, he should not worry about the mud being wet or dry. He should make tayammum and should not allow the salaat to be missed.
24. If urine or some other impurity fell on the ground, got dried by the sun and even the foul smell is gone, then that place is pure, salaat can be read there. However, tayammum is not permissible on such a place when one knows that it is impure. But if one does not know about its state, one should not have doubts about it.
25. Just as tayammum can be made in place of wudu, it can also be made in place of ghusl when one is constrained to do so. In the same way, the woman that has just completed her monthly periods or the after-birth bleeding (nifaas), at the time of necessity she too can make tayammum. There is no difference in the tayammum of wudu and ghusl – the procedure for both is the same.
26. If one demonstrated the procedure of tayammum to another person but had no intention of making tayammum in his heart – a mere demonstration was intended – then this tayammum will not be considered. The reason is that for tayammum to be proper, it is necessary to have the intention of tayammum in the heart. If one has no intention of tayammum and merely intends a demonstration, then tayammum will not be considered.
27. At the time of making tayammum one should merely have this intention in his heart: “I am making tayammum in order to purify myself.” Alternatively: “I am making tayammum so that I can perform my salaat.” Tayammum will be complete. To make intention that I am making tayammum for wudu or for ghusl is not necessary.
28. If tayammum was made specifically to touch the Quran, it will not be permissible to read salaat with that tayammum. If tayammum was made for a particular salaat, the next salaat could be read with that same tayammum. Even the Quran may be touched with that same tayammum.
29. A person has to have a bath and he does not even have wudu. He should make only one tayammum, it is not necessary to make a separate tayammum for each one.
30. A person made tayammum and even performed his salaat with it. Thereafter, he found water and the salaat time has not expired as yet. It is not obligatory to repeat the salaat, the salaat performed with that tayammum is complete.
31. The water is within 1.6 kilometres but the time is so short that if he went for the water, he will miss his salaat. Even then tayammum is not permissible. He will have to go for the water and read the salaat later.
32. In the presence of water, it will not be permissible to make tayammum in order to be able to touch the Quran.
33. While on a journey, one has the hope of finding water further along the way. He should therefore not hasten to read his salaat in the beginning but should wait until he comes to the water. However he should not delay to the extent that the makruh time of salaat enters. If the person did not wait for the water at all but performed his salaat in the beginning, then too it will be proper.
34. If one has water with him but fears that if he gets off the train he will be left behind, tayammum will also be permissible. If there is a snake or any other animal near the water and one cannot go there, tayammum will be permissible.
35. A person had kept water together with all his belongings but forgot about it and made tayammum and also read his salaat. Thereafter he remembered that his water is with his belongings. Now it is not obligatory on him to repeat his salaat.
36. All those things and acts which break wudu also break tayammum. In addition to this, tayammum also breaks once water is found. Similarly, if, after making tayammum, one proceeds further and reaches a place where water is within 1.6 kilometres – then too tayammum will break.
37. If one made tayammum for wudu, then upon finding sufficient water for wudu, tayammum will break. If one made tayammum for ghusl, then upon finding sufficient water for ghusl, tayammum will break. If less water was found, tayammum will not break.
38. There was water on the way but one just passed by and did not know about it and had no knowledge that it is there – even then tayammum will not break. Similarly, if one finds water or comes to know of it but is unable to get down from the vehicle, tayammum will not break.
39. A person made tayammum on account of illness. Once he recovers and making wudu or ghusl will not cause any harm, then tayammum will break. Now it will be obligatory to make wudu and ghusl.
40. One could not find water so he made tayammum. Thereafter he was afflicted with a sickness which is aggravated by water. After being afflicted with this sickness, he finds water. Now, that tayammum which he had made on account of not finding water will break and he will have to make tayammum again.
41. One had to take an obligatory bath. After bathing, a particular area was left dry and all the water had got finished as well. Such a person has not purified himself as yet. Tayammum will have to be made. When he finds water anywhere, he should wash that dry area and it will not be necessary to have a bath all over again.
42. If the person finds water at such a time that even his wudu broke, then he should first wash that dry area and make tayammum for the wudu that broke. If the water is so little that wudu could be made but that dry area cannot be washed, then wudu should be made. And for that dry area, the tayammum for ghusl should be made. But if the tayammum for ghusl has already been made, there is no need to make tayammum again. The first tayammum will still be intact.
43. A person’s body and clothing are impure and he also has to make wudu. And the water for all this is not sufficient. He should therefore wash his body and clothing and make tayammum in place of wudu.
44. There is nothing with which one could draw water from a well nor does he have a cloth which he could dip into the well and after wringing it purify himself. Alternatively, there is water in a big drum but he does not have anything with which he could draw the water nor can he take out water by tilting the drum. Alternatively, his hands are impure and there is no one else who could draw the water for him or wash his hands for him. Tayammum will be permissible in all such cases.
45. If the reason for which tayammum was made was caused by a human being, then once that cause is removed or goes away, the person will have to repeat all the salaats that were offered with that tayammum. For example, a person was in prison and the warden refused to give him water or someone told him that if you make wudu I will kill you. Whatever salaats he offers with this tayammum will have to be repeated.
46. It is permissible for several persons to make tayammum one after the other from one spot of ground or from one lump of earth.
47. If a person is unable to use water or sand, irrespective of whether they are not available or it is because of some sickness; then he should offer his salaat without purifying himself. Once he purifies himself later, he should repeat his salaat. For example, a person is travelling by train and salaat time enters. He does not have any water nor anything with which he could make tayammum, such as sand, clay utensils, or dust, etc. and the salaat time will expire soon. In such a condition he should offer his salaat without purifying himself. Similarly, a person is in prison and does not have any clean water or sand. He should offer salaat without having made wudu or tayammum. In both cases salaat will have to be repeated.
48. It is mustahab for the person who is definitely sure or convinced of finding water until the last time of the salaat to delay his salaat until the last mustahab time of the salaat. For example, he does not have anything with which he could draw water from the well but he is sure or convinced that by the last mustahab time he will obtain a bucket or rope. Or, for example, a person is travelling by train and is sure or convinced that by the end of the time the train will stop at such a station where he will find water. In such a case it is mustahab to delay the salaat until the last mustahab time (of that salaat).
49. A person was travelling by train and on account of not having any water, he made tayammum. On the course of his journey, while the train was moving, he saw a spring, or pond of water. His tayammum will not break because in this case he is unable to use that water. The train cannot stop nor can he jump off a moving train.