Some Rules Related to Fasting (Saum)

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[From Beheshti Zewar]

In the Hadith, great rewards have been mentioned for fasting. The fasting person has a very high status in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: “The person who fasts in the month of Ramadaan solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta’ala and for gaining His reward, all his past minor sins will be forgiven.” Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: “The smell which emanates from the mouth of a fasting person is more beloved in the sight of Allah Ta’ala than the fragrance of musk.” On the day of judgement, one would receive great rewards for fasting.

It is related in a Hadith that a table below the Arsh of Allah Ta’ala will be laid for the fasting persons on the day of judgement. They will sit at this table and partake of the food while all the other people will still be busy giving their account of deeds. On seeing them, they will say: “How is it that these people are eating and drinking while we are still occupied in giving an account of our deeds?” It will be said to them that they used to fast while you abstained from fasting. This fasting is also a great pillar of Islam. The person who does not fast in the month of Ramadaan commits a major sin, and his Deen shall become weak.

1. Fasting in the month of Ramadaan is fard on every Muslim who is not a lunatic nor an immature person (minor). As long as there is no valid excuse, it is not permissible to abstain from fasting. If a person vows to fast, fasting becomes fard on him on account of this vow. The qada and kaffarah fasts are also fard. Apart from this, all other fasts are nafl – if a person keeps them he will be rewarded, and if he does not do so, there will be no sin on him. However, the fasts of eid ul-fitr, eid ul-ad’haa, and the three days following eid ul-ad’haa are all haraam.

2. Once the time of fajr salaat approaches (i.e. dawn) until the time of sunset, a person should make the intention of fasting and abstain from all food, drink, and sexual intercourse. This is known as fasting in the Shariah.

3. It is not necessary to make a verbal intention. Instead, once a person has this in his heart that today he is fasting and he does not eat or drink anything, nor does he indulge in sexual intercourse – his fast will be valid. If a person makes a verbal intention by saying: “O Allah! I will fast for Your pleasure tomorrow”, or he says the following words in Arabic:

biSoomi ghadin nawaytu

even then there is no harm in this.

4. A person did not eat nor drink anything the entire day and remained hungry and thirsty from morning till evening. However, in his heart he did not have the intention of fasting but merely abstained from food due to a lack of hunger, or, for some reason or the other he did not get the opportunity of eating anything – in such a case his fast will not be valid. Had he made the intention of fasting in his heart, his fast would have become valid.

5. According to the Shariah, the time of fasting commences from subah saadiq. Therefore, as long as the subah saadiq time does not expire, eating, drinking, etc. is permissible. Some women wake up early and after having a meal, they make the intention of fasting and sleep away thinking that once the intention is made, eating and drinking is not permissible. This is a gross error. As long as the subah saadiq time does not expire, it is permissible to eat and drink. This is irrespective of whether the intention of fasting has been made or not.

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THE FASTS OF RAMADHAN

1. If the intention of fasting for the fast of Ramadaan is made at night, the fast will be valid. The intention was not made at night and even in the morning one decided not to fast on that day. The day progressed considerably and only thereafter the person realized that it is not good to leave out a fard duty and therefore made the intention of fasting – even then his fast will be valid. But if he has already consumed some food in the morning, he cannot make the intention of fasting.

2. If a person has not consumed any food or drink, then for the fasts of Ramadaan he can make the intention of fasting until one hour before mid-day.

3. For the fasts of Ramadaan, the following intention is sufficient: “I am fasting today”. Alternatively, at night one could say: “Tomorrow I will fast”. By making this intention, the fasts of Ramadaan will be valid. When making the intention, a person did not specify as to whether it is a fast of Ramadaan or a fard fast. Even then the fast will be valid.

4. In the month of Ramadaan, a person made the following intention: “Tomorrow I will keep a nafl fast and I will not keep the fast of Ramadaan. I will make qada of this Ramadaan fast at some other time.” Even then, the Ramadaan fast will be considered and not the nafl fast.

5. A person had missed a few fasts of the previous Ramadaan. The whole year passed without his making qada of these missed fasts as yet. When the next Ramadaan commenced, he made the intention of making qada of those missed fasts. Even then, the fasts of this Ramadaan will be considered and the qada fasts will not be valid. He will have to keep those qada fasts after Ramadaan.

6. A person had taken a vow that if a certain work of his is fulfilled, he will keep one or two fasts for the pleasure of Allah. When the month of Ramadaan commenced, he made the intention of keeping those fasts which he had vowed to keep and not the fast of Ramadaan. Even then, the fast of Ramadaan will be considered and not that of the vowed fast. The vowed fast will have to be kept after Ramadaan.

In short, if any other intention is made in the month of Ramadaan, the fast of Ramadaan will be considered. All other fasts will not be valid.

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NAFL OR OPTIONAL FASTS

1. For the nafl fast it is permissible to specify the intention by saying: “I am keeping a nafl fast”, or to merely say: “I am keeping a fast”. Both are correct.

2. It is permissible to make the intention for a nafl fast until an hour before mid-day. If, for example, until 10am a person did not have the intention of fasting and had not consumed any food or drink until then and thereafter he decided to fast and kept the fast; this fast will also be valid.

3. Apart from the month of Ramadaan, a person may keep nafl fasts whenever he wishes. The more he fasts, the greater the reward. However, it is not permissible to fast on the days of eid ul-fitr, eid ul-ad’haa, and the 11th, 12th, and 13th of Zil Hijjah. In the entire year, it is haraam to fast on these five days only. Apart from these days, it is permissible to fast on all other days.

4. If a person takes an oath that he will fast on the day of Eid, the fast of that day will still not be permissible. In place of that day, he should keep it on some other day.

5. If a person takes an oath that he will fast for the entire year and that he will not leave out a single day, even then he cannot fast on these five days. He should fast on the remainder of the days and thereafter keep qada of these five days.

6. By making the intention of keeping a nafl fast, this nafl fast becomes wajib on the person. If a person makes an intention before subah saadiq that he is going to fast today and later (after subah saadiq) breaks this fast, it will be wajib on him to make qada of this fast.

7. A person made an intention at night that he will fast the following day. However, prior to subah saadiq he changed his intention and did not fast. Qada will not be wajib.

8. It is not permissible to keep a nafl fast without the permission of the husband. If the wife fasts without her husband’s permission and he orders her to break it, it will be permissible for her to break it. When he permits her, she must make qada of that fast.

9. A guest went to a person’s house, or, a person was invited to a meal somewhere. If the person who was invited feels that by his not partaking of the meal, his host will feel insulted or feel ill at heart, it will be permissible to break the nafl fast. It is also permissible for the host to break his nafl fast on account of the guest.

10. A person made the intention of fasting on Eid day and also kept the fast. Even then he should break his fast and qada will not be wajib on him.

11. It is mustahab to fast on the 10th of Muharram. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the one who fasts on this day will have his sins of the past year forgiven. (In addition to this, it is also mustahab to fast on the 9th or 11th. It is makruh to fast on the 10th alone.)

12. Similarly, there is also a great reward in fasting on the 9th of Zil Hijjah. By fasting on this day, the sins for the past year and the following year are forgiven. If a person fasts from the 1st till the 9th of Zil Hijjah, the rewards will be increased manifold.

13. Fasting on the 15th of Sha’baan and the six days after eid ul-fitr is more virtuous than keeping other nafl fasts.

14. If a person fasts on the 13th, 14th and 15th of every month, it is as if he has fasted for the entire year. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam used to fast on these days. He also used to fast on Mondays and Thursdays. If a person tries to fast on these days, he will also be greatly rewarded.

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ACTS WHICH BREAK OR DO NOT BREAK THE FAST

1. If a fasting person forgetfully eats, drinks or has sexual intercourse, the fast will not break. If he eats and drinks a full-stomach, even then the fast will not break. If he forgetfully eats or drinks several times in the day, the fast will still not break.

2. A person saw a fasting person eating or drinking something. If this fasting person is quite strong and is not greatly affected by fasting, it will be wajib to remind him that he is fasting. But if he is a weak person and is greatly affected by fasting, he should not be reminded that he is fasting. Instead, he should be allowed to continue eating.

3. A person slept away during the day. He saw a dream which made ghusl compulsory on him. (i.e. he had a wet-dream) In such a case, the fast does not break.

4. During the day, it is permissible to apply surmah (antimony), oil, and to inhale any fragrance. The fast is not affected by such acts irrespective of when this is done. In fact, after applying surmah, if the colour of the surmah appears in one’s saliva or mucus in the nose, even then the fast will not break nor will it become makruh.

5. It is permissible for a man to sleep next to his wife, to touch her and to kiss her. However, if, due to the passions of youth, there is the fear that these acts would lead to sexual intercourse, they should be abstained from. It will then be makruh to carry out such acts.

6. A fly went down the throat, or some smoke or dust went down the throat on it’s own. In such a case, the fast will not break. However, if one did this intentionally, the fast will break.

7. Incense sticks were burnt and the person went and sat near them and inhaled the smoke. The fast will break. In the same way, the fast breaks by smoking cigarettes, cigars, etc. Apart from this smoke, it is permissible to inhale the fragrance of perfumes which do not have any smoke.

8. A fibre of meat or fragments of betel-leaf, etc. was stuck in the teeth. Due to cleansing the teeth, this fibre released itself from in between the teeth and the person ate it. However, he did not remove it from his mouth. It went down his throat on its own. If this fibre is less than the size of a gram-seed, the fast will not break. If it is equal to or more than the size of a gram-seed, the fast will break. However, if the person removed this fibre from his mouth and thereafter swallowed it, his fast will break irrespective of whether it was smaller or larger than a gram-seed. In both cases the fast will break.

9. By swallowing one’s saliva, the fast does not break irrespective of the amount swallowed.

10. After eating some betel-leaves, the person washed and gargled his mouth thoroughly. Despite this, the redness of the saliva did not disappear. There is no harm in this. The fast will still be valid.

11. Ghusl became compulsory at night. However, the person did not have a bath and only took a bath during the day. The fast will be valid. In fact, even if he does not bath the entire day, the fast will still be valid. However, he will still be sinning for not bathing.

12. A person sniffed in such a way that the mucus of his nose went down his throat. His fast will not break. Similarly, the fast does not break by sniffing and swallowing the saliva that is in the mouth.

13. A person placed betel-leaves in his mouth and slept away. His eyes only opened the following morning. His fast will not be valid. He will have to make qada of this fast but there will be no kaffarah on him.

14. While rinsing the mouth, water went down the throat and the person knew that he was fasting. His fast will break, qada will be wajib, but there will be no kaffarah on him.

15. A person vomitted unintentionally. The fast will not break irrespective of the amount. However, if he vomitted intentionally, his fast will break if the vomit was a full-mouth. But if it is less than a mouth full, the fast will not break.

16. A small amount of vomit came out but it returned down the throat on its own. The fast will not break. However, if the person swallows it intentionally, his fast will break.

17. A person ate a pebble, a piece of steel or some other object which is not normally eaten nor is it consumed for medicinal purposes. His fast will break but there will be no kaffarah on him. And if he eats or drinks something that is normally consumed, or, it is not normally consumed but is used for medicinal purposes, his fast will break and qada and kaffarah will be wajib on him.

18. When a person has sexual intercourse, the fast will break, qada will become wajib, and it will also be wajib to observe kaffarah. Once the head of the penis enters the vagina, the fast breaks and qada and kaffarah become wajib. This is irrespective of whether ejaculation takes place or not.

19. If the man inserts the head of his penis into the anus of the woman, even then, the fast of both the man and woman will break. Qada and kaffarah will also be wajib on them.

20. When a fast is broken, kaffarah only becomes wajib when the fast of Ramadaan is broken. Kaffarah does not become wajib by breaking any other fast irrespective of the manner in which the fast is broken. This applies even if the fast is a qada of a Ramadaan fast. However, if the intention was not made at night (i.e before dawn) for such a fast, or, a woman gets her haid on that very day after breaking her fast; then by breaking the fast, kaffarah will not become wajib.

21. While fasting, a person took snuff, put some oil in his ears or took an enema without taking any medicine orally. The fast will break. However, only qada will be wajib and not kaffarah. If he puts water in his ears, the fast will not break.

22. While fasting, it is not permissible for a woman to insert any medicine, oil, etc. in her vagina. If she inserts any medicine into the vagina, the fast will break, qada will be wajib but not kaffarah.

23. Because of some reason, the doctor inserts his finger into the vagina, or, the woman inserts her own finger. Thereafter, he or she removes part of the finger or the entire finger and then re-inserts the finger. The fast will break but kaffarah will not be wajib. If the finger was not re-inserted, the fast will not break. However, if the finger was wet or moist before inserting it the first time, and then it is inserted, the fast will break the first time it is inserted.

24. Blood comes out from the mouth. It is then swallowed together with saliva. The fast will break. However, if the quantity of blood is less than that of the saliva and its taste is not felt when it goes down the throat, the fast will not break.

25. If a person tastes something with his mouth and thereafter spits it out, the fast will not break. However, it is makruh to do so unnecessarily. But if one’s husband is very hot-tempered and there is the fear that if the salt or water content in the gravy is not in order, he will become extremely angry, it will be permissible to taste and will no longer be makruh.

26. It is makruh to soften any food with one’s mouth and feed it to a child. However, if this becomes necessary and there is no alternative, it will not be makruh.

27. It is makruh to cleanse the teeth with coal or tooth-powder. If any of these things go down the throat, the fast will break. It is permissible to clean the teeth with a miswaak. This is irrespective of whether it is a dry miswaak or a fresh one. If the miswaak is obtained from the neem (margosa) tree and one perceives it’s bitterness in the mouth, even then it will not be makruh to use such a miswaak.

28. A woman was sleeping or lying down unconscious. A person came and had sexual intercourse with her. Her fast will break, qada will become wajib but she does not have to give any kaffarah. As for the man, qada and kaffarah will be wajib on him.

29. A person ate something forgetfully and thought that since he has eaten, his fast is now broken. He therefore ate something intentionally. His fast will now break, qada will be wajib on him, but not kaffarah.

30. A person vomited involuntarily and thought that his fast is now broken. He therefore consumed some food. His fast will break, qada will be wajib, and not kaffarah.

31. A person applied surmah, underwent blood-letting or applied some oil and thereafter thought that his fast has broken because of any of these causes. He therefore ate some food intentionally. In this case, both qada and kaffarah will be wajib on him.

32. If a person’s fast coincidentally breaks in the month of Ramadaan, he cannot eat or drink anything for the rest of the day. It is wajib on him to abstain from consuming anything for the rest of the day just like a normal fasting person.

33. A person had no intention of fasting on any day in the month of Ramadaan. He therefore continued eating and drinking the entire day. Kaffarah will not be wajib on such a person. Kaffarah only becomes wajib when one makes an intention to fast and thereafter breaks the fast.

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CONDITIONS WHICH PERMIT THE BREAKING OF THE FAST

1. A person suddenly falls ill and fears that if the fast is not broken his life will be in danger or that his health will deteriorate. In such a case it will be permissible to break the fast. For example, a person experiences severe pains in the stomach and becomes extremely restless, or he was bitten by a snake. In such instances, it will be permissible to break the fast and take some medicine. Similarly, if a person feels extremely thirsty and fears for his life, it will be permissible to break the fast.

2. A pregnant woman encounters certain difficulty and thereby fears for her or her child’s life. It will be permissible for her to break her fast.

3. On account of her being preoccupied in cooking, a woman feels extremely thirsty and she feels so restless that she fears for her life. It will be permissible to break the fast. But if she intentionally carried out such strenuous work which caused her to feel this way, she will be sinning.

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CONDITIONS WHICH PERMIT ONE NOT TO FAST

1. A person experiences a sickness which could be aggravated by fasting and he fears that if he had to fast, his sickness would worsen or that his recovery would be delayed or that he would die. In all these instances he should not fast. Once he recovers from his sickness, he must keep qada for the fasts which he missed. However, this concession cannot be obtained by mere thinking and the fast cannot be left out merely on this basis. Instead, when a pious Muslim doctor says that fasting would be detrimental to the sickness, only then will it be permissible to leave out a fast.

2. If the doctor is a kaafir or he is not religiously minded, his advice cannot be relied upon. One cannot leave out a fast merely on his advice.

3. If the doctor did not say anything, and the person has some past experience or noticed certain signs whereby his heart says that fasting will be detrimental to his health, he should not fast. But if he has no past experience, nor does he know anything about this sickness, then his mere thinking is not considered. If a person breaks his fast without consulting a pious doctor or without having any past experience, he will have to give kaffarah. And if he does not fast at all, he will be sinning.

4. A person recovered from his sickness but continued feeling weak and he feels that if he fasts, he will fall ill again. It will be permissible not to fast.

5. If a person is travelling, it is permissible for him not to fast. He must make qada of the missed fast whenever possible. “Travelling” in this context is the same as that mentioned in the chapter on offering salaat while travelling, i.e. one must have the intention of travelling approximately 77 kilometres or more.

6. If by travelling, a person will not experience any difficulties by fasting, e.g. he is travelling by train and feels that he will reach his destination by the evening or he has all the necessary items which will give him comfort during the course of the journey, in such a case it will be preferable to fast even though he is still regarded as a musafir. But if he does not fast despite all these comforts, even then there will be no sin on him. However, he will be deprived of the virtue of fasting in the month of Ramadaan. If a person experiences difficulties because of fasting during the course of his journey, in such a case it will be better not to fast.

7. A person did not fast due to some sickness and passed away in that very sickness, or a traveller did not fast and passed away before he could reach his destination or before he could return home – in both cases they will be absolved from making qada and will not be taken to task for this on the day of judgement. This is because they did not get the opportunity to make qada of the fasts which they had left out.

8. A person left out 10 fasts on account of sickness. Thereafter his health returned to normal for 5 days and he passed away. However, he did not keep any of the missed fasts in these 5 days. He will therefore be accountable for not keeping qada for 5 days of missed fasts and will be absolved from the other 5 days. If the person returned to normal for 10 days but did not make qada of the 10 fasts which he had missed, he will be accountable for all 10 days. It is therefore necessary for the person to advise his near ones before he can pass away to pay fidyah on his behalf for all the fasts which he will be accountable for. This is if he has any money to be given as fidyah. The masa’il related to fidyah will be mentioned in a later chapter – Insha Allah.

9. Similarly, if a person misses a few fasts on account of travelling and passes away after reaching his house, he will only be accountable for the number of days that he was at his house. It is also necessary on this person to make a bequest that fidyah be paid on his behalf. If the number of fasts missed are more than the duration of his stay at home, there is no accountability for them (i.e. for the number of fasts which exceed the duration of his stay at home).

10. During the course of his journey, a person stopped over at a place with the intention of staying there for 15 days or more. It will not be permissible for him to miss out any fast because he is no more regarded as a musafir according to the Shariah. However, if he made the intention of stopping over for less than 15 days, it will be permissible for him not to fast.

11. A pregnant or a breast-feeding woman is permitted not to fast if she fears for the life of her child or her own life. She must make qada of the missed fasts at a later date. However, if her husband is wealthy and he can afford to pay a wet nurse to breast-feed his child, it will not be permissible for her to miss out any fast on account of breast-feeding. However, if the child is such that he refuses to drink the milk of anyone other than his mother’s, it will be permissible for the woman not to fast on account of breast-feeding.

12. A wet nurse accepted the job of breast-feeding before Ramadaan. When Ramadaan commenced, she feared over the life of the child by her fasting. It will also be permissible for this wet nurse not to fast.

13. A woman experienced the monthly haid or gave birth and was therefore in a state of nifaas. As long as the state of haid or nifaas remains, it will not be permissible for such a woman to fast.

14. If a woman becomes pure from her haid or nifaas during the night, she should not leave out fasting the following day. Even if she did not have a bath at night, she should fast and have a bath in the morning. If a woman becomes pure after dawn, it will not be permissible for her to make the intention of fasting. In addition to this, it will not be permissible for her to eat or drink anything. She will have to spend her entire day like normal fasting persons.

15. Similarly, when a person accepts Islam during the day or reaches the age of puberty during the day, he should abstain from eating or drinking anything for the rest of the day. If such a person eats or drinks something during the day, qada fast will not be wajib on him.

16. A traveller had the intention of not fasting. However, he reached his house one hour before noon, or, one hour before noon he made the intention of staying over at a place for 15 days or more. In addition to this, he had not consumed any food or drink since dawn. Such a person should make the intention of fasting and fast for the rest of the day.

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SEHRI AND IFTAR

1. It is sunnah to make sehri. If a person is not hungry, he should at least eat a few dates or anything else no matter how little it may be. If he does not want to have anything at all, he should at least drink some water.

2. A person did not make sehri. He merely woke up and ate some betel leaves. He will still receive the reward of sehri.

3. As far as is possible, sehri should be delayed. However, it should not be delayed to the extent that the time of dawn commences and one begins to have a doubt in one’s fast.

4. A person made sehri very early but thereafter he continued having some betel-leaves, tobacco, tea, water, etc. until just before dawn. When there was a little time left, he gargled his mouth. He will still get the reward of delaying his sehri, and the same rule will apply as that which was mentioned with regard to delaying the sehri.

5. If one’e eyes did not open for sehri and all the members of the household fell asleep, they should fast despite not having made sehri. To leave out the fast on account of not making sehri is a sign of lack of dedication and also a major sin.

6. As long as it is not dawn and the time of fajr salaat does not commence, the explanation of which has passed in the chapter on the times of salaat, it is permissible to continue with the sehri. Once this time expires, sehri is not permissible.

7. A person woke up a bit late and thought that there is some time left. On this assumption, he made sehri. Later he learnt that he had actually made sehri after dawn. His fast will not be valid. He should make qada but kaffarah will not be wajib. However, he should still abstain from eating or drinking anything and remain like any normal fasting person. In the same way, if a person thinks that the sun has set and opens his fast and thereafter the sun appears, his fast will break. He will have to make qada of this but there will be no kaffarah on him. After having learnt that the sun has not set as yet, he should abstain from consuming anything until sunset.

8. If a person gets delayed in waking up for sehri to such an extent that he is in doubt as to whether there is any time left or not, it will be makruh to consume anything. If he eats or drinks anything at such a time, he has committed an evil act and sinned. Later, if he learns that it was already the time of dawn, he will have to keep qada of that fast. But if he does not learn anything and remains in doubt, it will not be wajib to keep the qada fast. However, caution demands that he keep that qada fast.

9. When a person is sure that the sun has set, it is mustahab for him to open his fast immediately. It is makruh to delay in opening the fast.

10. One should delay in opening the fast on a cloudy day. When one is sure that the sun must have definitely set, then only should one open one’s fast and make iftaar. Do not depend on watches and clocks until and unless your heart is at ease because it is possible that the watch is incorrect. In fact, even if the adhaan is heard from somewhere and there is still a doubt as to whether the time is really up or not, even in such a case it is not permissible to open the fast.

11. It is preferable to open the fast with dates. If these are not available, any other sweet substance will suffice. And if even this is not available, open the fast with water. Some men and women open their fast with rough salt and regard this to be an act of reward. This is an incorrect belief.

12. As long as there is a doubt as to whether the sun has set or not, it is not permissible to make iftaar.

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NAZR OF VOWED FASTS

1. If a person vows to keep a fast, it becomes wajib upon him to fulfil it. If he does not do so he will be sinning.

2. Nazr is of two types. One is that the person takes a vow by specifying the day and date by saying: “O Allah! If a particular task of mine is fulfilled today, I will keep a fast for Your pleasure tomorrow.” Alternatively, he says: “O Allah! If a certain wish of mine is fulfilled, I will keep a fast on the coming Friday.” When taking such a vow, it is permissible to make the intention at night or the following day until an hour before mid-day. In both cases the vow will be completed.

3. A person had taken a vow to fast on Friday. When Friday came, he merely made the following intention: “Today I am fasting”, without specifying that this is a nazr fast. Alternatively he made the intention of keeping a nafl fast. Even then, the nazr fast will be fulfilled. However, if a person keeps a qada fast on this Friday and forgets to keep the nazr fast, or, he remembers but intentionally keeps a qada fast, then in such a case the nazr fast will not be fulfilled. Instead, the qada fast will be considered and he will have to repeat the nazr fast.

4. The second type of nazr is that the person does not specify the day and date. He merely says: “O Allah! If a particular task of mine is fulfilled, I will keep a fast.” Alternatively, he did not mention the task but merely said that he will keep five fasts. For such a nazr, it is a prerequisite to make the intention at night. If the intention is made in the morning, the nazr will not be fulfilled and this fast will be regarded as a nafl fast.

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