If a person has wealth which is over and above his basic necessities and which will be sufficient for him to make the onward and return journey for hajj, then hajj becomes fard upon him. There are great virtues in performing hajj. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: “There is nothing in return for a hajj that is free of sins and evils except paradise.” Similarly, great rewards have been mentioned for performing umrah. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: “Hajj and umrahwipe out sins just as a furnace removes the rust that has settled on steel.”
Severe warnings have been mentioned with regard to the one who does not perform his hajj despite it being fard upon him. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: “The person who has food, drink, and the means of transportation in order to undertake the journey of hajj and still does not go – Allah Ta’ala has no concern if the person dies as a Jew or a Christian.” He has also said that the abandoning of hajj is not the way of Islam.
1. Hajj is fard at least once in a life time. If a person performs the hajj several times, the first one will be regarded as fard and the rest will be regarded as nafl hajj. There is also great reward in offering nafl hajj.
2. Hajj that is offered before one can reach the age of maturity is not considered. If a person is rich, hajj will become fard upon him once he reaches the age of maturity. The hajj that he performed before maturity will be regarded as nafl hajj.
3. Hajj is not fard on a blind person irrespective of how rich he may be.
4. Once hajj becomes fard on a person, it becomes wajib on him to go for hajj in that very year. It is not permissible to delay in performing the hajj without a valid reason. It is also not permissible for a person to think that he is still young and that there is still plenty of time to perform the hajj. If a person delays in performing his hajj and performs it after a few years, his fard duty will be fulfilled but he will still be regarded as a sinner.
5. If a woman is going on hajj, it is necessary for her to be accompanied by her husband or some other mahram. It is not permissible for her to go on hajj without a mahram. However, if a woman lives within 77 kilometres of Makkah, it is not necessary for her to go with her husband or amahram.
6. If the mahram has not reached the age of maturity, or he is so irreligious that he cannot even be trusted with his mother, sister, etc. it will not be permissible to travel with such a mahram as well.
7. Once a woman finds a reliable mahram, her husband cannot prevent her from going on hajj. Even if he prevents her from going, she should not pay any heed to him and she should continue on her journey.
8. A girl who is on the verge of reaching the age of maturity cannot go for hajj without a shar’ee mahram. She cannot even go alone.
9. If a mahram takes a woman for her hajj, all his expenses will have to be borne by the woman. It is wajib upon her to pay him for all his expenses.
10. If a woman cannot find a suitable mahram throughout her life, she will not be sinful for not performing her hajj. However, at the time of her death it is wajib on her to make a bequest that hajj be performed on her behalf. After her death, her inheritors should find someone to perform the hajj on her behalf. The expenses for this hajj should be paid from the money that she left behind. In this way she will be absolved of the duty of performing hajj. This type of hajj is known as hajj-e-badal.
11. If hajj was fard on a person but he delayed performing it until such a time that he became blind or became so sick that he is unable to undertake the journey, then he will also have to make a bequest for hajj-e-badal.
12. If a person dies, leaving behind so much of wealth that after paying all his debts, there is sufficient money to pay for the hajj-e-badal from one third of his wealth, then it is wajib on the inheritors to fulfill his bequest for hajj-e-badal. But if the money is so little that hajj-e-badal cannot be made from one third of his wealth, then the person’s relatives should not undertake to have the hajj performed. The inheritors could also take the entire one third for the purpose of hajj-e-badal and supply the balance of the money from their own side so that the hajj-e-badal could be made. In other words, they should not give more than one third from the wealth of the deceased person. However, if all the inheritors happily agree to give their share of the inheritance for the performance of hajj-e-badal, it will be permissible to use more than one third of the wealth of the deceased. However, the permission of immature inheritors is not considered in the Shariah. Therefore, no money should be taken from their share.
13. A person made a bequest for hajj-e-badal and thereafter passed away. However, the wealth that he left behind was very little and hajj-e-badal could not be made from the one third. In addition to this, the inheritors refused to forego their shares in order for the hajj-e-badal to be performed. Bearing all this in mind, if the hajj is not performed, there will be no sin on the deceased.
14. The same rule applies to all bequests. If a person had many fasts to keep, many salaats to makeqada of or some zakaat to be given, he therefore made a bequest for all this and passed away, then all these payments will have to be made from the one third. It is not permissible to use more than one third without the permission of all the inheritors.
15. If a person did not make a bequest for hajj-e-badal, it will not be permissible to do so by using the money which he had left behind. But if all the inheritors agree to this, it will be permissible.Insha Allah, the obligation of hajj will be fulfilled. But it should be borne in mind that the permission of an immature inheritor is not considered.
16. If a woman is in her iddah, she cannot go for hajj.
17. If a person has sufficient funds for the onward and return journey to Makkah but not sufficient enough to visit Madinah as well, hajj will still be fard upon him. Many are of the incorrect opinion that as long as you do not have sufficient funds to go to Madinah as well, hajj does not become fard. This notion is absolutely wrong.
18. When a woman is in her ihraam, she cannot cover her face in such a way that the piece of cloth touches her face. These days, a latticed screen or fan is available for this purpose. It should be tied to the face with the screen in line with the eyes and with the burqah worn loosely above it. This is permissible.
19. The rules and regulations of hajj cannot be understood and remembered without really going on hajj. On going for hajj, one is taught all the rites of hajj, etc. We therefore do not feel it necessary to enumerate these rules and regulations. Similarly, the method of performing umrahcan be learnt by going to Makkah.
The Visit to Madinah
If it is possible, a person should go to Madinah and visit the blessed grave of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and the Musjid-e-Nabawi. This could be done before or after performing hajj. With regard to visiting Madinah, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam has said: “The person who visits me after my demise will receive the same blessings as the person who visited me during my lifetime.” Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam also said: “The person who goes for hajj and does not visit me has demonstrated great impoliteness towards me.” With regard to Musjid-e-Nabawi, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam has said: “The person who offers one salaat in it shall get the reward of offering 50 000 salaats.” May Allah Ta’ala bless us with this opportunity and may He grant us the success to carry out good and pious deeds. Aameen.
The Virtues of Hajj
1. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the angels shake the hands of those hajis who go for hajj by some means of transport, and they embrace those who go for hajj on foot.
2. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when a person goes for hajj on a camel, for every step that the camel takes the person will receive 70 rewards. And the person who goes for hajj on foot will receive 700 rewards for every step that he takes. Although the Hadith mentions “camel”, the same will apply to other forms of transportation as well.
3. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the person who goes for hajj and the person who is waging jihad are actually the guests of Allah Ta’ala. If they make any dua to Him, He accepts it. If they seek forgiveness from Him, He grants it.
4. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the person who performs his hajj will intercede on behalf of 400 family members on the day of judgement. Apart from this, he will be purified of all his sins just as he was pure of sins when his mother had given birth to him. This is on the condition that his hajj is accepted. It is therefore incumbent on a person to ensure that this great ibaadah be accomplished through halaal earnings and that all the rites are fulfilled in the best manner possible. O Allah! Bless me with such a hajj as well. Aameen.
The forgiveness of sins as mentioned in the above Hadith does not apply to huquq (duties and obligations) such as those forms of ibaadah which one has to make qada of or debts which one has to fulfil. Ibaadaat which one has to make qada of or debts which one has to pay have to be fulfilled because these are not sins but huquq (rights).
5. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the person who goes on hajj with haraam wealth, and then recites the following dua:
[To be added]
Translation: O Allah! I have presented myself over here in obedience to Your command.
(which is among the duas that have to be recited during hajj) Allah Ta’ala replies to this dua by saying:
[To be added]
Translation: “I do not accept your labbayk nor your sa’dayk. And your hajj has been flung back onto your face.”
In other words, you have not presented yourself over here in obedience to My command. For, if you had presented yourself in obedience to My command, you would have spent your halaalwealth and come. Your hajj is not accepted because you have come to this great and pure place of Mine with your filthy wealth. You will not be fully rewarded although you will be absolved of yourfard duty.
6. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when you meet a haji, make salaam to him, shake his hands, and ask him to make dua for forgiveness on your behalf. You should do this before he can even enter his house, i.e. the moment he returns from his hajj. You should ask him to make this duafor you because his sins have been forgiven. The person who returns from hajj is an accepted person in the sight of Allah Ta’ala. There is, therefore, great hope in his duas being accepted. Inform him of whatever dua you wish him to make on your behalf irrespective of whether it be for this world or for the hereafter. However, you should do this before he can reach his house.