The civilization of the Arabs

Gustave Le Bon (1884) The civilization of the Arabs Books I: The middle and race. Book II: The Origins of Arab civilization A document produced in digital version by Jean-Marie Tremblay, a volunteer, a sociology professor at Cégep de Chicoutimi Email: jmt_sociologue@videotron.ca Website: http://pages.infinit.net/ sociojmt as part of the collection: “the conventional social science” Website: http://www.uqac.uquebec.ca/zone30/Classiques_des_sciences_sociales/index.html a collection developed in collaboration with the Library Paul-Émile-Boulet of the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi Website: http://bibliotheque.uqac.uquebec.ca/index.htm Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 2 This electronic edition was conducted by Jean-Marie Tremblay, a volunteer, a sociology professor at Cégep de Chicoutimi from Gustave Le Bon (1884) The civilization of the Arabs Books I: The middle and race. Book II: The Origins of Arab civilization An electronic edition made from the article by Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs. [Books I and II] Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1884. Edition reprinted in Paris in 1980 by The Sycamore, Publisher, 1980. 511 pages. Fonts used: For the text: Times, 12 points. For quotations: Times 10 points. For footnotes page: Times, 10 points. electronic edition made with the treatment of texts Microsoft Word 2001 for Macintosh. Layout Paper size Letter (US letter) 8.5 ” x 11 ”) Editing completed October 10, 2003 in Chicoutimi, Quebec. I would like to thank Mr. Roger Deer, volunteer for fully proofread this book as hundreds of errors were made despite several close readings. In recognition of text characters, no emphasis was recognized. New issue completed on 15 October 2003, thanks to the remarkable dedication of Mr. Deer. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 3 Contents Introduction I II III First Book: The middle and race Saudi Chapter I 1. GEOGRAPHY OF SAUDI. Limits of Arabia. Area.Population. Configuration. Mountains. Watercourses. Climates. – 2. PRODUCTION OF SAUDI.Productions animal, vegetable and mineral. Role of the camel and the horse in Arabia. – 3. THE PROVINCES OF SAUDI. Knowledge of ancient concerning Arabia. which recently was known Arabia. ancient and modern divisions of Arabia. Arabia Petrea. His biblical memories. Nejed.Fertility of this province. Hijaz. Mecca and Medina. ACYR countries. Yemen. Former relations of the inhabitants of Yemen with Egypt, Persia and Italy. Richness and fertility of Yemen.Hadramaut Mahrah, Oman and HACA. Chapter II The Arabs 1. THE IDEA OF RACE AFTER THE CURRENT SCIENCE. Value of race and kind words applied to humans. It should be understood by people and by race. How are the races. Influence of the environment, crossing and heredity.Stability of hereditary characteristics. The heredity alone can fight against heredity. The media act only when the hereditary characteristics were separated by crossings. Result of crosses between breeds mixed in unequal proportions. – 2. IMPORTANCE OF MORAL CHARACTER AND STUDY OF INTELLECTUAL IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF RACES. Language, religion, political groups, the anatomical characters do not allow classification race. This classification should be based primarily on the study of moral and intellectual characteristics. Fixity of these characters.They determine the evolution of peoples in history. How the character of a people attaches and turns. Why the characters of modern nations are being transformed. – 3. ORIGIN OF ARAB.Community probable origin of the Semitic peoples. Old relationship of Jews and Arabs. Their current differences. – 4. DIVERSITY OF ARAB POPULATIONS. The populations of the various Arab countries differ much between them as those of Europe. In the center of Arabia, the Arab populations are very different. – 5. DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS ARAB POPULATIONS. basic division of Arabs into sedentary and nomadic. Physical characteristics of the Arabs. Psychology of the Arabs of Arabia, Syria, Egypt, Africa, Spain and China Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 4 Chapter III The Arabs before Mohammed 1. CALLED BARREL OF MUHAMMAD ARAB FRONT. The civilization of a people can suddenly appear in the story, but it always results in a very slow development. Importance of the Arabian civilization in the earliest times of history. Documents highlighting the importance of this civilization. – 2. BEFORE MUHAMMAD ARAB HISTORY. prehistoric period. The oldest traditions of Arabia do not rise above Abraham. Sources of the history of the Arabs before Muhammad. Arab chronicles.Assyrian inscriptions. Greek and Latin authors. Arab struggles against the Greeks and Latins.Shipping Auguste in Yemen. Power of the kingdom of Hira. Saudi has always escaped the invasions. – 3. CIVILIZATION OF SAUDI MUHAMMAD BEFORE. Information provided by the Bible, Herodotus, Strabo, etc. Wealth of Sheba’s palace. Compliance information provided by classical authors with those of the ancient Arab authors. Civilization of Yemen. Importance of its cities and its monuments. Its trade relations in biblical times with the most distant peoples.Throughout classical antiquity Arabia served as a bridge between the West and the East.Ancient trade routes of Arabia. – 4. THE ANCIENT RELIGION OF SAUDI. cults of diversity Arabs before Muhammad. Documents provided by the Assyrian inscriptions and those of Safa. All cults of Arabia had to center the temple of the Kaaba. His three hundred sixty gods at the time of Mohammed. Germs unit that had all these cults second book: The origins of Arab civilization Chapter I Mohammed. Birth of the Arab empire. 1. THE YOUTH OF MAHOMET. How high was Muhammad. His travels in Syria. Its good reputation. His wedding. – 2. preachings of Mahomet.Muhammad’s visions at the age of forty. He exhibits his mission to his parents and friends.Minimal success of his preaching for ten years. Persecution he endured. He is forced to flee to Medina. – 3. SINCE MOHAMMED AH. Commencement of success of Muhammad. Its influence extends every day. First armed struggles. Muhammad seized Mecca. It tries to spread his doctrine out of Arabia. His message to the king of the Persians. Last moments of Mohammed. – 4. NATURE AND MOHAMMED LIFE. Muhammad psychology from the information provided by the Arab chroniclers. His weakness for women. His miracles. mental state of Mohammed. His hallucinations. Grandeur of the results obtained by Muhammad during his life Chapter II The Koran. 1. SUMMARY OF THE QURAN. How was composed the Qur’an. Its finalization. Relatives of the Quran with Jewish books and Christians. His inferiority against religious books of India.Various extracts from the Koran. Definition of God. The creation of the world. Fall of the first man. Hell and Paradise. extreme tolerance of the Quran for Jews and Christians. Alleged fatalism of the Koran. – 2. PHILOSOPHY OF THE QURAN. DISSEMINATION IN THE WORLD.absolute monotheism of the Koran. This absolute monotheism derives the great simplicity of the religion of Mohammed. Its simplicity and lack of mysteries make it accessible to all intelligences. The clarity of the doctrines of the Koran, his spirit of charity and justice have contributed to its rapid spread around the world. Importance of political and civilizing influence of the Koran. He survived civilization created under his influence. Islamism is still one of the most widespread religions in the globe. Links created Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 5 between diverse peoples by the Koran. Error historians on the causes of the gradual spread of the Koran in the world. Chapter III The conquests of the Arabs.1. THE WORLD AT THE TIME OF MAHOMET. State of the Eastern Empire and the Persians. State of Europe. Causes that made the conquest easy Arabs. Power of the new ideal created by Muhammad. How Arab acquired military knowledge they lacked. – 2. CHARACTERS OF ARAB CONQUESTS. statesmanship of the first successors of Mohammed. Their tolerance. Moderation conditions they imposed on the peoples submitted by them. Respect their beliefs, laws and customs of the invaded peoples. Their rule never to impose the Quran by force. Omar pipe in Jerusalem. Grandeur of the civilizing influence of the Arabs. Religion and language have never been uprooted countries where they have introduced them. – 3. THE FIRST SUCCESSORS OF MAHOMET. State of Arabia at the time of Muhammad’s death. very great difficulties encountered by his successors. Simplicity and austerity of the early caliphs. Principles of equality they first maintained between all Arabs. Beginnings of the great conquests of the Arabs. – 4. SUMMARY OF HISTORY OF ARAB CONQUESTS. Their conquests during the first centuries of the Hegira. organization period. dislocation of time and then decline. Mongol invasion. The people overthrow the Arabs adopt their religion and language and try to continue their civilization third book: Empire Chapter I Arabs Arabs in Syria DIVERSITY OF CONDITIONS OF EXISTENCE WHICH found themselves SUBMITTED IN THE ARAB THEY countries invaded. The conditions of existence which were submitted different Arabs have resulted in a very uneven development of their civilization in the different countries. Arab civilization has the following times and places of the stages of evolution that can not be confused. – 2. ESTABLISHMENT OF ARAB IN SYRIA. State of Syria when the Arabs entered it. How conquered. First setback suffered by the Arabs. Taking Damascus, Jerusalem and all major cities. Tolerance displayed by the Arabs in Syria. – 3. CIVILIZATION OF SYRIA UNDER THE ARABS. Prosperity of Syria under the Arabs.Tranquility enjoyed by Christians. flourishing state of agriculture, industry, science and the arts.Parallel between this prosperity of Syria and its current state of decay. – 4. MONUMENTS LEFT BY THE ARABS IN SYRIA. Importance and antiquity of these documents. foreign architects employed by the Arabs. printed special physiognomy to the Arab monuments of Jerusalem and its surroundings. Arab Tower of Ramleh. Arab monuments of Damascus. Arabs meet all the existing civilization before them. They first represent the ancient civilization, but soon print her personal stamp Chapter II The Arabs in Baghdad 1. CIVILIZATION IN THE ARAB EAST DURING KHALIFAT Bagdag. The days of the Baghdad caliphate is one of the brightest of Arab civilization.How, in the absence of monuments, it is possible to reconstruct the civilization of Baghdad.Information provided by the Arab chroniclers. Civilisation of Baghdad under Harun al Rashid and his son Mamoun. Organization of the empire. Government. Positions. Finance.Administration. Police. Agriculture. Industry. Universities. Luxury and power of the Caliphs. They force the emperor of Constantinople to pay them tribute. Decadence of the caliphate. Its causes. End of the dynasty of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II.6 Abassides. Influence of Arab civilization in the East. She soon subdues peoples who attempted to overthrow Chapter III Arabs in Persia and India 1. ARABS IN PERSIAN. The materials used to reconstruct the civilization of the Arabs vary in each country. Conquest of Persia by the Arabs.The History of Persia under their rule merges with that of Baghdad. Destruction of the power of the Arabs by the Mongols and Turkmen. Destruction of all ancient monuments of Persia.Evidence of the influence of Arab civilization in Persia. Influence of their religion, their language, their scientific knowledge and their architecture. The influence of the Arabs in Persia was lower than in most other countries. – 2. THE ARABS IN INDIA. very low importance of the political power of the Arabs in India and very important for their civilizing influence. 50 million Hindus adopted the law of the Prophet. Power and ancient civilizations encountered by Arabs in India.Arab civilization does not substitute in India to that of the invaded people, but merges with it.The Arabs are soon replaced in India by various Asian Dynasties continue their traditions. The study of monuments in India shows how the combined influences Hindu, Persian and Arabic.The importance of each of these elements varies according to time. various examples. Tour Koutab. Aladdin door. Mausoleum Altamesh. Mausoleum of Akbar, in Secundra. The Taj Mahal and the Pearl Mosque at Agra Palace Great Mogul, Delhi Chapter IV 1. The Arabs in Egypt EGYPT AGAINST INVASION OF ARAB. particular importance in the study of Arabs in Egypt. Egypt is one of the countries where the Arab civilization has completely replaced that existed before it.Strength and duration of the ancient Egyptian civilization. The Greeks and Romans had failed to topple. State of Egypt before the Arabs. Special conditions of existence it presents. The soil, the climate and the people. – 2. CONQUEST OF EGYPT BY ARABS. Low resistance that Arab met in Egypt on the part of the population. Resistance of the Greek army. Length of the See of Alexandria. Amru benevolent conduct towards the vanquished. He respects their laws, their customs and beliefs. special protection granted to Christians. Organisation of justice, administration, public works, etc. Summary of the history of Egypt during the Arab period. – 3. ARAB CIVILIZATION IN EGYPT. Elements which was pulled this civilization. Development of arts and industry under the Fatimids. Sources of wealth of the Caliphs. Egypt was the center of relations between East and West. This source of wealth lasted until the discovery of a route by the Cape of Good Hope. – 4. MONUMENTS LEFT BY THE ARABS IN EGYPT. Importance of these monuments. They have varied specimens from all periods, from the early days of Islam. The city of Cairo. Mosques of Amr, of Tulun of al Azhar, from Kalaoun, Hassan, emir of Achor, el Barquq to Mouaiad, Kait Bey. modern mosques of Cairo. Other Arab monuments of Cairo. City gates.Citadel. Joseph wells, etc. Chapter V The Arabs in North Africa 1. NORTHERN AFRICA BEFORE THE ARABS. Ancient populations of Africa. All populations designated by the names of Moors, Numidians, Libyans, etc., were formed by Berbers. In ancient Africa everything was not negro was Berber. Berber origin. Invasions from the East and the West have helped train them.Anthropology Berbers. Their language, their customs and manners. Their political and social institutions. Psychology Berbers. The Berbers are divided, like the Arabs, nomadic and sedentary, and also form two distinct populations. Errors Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 7 professed with regard to the nature of the differences between Arabs and Berbers. Special alleged ability of the Berber civilization. – 2. ESTABLISHMENT OF ARAB IN AFRICA. Difficulties presented to the Arab conquest of Africa. Slow conquest. The conquest of Africa by the Arabs has two distinct periods. Immigration of Arab population in Africa in the eleventh century. Disastrous effect of this invasion. Africa Division into independent kingdoms. – 3. MONUMENTS LEFT BY THE ARABS IN NORTH AFRICA. These monuments are much lower than those they left in Egypt and Spain. Mosques Biskra, Kairouan, Tlemcen, Algiers and Morocco Chapter VI The Arabs in Spain 1. SPAIN BEFORE THE ARABS.Purpose of the Arabs in undertaking the conquest of Spain. Need for care outside the Berbers.State of Spain at the time of the Arab invasions. Weaknesses of the monarchy of the Goths. – 2. ESTABLISHMENT OF ARAB IN SPAIN. Speed of the conquest of Spain by the Arabs. Moderation in respect of subject populations. Invading armies were composed of Arabs and Berbers. Spain mixes Arabs, Berbers and Christians. Results of this mixture. Summary of the political history of Spain during the Arab domination. political genius of the weakness of the Arabs in Spain.Greatness of their civilizing influence. Their expulsion by Christians. deep decadence result of this expulsion. – 3. ARAB CULTURE IN SPAIN. The Arabs fully transform Spain in less than a century. prosperous state of the industry, agriculture, commerce, science, literature and art under the rule. They put Spain at the forefront of civilized nations in the Middle Ages. Their moral influence was as great as their intellectual influence. Parallel between the chivalrous manners and those of Europeans from the same era. Protection afforded to Christians and Jews. – 4. MONUMENTS LEFT BY THE ARABS IN SPAIN. What current classifications monuments of Spain can not be accepted. How the Arabs after suffering Byzantine influence, it subtracts soon. The monuments of the Arabs in various countries have common characteristics, but differ significantly among them. Arab monuments in Cordoba, Toledo, Seville, Granada, etc. Chapter VII The Arabs in Sicily, Italy and France 1. ARABS IN SICILY AND FRANCE. different characters of the Arab invasions in the countries where they occurred. Why they were not civilizing France and became the only after some time in Italy and Sicily. History of the School of the Arabs in Sicily. Norman invasion, struggles with the papacy and with the Arabs. special character of the wars of the time. final conquest of Sicily by the Normans. The influence of Arabs continues long after the conquest. – 2. ARAB CULTURE IN SICILY. Prosperity of Sicily under the Arabs. Political Constitution of Sicily. Situation of Christians. Agriculture, industry and commerce. Cities and monuments. – 3. INVASION BY ARABS IN FRANCE. Purpose of the many incursions of the Arabs in France. They are not looking to settle in a definitive way. real character of the Abderamus invasion. His defeat at Poitiers by Charles Martel. Low consequences of this defeat. Christians soon allied with the Arabs to push Charles Martel. After the battle of Poitiers, the Arabs continue to occupy for two centuries the cities they had previously. General error of historians on the results of the battle of Poitiers. Why is the course of history had not changed if Charles Martel had been vanquished. Traces left by the Arabs in France in the language and in the blood. French descendant populations of Arabs Chapter VIII Struggles of Christianity against Islam. The Crusades. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 8 1. ORIGIN OF Crusades. Terror inspired in Europe Mohammedans at the time of the Crusades.State of Europe and the East during the Crusades. Difficulties of Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem when the Turks had replaced the Arabs in Syria. Preaching of Peter the Hermit. – 2. SUMMARY OF Crusades. Causes that determined the peoples of Europe to commit to the First Crusade. Much of the valid Europe rushes Asia. Capture of Jerusalem. Destruction of all city residents. Stories of Christian chroniclers; their opinion on the Crusaders. Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. rapid decay of Syria under Christian rule. Jerusalem was taken by the Mohammedans despite the second crusade. The six new crusades undertaken by Europe to recapture Jerusalem fail completely. – 3. Results of the Crusades. Results advantageous and detrimental results. Impotence of barbarous Europe against the civilized East. Influence of Arab civilization to Europe via the Crusades. The Crusades increase the spiritual power of the popes.How they settled for several centuries intolerance in Europe. They weaken feudal power in France, but strengthen the England and Germany. considerable extension given to municipalities by the Crusades. Trade relations of the East consecutive crusades. These relationships are the source of the power of Venice. great influence of the Crusades on the industry and the arts in Europe. They have only a very small influence on the spread of scientific and literary works. The final result of the crusades was to prepare Europe to emerge from barbarism Fourth Book: The customs and institutions of the Arabs. Chapter I Nomadic Arabs and settled Arabs campaigns. 1. LIFE RECOVERY OF OLD. How it is possible to reconstruct ancient Arabs’ lives. The significant social changes affect only the upper layers of the population. Why, arrived at a certain phase of their civilization, the Arabs ended up not changing. – 2. LIFE OF ARAB NOMADS. Simplicity of life. Lack of need. Invariance of the existence of the nomads from the earliest times. Their life in the desert. usual occupations. women work, Camps, etc. – 3. LIFE OF ARAB SEDENTARY CAMPAIGNS. social sedentary Arabs. Fixity of their manners and customs. Detailed description of a selected population for Type. Patriarchal mores. Community property. Family life. Domesticity. Identity of certain customs with those already existing in biblical times. statutory scheme. Polygamy. imperative necessities that prevent communities from dissolving. Relations with the nomads. Their obligation to pay a tribute to prevent their depredations, and to have allies. This tribute represents that spend a civilized society for the maintenance of magistrates and policemen. Domestic Life sedentary Arabs from various countries. Abodes. Food and meals. Costumes Chapter II of Arab cities. – Life and customs. 1. ARAB SOCIETY. profound differences between the societies of the West from those of the East. Some of feverish agitation, serenity of others. Lack of social rivalries in the East. Polite and very high tolerance for men and things. Moderation in need. Dignity in all classes. How the current state of Arab towns can provide useful information for the reconstruction of their past condition. – 2. ARAB CITIES. HOUSING. BAZAARS etc. Physiognomy of Arab cities. Outdoor living constantly with the sunset. The evening is dedicated exclusively to family life. Streets of the East. Softness Orientals towards all animals. Means of transport.Dwellings. Description of a palace in Damascus. Houses in Algeria, Morocco and Egypt. Why Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 9 Arab homes have quite different in the different countries. Bazaars of the East. 3. & RECEPTIONS. Births. Circumcision.Weddings, funerals, etc. 4. OTHER ARAB CUSTOMS. Baths. Cafes. Smoking and hashish, etc. 5. GAMES AND SHOWS. various games Arabs. Songs and music. Dances. Almées, etc. – 6. SLAVERY IN EAST. Erroneous ideas of Europeans on slavery in the East. The situation of slaves in the Orient is greater than that of domestic Europe. lilies can rise to the highest offices. They refuse freedom that laws grant them. Orientals opinion on the reasons for European intervention in the slave trade. This draft is less fatal than the forced importation of opium into China by Europeans Chapter III Political and Social Institutions Arabs 1. ORIGIN OF INSTITUTIONS OF ARAB. Necessities that determine the political and social institutions of a people. They are simply the expression of feelings and needs hereditary. Impossibility of imposing a people of institutions that have not been caused by its past. The Qur’an could not be imposed to the peoples whose manners and customs were very similar to those of the Arabs. How can transform the institutions of a people. Extreme slowness of these changes. The Qur’an has not significantly altered the institutions of the Arabs. Muhammad’s book is a collection of ancient customs already established by the opinion. His study shows very well the social state of the nation where it originated. – 2. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS OF ARAB. Sources of Muslim jurisprudence. Hanafi rite, schafeite, Maliki and Hanbali. Customary law. Criminal law. Law of retaliation. Its usefulness in all primitive societies. Introduction of compensation. Blood Money.Civil right. Property. Successions. Comparative study of French codes, English and Arabic from the standpoint of the right of succession. judicial organization and procedure of the Arabs.sense of equality that exists in all Arab institutions. – 3. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS OF ARAB. The political regime of the Arabs is a democracy under an absolute master. Why the low political system was very large Arabs. The same institutions may, depending on time and races, bringing the greatness of a people or its decadence Chapter IV Women in the East. 1. Polygamy DUE IN EAST. Errors professed in Europe on the causes of polygamy in the East. She is very predates Islam and is the necessary consequence of the climate, the way of life and temperament.Superiority of the legal polygamy Orientals on the hypocritical polygamy Europeans. Lack of rivalry and jealousy in polygamous marriages. – 2. INFLUENCE ISLAMISM ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN EAST. happy influence of the Koran on the social status of women in the East. Status of women before and after Muhammad. The chivalrous manners forcing to treat women with the respect owed to the Arabs. How they were treated in the time of Charlemagne. literary works of Arab women during the brilliant period of Islamism. Muhammad is the first area that has raised the status of women. – 3. MARRIAGE IN ARAB. legal prescriptions of the Koran regarding marriage. Possibility of divorce but need to ensure the fate of the divorced woman.Morality marriages in the East. Rarity of celibacy. Authority of the father in the eastern family.The legal situation of married women is much more advantageous for her in the East and Europe. Women are more respected and more happy in the East and Europe. It is generally more educated. – 4. harems OF THE EAST. Family life in the harem. Advantages and disadvantages of harems. Chapter V Religion and morality. 1. INFLUENCE OF RELIGION IN ISLAM. Religious beliefs were among the Arabs a major factor in their evolution. profound influence of the Koran on Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 10 Arabs. No Muslim would dare to evade its requirements. It is only through religion that it is possible to act on the minds of Easterners. – 2. CULT AND CEREMONIES OF RELIGIOUS ISLAMISM. various sects, Shia and Sunni, etc. religious ceremonies. Prayers. Youth. Religious holidays. Pilgrimage to Mecca. Ceremonies practiced by the dervishes. Religious monuments: Mosques, convent schools – 3. MORALITY IN ISLAMISM. Analysis of moral prescriptions of the Koran and those of the Gospel. Independence of religion and morality. Variability of morality Orientals following times and races. Compared morality of Christians and Mohammedans Orientals. Power of some dead Fifth Book: The civilization of the Arabs. Chapter I Origin knowledge of the Arabs. Their teaching and their methods. 1. SOURCES OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND ARAB LITERARY. civilizing influence of the Persians and Byzantines to the Arabs. How Greek Science penetrated the East. Translations of Greek authors ordered by the caliphs. Ardor brought by the Arabs in the scientific and literary studies. Foundations libraries, universities, laboratories and observatories. – 2. METHOD OF ARAB SCIENTIFIC. Party knew that the Arabs take the materials they had in their hands. They soon replace the experience and observation to the study of books. They were the first who introduced the experiment in the study of science. Precision that this method gave their work. She made possible their important discoveries Chapter II language, philosophy, literature and history. Traces of Arabic in Spanish and French. – 2. PHILOSOPHY OF ARAB. It derives from Greek philosophy. Culture of philosophy in Muslim universities. General skepticism of Arab philosophers. – 3. LITERATURE ARAB. Poetry of the Arabs before Muhammad. Excerpts of some poems. poets considerable influence among the Arabs. Culture of poetry throughout the Arab civilization. Invention rhymes by the Arabs.Novels and short stories. Sessions Hariri. The thousand and One Nights. psychological guidance provided by the study of this book for the recovery of certain feelings among the Orientals.Fables and proverbs. Their importance. Enumeration of the most remarkable. History. Arab Historians: Tabari, Masudi, Aboulfarage, Ibn Khaldun, Makrisi, Howairi, etc. Rhetoric and eloquence among Arabs. Chapter III Mathematics and Astronomy. 1. MATHEMATICS. The study of mathematics, including algebra was widespread among Arabs. Importance of their discoveries in trigonometry and Algebra. – 2. ASTRONOMY IN ARAB. Astronomy schools founded by the Arabs. School Baghdad. Summary of the work of the leading astronomers of this school: measuring the obliquity of the ecliptic, an arc of the meridian. Study of the moon moves. Exact determination of the duration of the year, etc. The influence of this school survives the fall of Baghdad. Arab astronomers become the masters of the Mongols. Their works were introduced to China and become the basis of Chinese astronomy. Latest Baghdad school books are the fifteenth century AD. They connect to that ancient astronomy today. Cairo astronomy schools.Publication of hakémite table. Wealth of the former library Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 11 astronomical Cairo. Astronomical schools in Spain and Morocco. Astronomical instruments of Cairo. Summary of astronomical discoveries of the Arabs. Chapter IV Geographical Sciences. 1. GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORATIONS OF ARAB. Arab Relations with the most distant regions of the globe. Relations with China in the ninth century AD. Travel Masudi, Haukal, Albirouni, Batoutah, etc., throughout the world. – 2. PROGRESS MADE BY GEOGRAPHIC ARAB. astronomical geography works. Correction significant mistakes of Ptolemy. Comparison of astronomical positions determined by the Greeks on the length of the Mediterranean. Importance of Arab geography books. Edrisi Treaty. It was copied by all European geographers for centuries. Edrisi knowledge of the sources of the Nile. Summary of geographical works of the Arabs Chapter V Physical sciences and applications. 1. PHYSICAL AND. MECHANICAL. Works Arabs in physics and mechanics. Book of Optics Alhazen. Knowledge of the Arabs in applied mechanics. Description of the great clock of the Mosque of Damascus.Description of various mechanical devices. – 2. CHEMISTRY. The chemical bases are due to the Arabs. They discover the most important body, such as sulfuric acid, alcohol, etc. The basic operations of chemistry, such as distillation are owed. Construction of the main Arab chemists.Their alchemical theories. – 3. APPLIED SCIENCE DISCOVERIES. industrial knowledge Arabs.Applications of chemistry in the extraction of metals, steel making, dyeing, etc. Inventions of gunpowder and firearms. modern studies demonstrating that this discovery is due. MM Research. Reinaud and Favé. Difference between the powder and the Greek fire. Safety of the latter. Chronic Arabs proving that firearms were used by them long before Europeans.Invention of tissue paper by the Chinese and paper and cotton cloths by the Arabs. Application of the compass for navigation. Summary Arabs discoveries Chapter VI Natural and Medical Science. 1. NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARAB. They published many books on plants, metals, fossils, etc. Several all modern theories have already shown in their books. – 2. MEDICAL SCIENCES.Importance of science among the Arabs. Indication of medical books and discoveries of major Arab doctors. Aaron, Rhazes, Ali Abbas, Avicenna, Albucacis, Averroes, etc. Hygiene Arabs. The precepts of Salerno’s school are excerpts of Arabic books. Progress by the Arabs in the medical sciences. Introduction of many new medicines in therapeutic. The Arabs are the true creators of pharmacy. Their surgical discoveries Chapter VII Arabs arts. Painting, sculpture, industrial arts.1. IMPORTANCE OF ARTWORK FOR REVIVAL OF AN ERA. The artworks are simply expressing feelings, beliefs, needs a time and change with it. We must put them among the most important historical documents. The art of a people immediately turns soon as it is adopted by another people. Example provided by Muslim art. Factors determining the evolution of artworks.Conditions for the works of art are a language easy to read. – 2. THE ORIGINS OF ARAB ART. The arts of all peoples always derived from those who preceded them. Example provided by the Greeks and the various European nations. What constitutes the originality of a people in the art.Creating a new art with elements of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 12 earlier. Items borrowed by the Arabs to the Byzantines and Persians soon form an entirely original art. What some people have never been able to rise to the originality in art.Examples from Turks and Mongols. The elements of prior arts are superimposed in the latter, but not combined. – 3. VALUE OF ARAB BEAUTY ARTS. Could not find an absolute scale to determine the value of a work of art. relative value of beauty and ugliness. Origin of our aesthetic feelings. Origin of our illusions about the absolute value of artworks. The art is not designed to faithfully reproduce nature. Characteristic of Arab arts. – 4. THE ARAB ARTS.Painting and sculpture. Metalworking and gems. Silversmithing, jewelery, damasquinerie, chiselling. Of wood and ivory. Mosaics, glassware, ceramics. Fabrics, carpets and drapes Chapter VIII The architecture of the Arabs. 1. CURRENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF ARAB. Extreme lack of knowledge. complete absence of working together on Arab architecture. Importance of a comparative study of Arab arts in the various countries. – 2. ELEMENTS FEATURES OF ARAB ART. Construction materials. Columns and capitals. Arcades.Minarets. Cupolas. Pendants. Arabesques and details of ornamentation. polychrome decoration. – 3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VARIOUS ARAB MONUMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE.Classification and description of monuments of Syria, Egypt, North Africa, Spain, India and Persia at various times. Similarities and differences of these monuments. New classification of Arab monuments, Chapter IX Trade Arabs. – Their relationship with various countries. 1. ARAB RELATIONS WITH INDIA. Seniority of those relationships. land and sea routes. Importance of trade relations with India Arabs. Egypt was the warehouse of the trade and served as a bridge between the West and the East. – 2. ARAB RELATIONS WITH CHINA. land and sea routes. Trips to China Arabs in the tenth century. Object of their traffic. – 3. ARAB RELATIONS WITH AFRICA.Importance of Arab explorations in Africa. They extended to regions that only begins to explore today. – 4. RELATIONS WITH ARAB EUROPE. Relations with the neighboring regions of the Mediterranean. Relations with Russia, Denmark, Norway. Roads leading into the north of Europe Chapter X Civilization of Europe by the Arabs. Their influence in the West and East 1. INFLUENCE OF ARAB IN EAST. This influence was much greater than that of the Persians, Greeks and Romans. The Arabs were the only conquerors who managed to gain acceptance in Eastern religion, language and arts. Their influence in Egypt, Syria, Persia, China and India. – 2. INFLUENCE OF ARAB IN THE WEST. Barbarism of Europe when the Arabs entered it. How they civilized Europe. The average age lived only translations of Arabic works. Importance of these translations XLI in the fifteenth century. This is not only Arabs that Europe has the knowledge of the ancient writers. Loans that are at their books all previous European scholars in the Renaissance. Their influence in the universities of France and Italy. Islamism, considered religion exercised no influence on the scientific doctrines of the Arabs and their propagation.Influence of Arab architecture in Europe. It was less of Gothic architecture is generally believed.Arab influence on the manners of Europe. They substitute the customs of chivalry to barbarism.Why the Arab influence on Europe is so generally misunderstood Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 13 Book Sixth: The decline of Arab civilization. Chapter I of Arab successors. – Influence of European East. 1. SUCCESSORS OF ARAB IN SPAIN. Causes of the power of the Spanish monarchy after the conquest of Spain. Position the Arabs continued to occupy in Spain for the first time following the conquest. Their expulsion. Immediate collapse of Spanish civilization after the expulsion of the Arabs. Depopulation of the cities and the countryside. Disappearance of agriculture and industry. Considerable lowering of the intellectual level of Spain. It is reduced to being governed by foreign borrowing and any outside.Spain has never been able to recover from the decline that followed the departure of the Arabs.- 2. THE SUCCESSORS OF ARAB IN EGYPT AND EAST. Results substitution Turks to Arabs in the East. Weaknesses of the political institutions of the latter. Their inability to use the civilization that was bequeathed to them. The last successors of Arabs in Egypt. European influence in Egypt. current destruction of monuments. – 3. SUCCESSORS OF ARAB IN INDIA. The Mongols and the British. Prosperity of India under the Mongols. current misery of India. – 4. Cause of impotence Europeans to accept their civilization in the East. Orientals opinion on our morality.Results of attempts to European civilization in Japan Chapter II Causes of grandeur and decadence of the Arabs. current status of Islamism. 1. CAUSES OF GREATNESS OF ARAB.Influence of the moment. The same qualities produce different results according to the times.The race. Importance of the character on the evolution of a people. apparent variation of these effects. Influence of the ideal. It is the most powerful factor in the evolution of human societies.the ideal power created by Muhammad. The decay begins when a people no longer ideal to defend. Causes of the Arab conquests. How they were facilitated by an extreme tolerance for the vanquished. Why survived their beliefs. Factors of civilization of the Arabs. Influence of their intellectual abilities. – 2. CAUSES OF DECLINE OF ARAB. Many of the causes of magnitude can be invoked as causes of decadence. Influence of character. Influence of political and social institutions. Why they stopped changing Arabs at some point. Influence of foreign invasions.Influence of the diversity of breeds subject to Islamism. Inability to submit long to the same regime of different peoples. baneful influence crossings. – 3. RANK OF ARAB IN HISTORY.Difficulty of finding a scale to measure the value of individuals and peoples. This scale varies each time. Importance of character. It determines the success much more surely than intelligence. What constitutes the superiority of a people. Comparison between the middle layers of the Eastern European and the corresponding layers. – 4. STATE OF ISLAMISM. steady progress of Islamism. Peoples under its laws. beneficent influence it exerts wherever it penetrates. ConclusionTable of figures (in numerical order) methodical table maps, color plates and illustrations Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 14 Table of figures (numerical order) See the engravings on the website: The Classics of Social Sciences: Gustave Le Bon Back to Table of Contents Boards colors: Plate 1: polychrome decoration of a pavilion in the Alhambra in Granada. Restitution by Mr. Garcia and Dr. Gustave Le Bon Plate 2: bronze inlaid table money of Sultan Mohammed Ben Kaloun. Thirteenth century (Arab Museum of Cairo). From a photograph and a watercolor of Dr. Gustave Le Bon. Plate 3: Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem; from a photograph and a watercolor by Dr. Gustave Le Bon. Plate 4: Sanctuary of the Al ACZA in Jerusalem. From a photograph and a watercolor by Dr. Gustave Le Bon. Plate 5: Jameh Mosque of Isfahan. According to a drawing Coste. Plate 6: Ornamentation polychrome ceiling of the old Mosque of Cordoba (Style Byzantine-Arabic) (architect Monuments of Spain.).Plate 7: Ceiling of a modern home in Damascus. Drawn from life by Bourgoin. Plate 8: I. Pavement marble of an old house in Cairo. II. marble mosaic and pearl of the Great Mosque of Damascus. Plate 9: Stained Shrine Mosque El ACZA in Jerusalem. From a photograph and a watercolor of Dr. Gustave Le Bon. Plate 10: Old Arab lamp enamelled glass mosque (Cairo Museum) From a photograph and a watercolor of Dr. Gustave Le Bon. Maps: Map 1: Map of Arabia and Egypt, according to the most recent documents; Map 2: Map of the empire of the Arabs at the time of their greater power and Islamism at the present time, prepared under the direction of Dr. Gustave le Bon Figure 233: Arab map of mid-twelfth century , designed to Cairo by Prisse d’Avesne. Figure 234: Arab Edrisi Card (1160); after V. St. Martin. Figures: Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. Figure 15 Introduction of the beginning of the “Introduction” Book 1: The middle and race (1 to 19a.) The figure of the early “Book I”. Fig.1: The desert; from a photograph. Fig. 2: Camp pilgrims near Mecca, at the time of the pilgrimage; according to instant photography. Fig. 3: View from the top of Sinai (Drawing by M. de Laborde). Fig. 4: Oasis of Dahab on the Gulf Élanitique. – Saudi Petraea. – (Drawing by M. de Laborde.) Fig. 5: City Mosque in Mecca; from a photograph of the Egyptian colonel Sadik Bey.Fig. 6: The Kaaba, the mosque of Mecca during the Hajj; from a photograph. Fig. 7: Nomads and nomads leaders from neighboring Arab tribes independent of the Dead Sea, photographed by the author. Fig. 8: Bedouin nomads of Syria, photographed in Jericho by the author. Fig. 9: sedentary Arabs of Syria, Damascus photographed by the author. Fig. 10: Arab sedentary Syria, photographed in Damascus by the author. Fig. 11: Arabs of Upper Egypt, near Thebes photographed by the author. Fig. 12: Arab Women in environs of Cairo, from a photograph. Fig.13: Muslims of Nubia; after photographs of the author. Fig. 14: Muslim Nubia; after photographs of the author. Fig. 15: Moroccan Beggars; from a photograph. Fig. 16: Merchant of water Moroccan Tangier; from a photograph. Fig. 17: nomadic desert Arabs of Syria; from a photograph. Fig. 18: Women Bedouin desert of Syria; from a photograph. Fig. 19: cameleers Arabia Petraea. Fig. 19a: Agate. Book 2: The Origins of Arab civilization: Figures 20 to 58. The figure of the early “Book II”. Fig. 20: View of Medina; from a photograph. Fig. 21: Camp pilgrims at the gates of Medina; according to instant photography. Fig. 22: Ablutions the sacred well of Zem Zem during the pilgrimage to Mecca; according to instant photography. Fig. 23: Shrine of Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, the largest cemetery in Damascus; from a photograph. Fig. 24: Decorations excerpts of an ancient Koran Cairo (Ebers). Fig. 25: Muhammad digit; after an ancient inscription of the Mosque of Tulun raised by Marcel. Fig. 26: Last page of an old Quran from the Library of El Escorial (Spanish Museum). Fig. 27: Last page of an old Quran from the Library of El Escorial (Spanish Museum). Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 16 Fig. 28-30: Coins of the first caliphs. (These currencies and the following are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 31: Currency ommiade Caliph of Damascus, ECHAM, 107 AH (725 Jesus Christ). (These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 32: Currency of Caliph el Mahady, 162 AH (779 AD). (These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 33: Currency of Caliph Mamoun el, 218 AH (833 AD). (These coins from the collection of Mr. Marcel) Fig. 34: Currency of Tulun, 157 AH (870 AD). (These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel).Fig. 35: Currency of Caliph Raddy, 328 AH (933 AD). (These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 36-37: Gold Mint Fatimid Caliph Mostanser, 442 and 465 of the Hegira (1050 to 1072 AD). (These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 38: Sultan Saladin coins minted in Damascus in the year 583 AH (1187 AD). It focuses on his lapel name abisside Caliph of Baghdad. (These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 39 Other currency Saladin.(These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 40: Currency of Caliph el-Kamel el-Melck the beginning of the thirteenth century. They carry on the back the name of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad. (These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 41: Sultan Currency Beybars. (These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 42-50: Currency Arabs of Spain.(Spanish antiquities Museum.) (These coins are from the collection of Mr. Marcel). Fig. 51: Teaches Arab Almohad. (Spanish antiquities Museum.) Fig. 52: Key Arab towns and castles.(Spanish antiquities Museum.) Fig. 53: Puzzle of an Arab prince of Egypt. The weapon and the following four were drawn by Prisse Avesnes. They are of Persian-Arabic style. Fig. 54: Dagger of an Arab prince of Egypt. This weapon was designed by Prisse Avesnes. It is of Persian-Arabic style. Fig. 55: Starts an Arab prince of Egypt. This weapon was designed by Prisse Avesnes. It is of Persian-Arabic style. Fig. 56 and 57: Axes of an Arab prince of Egypt. This weapon was designed by Prisse Avesnes. It is of Persian-Arabic style. Fig. 58: Helmet of an Arab prince of Egypt. (Persian-Arabic Style). Book 3: The empire of the Arabs: Figures 59 to 163. The figure of the early “Book III”. Fig. 59: Walls of Damascus; from a photograph. Fig. 60: Faubourg Meidan in Damascus; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 61: Damascus Road; from a photograph. Fig.62: Court of the Great Mosque of Damascus; from a photograph. Fig. 63: Minaret of Jesus (Grand Mosque of Damascus). Fig. 64: School and school teacher in Damascus; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 65: Omar Mosque (Temple of Jerusalem); after a photograph of the author. Fig. 66: Inside the Mosque of Omar (Temple of Jerusalem); after a photograph of the author. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 17 Fig. 67: Ceilings of the first inner gallery of the Mosque of Omar (Temple of Jerusalem); after a photograph of the author. Fig. 68: Mihrab of Zacharias in the El-Akza mosque; after a photograph of the author.Fig. 69: Omar Oratory in El-Akza mosque; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 70: Ramleh Tour; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 71: Mosque Urfa (Mesopotamia); after a drawing of Flandin. Fig. 72: Passage of the Euphrates to Bin-Hadjik; after a drawing of Flandin. Fig. 73: View taken in Baghdad, near-Kiaïa Ahmet Mosque; after a drawing of Flandin. Fig. 74: View taken in Baghdad; after a drawing of Flandin. Fig. 75: View taken in Baghdad; after a drawing of Flandin.Fig. 76: Tchéel-Soutoun Pavilion in Isfahan; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 77: Interior of a Mosque of Isfahan; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 78: Hall of mirrors, in Isfahan; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 79: Portal of the mosque Koutab near Delhi, and Dhava king iron column; from a photograph of Frith. Fig. 80: Tour de Koutab near Delhi; from a photograph. Fig. 81: Door of Aladdin, the Koutab near Delhi; from a photograph of Frith. Fig. 82: Akbar’s Tomb at Secundra;from a photograph. Fig. 83: Binderaboun Temple near Muttra; from a photograph. Fig. 84: The Taj Mahal in Agra; from a photograph. Fig. 85: Great room and octagonal dome inside the Taj.Fig. 86: carved white marble balustrade surrounding the cenotaphs of Shah Jehan and his wife, the Taj. Fig. 87: Jumma-Musjid, Great Mosque of Delhi; from a photograph. Fig. 88: Inside one of the rooms of the palace of kings Mughals in Delhi; from a photograph. Fig. 89: Arabs of the Nile (Upper Egypt); from a photograph a snapshot of the author. Fig. 90: Palms of Giza) from a photograph. Fig. 91: Roda Island Cairo (Ebers). Fig. 92: View of Cairo; from a photograph. We see the mosque of Kait Bey in the foreground. Fig. 93: Cairo. View of the citadel and Mehamet Ali mosque; from a photograph. Fig. 94: Interior of the Mosque of Amr; after a drawing of Coste.Fig. 95: Inner courtyard, fountain and minaret of the mosque of Tulun (Ebers). Fig. 96: Sanctuary of Tulun mosque (Ebers). Fig. 97: El-Saydet door to the El-Azhar mosque; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 98: Upper part of the minarets of the Al-Azhar mosque; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 99: Window of the Mosque of Kalaoun. Fig. 100: Cairo Street; from a photograph.Fig. 101: View of the mosque Hassan (Ebers). Fig. 102: fountain for ablutions of the mosque Hassan. Current state ; from a photograph. Fig. 103: Achor Mosque in Cairo; from a photograph. Fig. 104: Funeral Mosque el Barquq the tombs of the Caliphs; from a photograph.Fig. 105: Cairo. Plain tombs at the foot of the Citadel and the Mohammed Ali mosque; from a photograph. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 18 Fig. 106: Inside the mosque Mouaîyad; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 107: sépulturale Mosque of Kait Bey;from a photograph. Fig. 108: Chair and sanctuary of the mosque of Kait Bey; from a photograph. Fig. 109: Holder Bab-el-Fotouh (Ebers). Fig. 110: Joseph Wells built in Cairo by the Arabs; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 111: Arab Reception Room in Cairo; after a drawing of Avesne Prisse. Fig. 112: View of Tunis; from a photograph. Fig. 113: Berber Village; from a photograph of Geyser in Algiers. Fig. 114: Berber of Algeria; from a photograph. Fig. 115: Berber Woman kouskoussou the manufacturer; from a photograph. Fig. 116: One of the doors of the great mosque of Sidi Okba in Kairouan; from a photograph. Fig. 117: View of the minaret of the Great Mosque of Sidi Okba; from a photograph. Fig. 118: Old Mosque of Kairouan; from a photograph. Fig. 119: glazed earthenware ornaments taken in a mosque in Kairouan; from a photograph. Fig. 120: Sculpture of a panel made in a mosque in Kairouan; from a photograph.Fig. 121: Mihrab of the mosque If al-Habib in Kairouan; from a photograph. Fig. 122: Facade of the Djama el Kebir mosque in Algiers. Fig. 123: Minaret of the Great Mosque of Tanger; from a photograph. Fig. 124: Inside the mosque Sidi Bou Medina to Tlemcen; from a photograph. Fig.125: General View of Tangier (Morocco); from a photograph. Fig. 126: Bras with a gold cross decorated with jewels from Toledo Visigoths (seventh century); from a photograph. Fig. 127: Inside the Mosque of Cordoba Fig. 128: mihrab of the façade of the Mosque of Cordoba;Murphy after a drawing. Fig. 129: Plan of the Mosque of Cordoba; according to the ancient Arab authors. Fig. 130: Sun Gate Toledo; from a photograph. Fig. 131: Front Alcazar of Seville; from a photograph. Fig. 132: Inside one of the courses of the Alcazar of Seville; from a photograph. Fig.133: Inside one of the courses of the Alcazar of Seville; from a photograph. Fig. 134: Hall of Moorish kings in the Alcazar of Seville; from a photograph Fig. 135: La Giralda in Seville; after a drawing G. Prangey. Fig. 136: Rise of the mihrab of the Mosque of the Alhambra; after a drawing by O. Jones. Fig. 137: Facade of the Mosque of the Alhambra in Granada. Fig. 138: Court of the Alberca; after a drawing by O. Jones. Fig. 139: View taken in the hall of the two sisters; after a drawing by O. Jones. Fig. 140: Hall of Abencerrages, Alhambra; Murphy after a drawing. Fig. 141: Interior Linderaja firm, Alhambra. Fig. 142: Courts of the Lions, the Alhambra; from a photograph. Fig. 143: Details of one of the windows of the mosque of the Alhambra. Fig. 144 Alcazar of Segovia; from a photograph. Fig. 145 Alcazar of Segovia; from a photograph. Fig. 146: Main facade of the Arab castle of Ziza in Sicily; after a photograph Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 19 Fig. 147: Interior view of the Arab castle of Ziza in Sicily; Girault after a drawing Prangey. Fig. 148: Architectural Detail of one of the facades of the Arabian palace of Cuba in Sicily; from a photograph. Fig. 149-151: Christian-Arab coins of the Norman kings of Sicily. Fig. 152: Arab Buire the tenth century rock crystal, from the Louvre Museum. (Gazette des Beaux-Arts). Fig. 153: Arab weapons from different eras; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 154: Gaines and barrels of Arab weapons; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 155: Damascus Gate in Jerusalem; from a photograph. Fig. 156: View of part of the walls of Jerusalem; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 157: View of Jerusalem; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 158: The Haram esh-Sherif. Inside the enclosure where the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem, where once stood the Temple of Solomon; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 159: Marble Chair, Chair called Omar, inside the Haram in Jerusalem; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 160: Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem; according to a snapshot of the author. Fig. 161: Arabic Glass said Charlemagne, probably brought from East at the time of the Crusades (Musée de Chartres). Fig. 162: Arab copper vase inlaid, known as the Saint Louis baptistery name. (Louvre Museum). Fig. 163: Former Arab copper dish. Book 4: The customs and institutions of the Arabs: 164-214 Figures Figure from the early “Book IV”. Fig. 163 bis: Oasis of Biskra (Algeria); from a photograph. Fig. 164: Camp of nomad Arabs in Algeria; according to instant photography. Fig. 165: A market in Morocco; according to instant photography. Fig. 166: Encampment of nomads at the gates of Tangier; according to instant photography. Fig. 167: cameleers of Egypt; from a photograph. Fig. 168: Arab nomads captured near Tunis; from a photograph. Fig. 169: Bedouin Women around Baalbeck (Syria); from a photograph. Fig. 170: An ancient street of Cairo; from a photograph. Fig. 171: A street in Tangier (Morocco); according to instant photography. Fig. 172: Frame of Cairo; from a photograph of SEBAH. Fig. 173: Door of an old house in Cairo; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 174: Ceiling of an old Arab house in Cairo; from a photograph of the author Fig. 175: Stained glass window of the palace harem of Azhad Pasha, in Damascus; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 176: A wedding procession in Cairo; from a photograph of Sheba. Fig. 177: Narghilé Arab copper inlaid with silver; after a photograph of the author. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 20 Fig. 178: Narghilé Persian-Arab; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 179 Shop Arabic armorer in Syria; from a photograph. Fig. 180: Street vendors in Cairo; from a photograph of SEBAH. Fig.181: Public Writer Jerusalem; from a photograph. Fig. 182: Water Merchants in Cairo; from a photograph. Fig. 183: Interior of an Arab court in Cairo; from a photograph. Fig. 184: Old glass cutting Arabic (Ebers). Fig. 185: Old copper vase in Arabic. Fig. 186-187: Arab Cadenas. Fig. 188: Sultan Box Kalaoum; after a drawing of Avesne Prisse. Fig. 189: Fragment of Arab stone sculpture, photographed in Cairo by the author. Fig. 190: Cairo mocked lamp. Fig. 191: A street in Tangier; from a photograph. Fig. 192: Great Market of Tangier (Morocco); according to instant photography. Fig. 193: Merchant pottery Upper Egypt (Ebers). Fig. 194: Young Coptic girl (Ebers).Fig. 195: Woman Berber of Algeria; from a photograph. Fig. 196: Berber woman in the neighborhood of Biskra; from a photograph. Fig. 197: Young Moroccan girl; from a photograph.Fig. 198: Young Arab Women of Algiers; from a photograph. Fig. 199: Young Syrian girl; from a photograph. Fig. 200: Young Turkish woman in street clothes; from a photograph. Fig. 201: Inside the palace harem of Azhad Pasha, in Damascus; after a photograph of the author. Fig.202: copper plate with silver inlay in Damascus; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 203: One of the mihrab of the mosque El Azhar in Cairo; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 204: Tomb of an Arab holy in the grove of Blidah (Algeria); from a photograph. Fig. 205: Upper part of the sepulchral chapel Abbasid caliphs in Cairo recently discovered; from a photograph. Fig. 206: Ceiling of the Mouaîad mosque in Cairo; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 207: Stained glass of an Arab mosque of Cairo; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 208: Stained glass windows of a mosque in Cairo; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 209: Stained glass of an Arab mosque;after a photograph of the author. Fig. 210: Flambeau Kalaoun sultan; after a drawing of Avesne Prisse. Fig. 211: Flambeau Kalaoun sultan; after a drawing of Avesne Prisse. Fig. 212: Old mosque lamp, bronze; photographed in Cairo by the author. Fig. 213: Old Arab lamp from the mosque of the Alhambra. The original model 15 2 meters tall. (Spanish antique Museum). Fig.214: Whirling Dervishes; from a sketch. Book 5: The civilization of the Arabs: Figures 215 to 353. The figure of the early “Book V”. Fig. 215: Door of a small-school mocked, Damascus; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 216: Former convent of dervishes, school and public fountain in Cairo; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 217: Inkwell embossed copper (Persian-Arabic style); after a photograph of the author. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 21 Fig. 218: Registration of coverage of an ancient Koran (Ebers). Fig. 219: ornamental member register formed by the combination of Kufic characters. Fig. 220-223: Seal of the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman and Ali. Fig. 224: Frieze of an Arab section forming registration by the deformation of the bottom of the characters. Fig. 225: Modern Arabic inscription discovered in a house in Damascus by the author. Fig. 226: Modern Arabic inscription discovered in a house in Damascus by the author. Fig. 227: Fragment of registration of a Persian box inlaid with nacre (Schefer collection); after a photograph of the author. Fig. 228: Old Arab astrolabe (Spanish Museum of Antiquities). Fig. 229: Former Arab astrolabe (other side of the previous instrument) (Spanish Museum of Antiquities). Fig. 230: Anterior surface of an Arab astrolabe, kept at the National Library in Paris; from a photograph. Fig. 231: Posterior surface of the same Arab astrolabe, kept at the National Library in Paris; from a photograph. Fig. 232: Arab Astrolabe of Philip II of Spain (Spanish Museum of Antiquities). Fig. 233: Arab map mid-twelfth century, designed in Cairo by Prisse d’Avesne. Fig. 234: Arab Edrisi Card (1160); after V. St. Martin. Fig. 235-236: Arab Horsemen throwing Greek fire; after an ancient manuscript of the National Library in Paris. Fig. 237: incendiary projectiles used by the Arabs in the thirteenth century. Cavalier bearer of a fire lance. It is covered as his servants a shirt of thick cloth sown tow, to be soaked naphtha is then lit to sow terror among the enemy; after an old Arabic manuscript in St. Petersburg. Fig. 238: Firearms used by the Arabs in the thirteenth century.Gunner clutching a small cannon, he approaches a flame to ignite the charge and start the ball;after an old Arabic manuscript in St. Petersburg. Fig. 239: Fragment of old cloth (Ebers). Fig. 240: Fragment of ancient Arab fabric. Fig. 241: Fragment of old Arab cloth; after a drawing by Prisse d’Avesne Fig. 242: Fragment of old Arab cloth; after a drawing of Avesne Prisse. Fig. 243: Former Arab saddle (Royal Museum of Madrid); from a photograph of Lawrence. Fig. 244: Entry of one of the halls of the University of Al Azhar in Cairo (Ebers). Fig. 245-281: Jewels and Arab engraved stones. (Spanish antique Museum). Fig. 282: Architectural Details of a door of the Alhambra;from a photograph. Fig. 283: coping stone of an Arab well, in Cordoba; from a photograph. Fig.284-285: Omar Khalif coins. Fig. 286: Arab brooch (Syria); after a photograph of the author. Fig.287: Arabic ornament silver (Syria); after a photograph of the author. Fig. 288: Arab pedestal inlaid with silver bronze; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 289: Upper part of a pedestal of bronze inlaid with silver from the thirteenth century; photographed in Cairo by the author. Fig.290: Former Arab door of Cairo; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 291: Old wood panel inlaid with ivory caught in a door of Cairo (Schefer collection); after a photograph of the author.Fig. 292: a wooden panel door of the room of Ambassadors, Alcazar of Seville (Spanish Museum of Antiquities). Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 22 Fig. 293: inlaid wooden table, Cairo; from a photograph. Fig. 294: Arab wooden pedestal, Cairo; from a photograph. Fig. 295: Arab wooden Brand, a baker Fig. 296: Set the eleventh century; Persian-Arabic style. (Spanish antique Museum). Fig. 297: Former Arab chest, inlaid wood, Cairo; from a photograph. Fig. 298: carved ivory box of the twelfth century (Kensington Museum); after a photograph of Mr. Ch. Relvas. Fig. 299: carved ivory box of the tenth century Cordoba (Kensington Museum). Fig. 300: Vase Arab Alhambra. Fig. 301: Earthenware glazed the main gate of the mausoleum of Tamerlane; from the photographic albums of General Kaufman. Fig.302: Arches in the mosque of Cordoba. Fig. 303-307: Tours of various churches in Toledo copied from ancient Arab minarets. Fig. 308-309: Toledo churches Tours copied from ancient Arab minarets. Fig. 310: Arab Tower Santiago church in Toledo; from a photograph. Fig. 311: Gate of Bisagra, Toledo. Fig. 312: View taken in the Alhambra; from a photograph. Fig. 313: ornamental details of a capital and a column of the Alhambra. Fig. 314: Floor Details top of the room the two sisters, Alhambra; after a drawing by O. Jones. Fig. 315: Upper Gallery of either during the Alcázar of Seville; from a photograph of Lawrence. Fig. 316: One of the doors of the court ladies in the Alcázar of Seville; from a photograph of Lawrence. Fig. 317: Old Mosque Hamaadan (Persia); after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 318 Mosque and tomb of Shah-Koda at Sultanieh, Persia sixteenth century; after a drawing of Textier. Fig. 319 Mausoleum of Tamerlane in Samarkand;from a photograph of General Kaufman album. Fig. 320: Elevation returned Sunni mosque in Tabriz (Persian); after a drawing of Textier. Fig. 321: A mosque of Isfahan; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 322: Rajah Palace Goverdhum (India); from a photograph. Fig. 322 bis: Gold Bracelet pushed the fourteenth century. Hispano-Arabic style; from a photograph (Archaeological Museum of Madrid) Fig. 323: carved ivory casket of the tenth century. Indo-Arab style (Kensington Museum); from a photograph. Fig. 324: Case of Morocco Arabic, carved ivory, the eleventh century; after an ancient engraving. Fig. 325: Chinese bronze Arab-style vase (Schefer collection); after a photograph of the author. Fig. 326: China-Arab Bronze Vase (Schefer collection); after a photograph of the author. Fig. 327-329: bronze vases of Chinese-Arab style (Schefer collection); after a photograph of the author. Fig. 330: silver inlaid copper vase. modern style of Damascus; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 331: Facade of the Alcazar of Segovia, current state; from a photograph. Fig. 332: Segovia Alcazar (Hispano-Arabic style); after an old drawing Wiesener. Fig. 333: Tower of Belem, Portugal (Hispano-Arabic style); from a photograph. Fig. 334: Apse of the Church of St. Peter, in Calatayud (Hispano-Arabic style); after an ancient engraving. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 23 Fig.335-343: Arab Capitals and Hispano-Arabic style (Spanish Museum of Antiquities). Fig. 344: Arcade of Aljafería of Saragossa. Fig. 345: Arcade Hispano-Arabic style (Toledo) (Spanish Museum of Antiquities). Fig. 346: Church decoration Details of El Transito (former synagogue of Toledo); Jewish-Arab style. Fig. 347: Church Decoration details El Transito (former synagogue of Toledo); Jewish-Arab style. Fig. 348: Fragment of ancient arcade of the church of the convent of nuns of Corpus Christi, Segovia; Hispano-Arabic style. Fig. 349: Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Hispano-Arabic style); from a photograph. Fig. 350: Beating the door of forgiveness, in Cordoba. Fig. 351: Door of the sacristy of the main altar of the Cathedral of Seville (Hispano-Arabic style). Fig. 352: Gold necklace made in Granada, Hispano-Arabic style of the fourteenth century (Archaeological Museum of Madrid); from a photograph. Fig. 353: enamelled glass lamp; according to Avesne Prisse. Fig. 354: nonexistent Book 6: The decline of the civilization of the Arabs: Figures 355 to 366. The figure of the early “Book VI.” Fig. 355: Modern Castle of Penha (Portugal), Spanish-style araabe; from a photograph. Fig. 356: Shield of Philip II of Spain;from a photograph of Lawrence. Fig. 357: Old leather shield of King of Granada; from a photograph. Fig. 358: Hammer portal Taragone Cathedral; Hispano-Arabic style. Fig. 359: Royal Square in Isfahan; after a drawing of Coste. Fig. 360: Main façade of the Mosque of Sultan Achmet to Constantinople; from a photograph. Fig. 361: The Mosque of Sultan Achmet to Constantinople, Bosphorus view; from a photograph. Fig. 362: Arabic bread itinerant merchant in Jerusalem; according to instant photography. Fig. 363: Arabs surrounding Aswan (Upper Egypt); according to a snapshot of the author. Fig. 364: Young Arab Upper Egypt; after a photograph of the author. Fig. 365: Tunisian Marchand; from a photograph. Fig. 366: wooden stool inlaid with mother of Damascus; after a photograph of the author. The figure “end volume”. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 24 methodical Table of figures, maps and color plates. See the table methodical engravings on the website: The Classics of Social Sciences: Gustave Le Bon Back to Table of Contents The following table is intended to help find immediately the engravings on a given topic. Thus for example all types of Arabs from various countries are gathered in a special paragraph. The various parts of a building often represented in different chapters are close together in the architecture section where all the monuments are further classified by country. Whether types of races, weapons, jewelry or any objects all the engravings on the same subject have been reconciled. It is only for the monuments it seemed useful to have a first division by regions. 1. TYPES OF RACES The 34 figures in this series represent more than 150 individuals. With the exception of two portraits of women taken from Ebers, they were all executed from photographs. Camel of Arabia Petraea (Figure 19) nomadic desert Arabs of Syria (Figure 17) Nomads and nomads leaders of independent Arab tribes neighboring the Dead Sea (7) Bedouin nomads of Syria, neighbors Jécho (Figure 8) sedentary Arabs from Damascus (9) sedentary Arab Syria (Figure 10) public Writer, Jerusalem (Figure 181) Arabic itinerant bread merchant in Jerusalem (Figure 362) Bedouin women in the desert of Syria (Figure 18 ) Bedouin Women around Baalbeck (Syria) (Figure 169) Young Syrian girl (Figure 199) cameleers Egypt (Figure 167) Dealers water, Cairo (Figure 182) Arabic with a wedding procession in Cairo ( Figure 176) various types of Arabs, Cairo (Figure 183) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 25 Arabs of Upper Egypt (11) Young Arab Upper Egypt (Figure 364) Arabs of the Nile (Upper Egypt) (Figure 89) Arabs surrounding Aswan (Upper Egypt) (Figure 363) Arab Women near Cairo (Figure 12) Merchant pottery Upper Egypt (Figure 193) Young Coptic girl (Figure 194) Muslims of Nubia (13) Muslim Nubia (Figure 14) Moroccan Beggars (Figure 15) Marchand of Moroccan water, Tangier (Figure 16) a young Moroccan girl (Figure 197) Arab nomads captured near Tunis (Figure 168) Young Arab Women of Algiers (Figure 198) Berber of Algeria (Figure 114) of Berber woman near Biskra (Figure 196) Berber woman of Algeria (Figure 195) Berber Woman kouskoussou the manufacturer (Figure 115) Young Turkish woman in street clothes (Figure 200) 2. VIEWS AND LANDSCAPES. The desert of Arabia (5) View from Sinai (7) Oasis of Dahab on the Gulf Élanitique (Arabia Petraea) (Figure 4) Passage of the Euphrates, to Bin-Hadjik (Figure 72) View taken Baghdad (Figure 74) Oasis of Biskra (Algeria) (Figure 163) Berber village (Figure 113) General view of Cairo (Figure 93) Ile de Roda, Cairo (Figure 91) Palms of Giza (Figure 90) 3. SCENES OF mANNERS, PICTURESQUE VIEWS. Almost all figures in this series have been executed after instant photography. Ablutions in the sacred well of Zem-Zem during the pilgrimage to Mecca (Figure 22) Camp pilgrims near Mecca (2) Camp pilgrims at the gates of Medina (Figure 21) Shop Tunisian merchant (Figure 365) Public Writer in Jerusalem (Figure 181) Boutique Arabic armorer, Syria (Figure 179) A street in Jerusalem (Figure 160) Schoolmaster and his students, Damascus (Figure 64) Female manufacturer kouskoussou the Berber (Figure 115) encampment of nomad Arabs in Algeria (Figure 164) nomadic camp on the outskirts of Tangier (Figure 166) A market in Morocco (Figure 165) Grand market of Tangier (Morocco) (Figure 192) A street in Tangier (Morocco) (Figure 171) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 26 Water Merchants in Cairo (Figure 182) A Cairo Street (Figure 100) Street vendors in Cairo (Figure 180) Wedding procession in Cairo (Figure 176) Mount Cairo (Figure 172) Group of Arabs on the Nile (Figure 89) whirling Dervishes (Figure 214) 4. ARCHITECTURE. This series includes about 150 figures representing overviews and detail about 70 Arab monuments or currently existing mixed Arab influence in various parts of the former empire of the Caliphs. To facilitate research we divided them into corners. SAUDI Mecca. View of the Mosque (Figure 5) Mecca. Inside the mosque and to the Kaaba during the Hajj (6) Medina. City View (Figure 20) JERUSALEM AREA Jerusalem. City View (Figure 157) Jerusalem. Part of the walls (figure 156) Jerusalem. Damascus Gate (Figure 155) the Haram-esh-Sharif. Inside the enclosure where the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem, where once stood the Temple of Solomon (Figure 158) marble pulpit, pulpit Omar said, inside the Harm in Jerusalem ( Figure 159) Mosque of Omar (Figure 65) inside the Mosque of Omar (Figure 66) ceilings of the first inner gallery of the Mosque of Omar (Figure 67) Mihrab of Zacharias in the mosque el-Akza (Figure 68) Oratory of Omar, the mosque el-Akza (Figure 69) Arab Tower of Ramleh (Figure 70) DAMASCUS Damascus. City walls (figure 59) Street, Damascus (Figure 61) Faubourg Meidan, Damascus (Figure 60) Great Mosque of Damascus. courtyard (Figure 62) Minaret of Jesus (Grand Mosque of Damascus) (Figure 63) School Mosque in Damascus (Figure 215) Tomb of Fatima, daughter of the Prophet, in the largest cemetery in Damascus (Figure 23) Palace Azhad Pasha, in Damascus. Inside the harem (Figure 201) CAIRO Mosque of Amr (courtyard) (Figure 94) Tulun Mosque, sanctuary (Figure 96) Tulun Mosque (courtyard, fountain and minaret) (Figure 95) sepulchral chapel Abbasid Caliphs ( Figure 205) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 27 al-Azhar Mosque. El-door Saydet (Figure 97) Mosque al-Azhar. Minarets (Figure 98) Mosque al-Azhar. Entrance to one of the rooms which are ongoing (Figure 244) Mosque al-Azhar. One of mihrabs (Figure 203) Bab-el-Fotouh (Figure 109) Cairo Citadel (Figure 93) Wells said of Joseph (Figure 110) Former convent of dervishes and public fountain (Figure 216) Mosque Kalaoun. A window (Figure 99) Hassan Mosque. Overview (Figure 101) Hassan Mosque. Ablutions fountain (Figure 102) Funeral Mosque of al-Barquq (Figure 104) Mouaiad Mosque. Interior (Figure 106) Funeral Mosque of Kait Bey (Figure 107) Chair and sanctuary of the mosque of Kait Bey (Figure 108) Bey Mosque Kagh and views of Cairo (Figure 92) Mosque of Emir Achor (Figure 103) Plain tombs at the foot of the citadel (Figure 105) old house in Cairo (Figure 170) door of an old house in Cairo (Figure 173) Cairo reception Room (Figure 111) TUNIS Tunis and Kairouan. City View (Figure 112) Minaret of the Great Sidi Okba Mosque in Kairouan (Figure 117) Gate of great Sidi Okba Mosque in Kairouan (Figure 116) Ancient Mosque of Kairouan (Figure 118) Mihrab of the mosque Sidi -el-Habib in Kairouan (Figure 121) carved wooden panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) glazed earthenware panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) ALGERIA AND MOROCCO façade of the mosque Djama-el Kebir, Algiers (Figure 122) Interior of the mosque of Sidi-Bou-Medina to Tlemcen (Figure 124) tomb of an Arab holy in the grove of Blidah (Algeria) (Figure 204) General View of Tangier (Morocco ) (Figure 125) Minaret of the great mosque of Tanger (Figure 123) Sale of Tangier (Figure 191) SICILY main facade of the Arab castle of Ziza, Sicily (Figure 146) interior view of Castle Ziza (Figure 147) architectural details of one of the facades of the Arabian palace of Cuba (Figure 148) CORDOBA Plan of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 129) Interior of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 127) Arches in the mosque of Cordoba (figure 302 ) mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 128) Ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (color board) (board # 07) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 28 Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 340) Beating of the door of forgiveness, Cordoba (Figure 350) TOLEDO Sun Gate, in Toledo (Figure 130) Bisagra Gate (Figure 311) Arab Tower of the Church of Santiago in Toledo (Figure 310) Sept towers of various churches in Toledo copied ancient minarets (303-307 figures; 308- 309) church decoration details el Transito (Figure 347) Arcade Hispanic-Arabic (Figure 345) SEVILLE La Giralda (Figure 135) Alcazar Front (Figure 131) Hall of Moorish kings, the Alcazar (Figure 134) a door from the courtyard of the maids at the Alcazar (Figure 316) inside one of the Alcazar course (Figure 132) within one of the Alcazar course (Figure 133) upper Gallery of either during the Alcazar (Figure 315) door of the sacristy the main altar of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) GRANADA View taken in the Alhambra (Figure 312) Court of the Alberca, Alhambra (Figure 139) Courtyard of the Lions, Alhambra (Figure 142) Dining two sisters, Alhambra (Figure 140) floor details upper room of the sisters (Figure 314) Interior Lindaraja firm (Figure 141) Rise of the mihrab of the mosque of the Alhambra (figure 136 ) Front of the mosque of the Alhambra. (Figure 136) Details of a window of the Mosque of the Alhambra (Figure 143) Architectural Details of a door of the Alhambra (Figure 282) ornamental Detail of a marquee and a column Alhambra (Figure 313) SEGOVIA various views of the Alcazar of Segovia (figures 144, 145, 331, 332) Arabic ornamentation of Segovia convent (Figure 348) Saragossa, BELEM, ETC. Nine Arab capitals from various sources (Figures 335-343) Arab Arcade Aljafería, Saragossa (Figure 344) Hispano-Arabic apse of St. Peter’s Church, in Calatayud (Figure 334) Hispano-Arabic Tower of Belem ( Portugal) (Figure 333) Château de la Penha (Portugal) (Figure 355) PERSIAN Old mosque Hamadan (Figure 317) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 29 Mosque and tomb of Shah-Koda at Sultanich (Figure 318) A mosque Hispahan (Figure 321) Interior of a Mosque Hispahan (Figure 77) Royal Square in Isfahan (Figure 359) Pavilion Tcheel-Soutoun, Isfahan (Figure 76) Pavilion mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Sunni Mosque in Tabriz (Figure 320) SAMARCANDE mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 319) enamelled earthenware mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) BAGHDAD AND SURROUNDING. Shooting in Baghdad, near the Kiaïa Ahmet Mosque (Figure 73) shooting in Baghdad (Figure 75) Mosque of Urfa (Mesopotamia) (Figure 71) CONSTANTINOPLE Main façade of the Mosque of Sultan Achmet to Constantinople (type Turkish mosques) (Figure 360) Even mosque the previous view of the side of the Bosphorus (Figure 361) INDIA Tour Koutab near Delhi (Figure 80) Koutab the mosque gate near Delhi, and King of the iron column Dhava (Figure 79) Temple Benderaboun near Muttra (Figure 83) Musjid-Jumma, great mosque of Delhi (Figure 87) the Taj Mahal, Agra (Figure 84) great room and octagonal dome inside the Taj (Figure 85) carved white marble balustrade surrounding the cenotaphs of Shah Jehan and his wife, the Taj (2) Inside one of the rooms of the palace of the Mongol kings, Delhi (Figure 88) Tomb of Akbar in Secundra (Figure 82) Raja Palace Goverdhum (Figure 322) 5. COINS. Two currencies of Caliph Omar (Figures 284-285) Three coins of the first caliphs (Figure 28-30) Currency ommiade a Caliph of Damascus (Figure 31) Currency of the Caliph al-Mahady (Figure 32) Currency of the Caliph al-Ma’mun (Figure 33) Currency Tulun (Figure 34) Currency of Caliph Raddy (Figure 35) gold coins of Fatimid caliph Mostanser (figures 36-37) Sultan Saladin coins, minted in Damascus. It focuses on his lapel name Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad (Figure 38) Other currency Saladin (Figure 39) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 30 Mint Caliph el Mekel el Kamel, with the back of the Abbasid caliph the name of Baghdad (Figure 40) Sultan Currency Beybars (Figure 41) Nine currencies Arabs of Spain (Figures 42-50) Two currencies chrétiennes- Arab of the Norman kings of Sicily (figures 149-151) 6. FINE ARTS AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS. The 120 prints in this series are a collection of the most typical objects of art and industrial art left by the Arabs. We ranked them first following the worked material (precious stones, metals, etc.) and according to the nature of the objects.All jewelry such are gathered together; The same applies to weapons, windows, cabinets, doors, etc. JEWELRY AND PRECIOUS STONES. Arms of a cross in gold jeweled from Toledo Visigoths (Figure 126) Buire Arab tenth century rock crystal (Figure 152) Gold Bracelet pushed Hispano-Arabic style (figure 322 bis) Gold Necklace Hispano-Arabic style (Figure 352) silver brooch (Syria) (Figure 286) Arabic ornament silver (Syria) (Figure 287) engraved Agate (Figure 19a) Reproduction jewelry and precious stones engraved in gold, silver, carnelian , agate, chalcedony, etc. (Figures 245-281) STONE SCULPTURE. stone parapet of an Arab well, Cordoba (Figure 283) Fragment of Arab stone sculpture (Figure 189) carved stone door of an old house in Cairo (Figure 173) Gate carved stone Aladdin at Koutab (Figure 81) METALWORKING, DAMASQUINERIE, chasing, ETC. Headache (Figure 53) Dagger (Figure 54) Lance (Figure 55) Axes arms (Figure 56-57) Headset (Figure 58) Panoplies Arab weapons of different periods (Figure 153) sheaths and scabbards of Arab arms (Figure 154) Shield of Philip II of Spain (Figure 356) Old Arab astrolabe (Figure 228) Other face the same instrument (Figure 229) anterior an Arab astrolabe, kept at the national Library in Paris (Figure 230) posterior surface of the same astrolabe (Figure 231) Arabic astrolabe of Philip II of Spain (Figure 232) Ancient bronze mosque lamp (Figure 212) Cairo mosque lamp, bronze (Figure 190) Old Arab lamp from the mosque Alhambra (Figure 213) Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 210) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 31 Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 211) Sultan Kalaoun box (Figure 188) pedestal inlaid with silver bronze (Figure 288) Upper part of the previous round table (Figure 289) Ancient vase Arab copper (Figure 185) Arab Copper Vase inlaid, known as the Baptistery of saint Louis (Figure 162) copper Vase inlaid with silver (Figure 330) Arabic-Chinese bronze vase (Figure 326) Vases of Chinese-Arab bronze (figures 327-329) Vase Chinese-Arabic bronze (Figure 325) Ancient Arabic flat copper (Figure 163) inkwell embossed copper (Figure 217) Narghilé inlaid with silver Arabic (Figure 177) Keys of Arab towns and castles (Figure 52) Arab Padlock (Figure 186-187) Hammer portal Tarragona Cathedral (Figure 358) copper tray inlaid with silver, Damascus (Figure 202) WOODWORK AND IVORY. carved ivory casket, of Cordova, of the tenth century (figure 299) carved ivory box, the tenth century (figure 323) box of the eleventh century, Persian-Arabic style (Figure 406) Moroccan box carved ivory, the eleventh century (Figure 324) carved ivory box, the twelfth century. (Figure 298) Old Cairo Arabic box (Figure 297) Box Persian inlaid mother of pearl (Figure 227) wooden stool inlaid with mother of pearl, Damascus (Figure 366) Arabic Mark, wood, a baker (Figure 295) Table wood, inlaid, Cairo (Figure 293) pedestal Arabic, wood, Cairo (Figure 294) Ceiling of the Mouaiad mosque in Cairo (Figure 206) Ceiling of an old Arab house Cairo (Figure 174) D ‘ other limits are represented on various designs of monuments of this work, including the following: inner gallery of the mosque of Omar (Figure 66) Hall of Mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Old Cairo Arab door (Figure 290) inlaid wood panel ivory, caught in a door of Cairo (Figure 291) panel of a wooden door of the salon of ambassadors, the Alcazar of Seville (Figure 292) carved wood panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) other Arab wooden doors have been represented in various parts of this book and are listed in the architecture section. Most notable are the following: Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 349) Gate of court ladies in Seville (Figure 316) Door of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) Details of a door of Alhambra (Figure 282) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 32 GLASS, CERAMIC TILES. Former Arab cut glass (Figure 184) enamelled glass lamp (Figure 353) Arabic Glass said Charlemagne (Figure 161) Stained glass window of the palace harem of Azhad Pasha, Damascus (Figure 175) Stained Arab mosques of Cairo (Figure 207) mosque Stained glass (Figure 208) mosque Stained Glass (Figure 209) glazed earthenware ornaments taken in a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) Pottery glazed the main gate of the mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) Arab Vase of Alhambra (Figure 300) Narghilé Persian-Arabic (Figure 178) WORK LEATHER AND FABRICS. Old leather shield a stiff Granada (Figure 357) Ancient Arabic saddle (Figure 243) Ancient Koran binding (Figure 218) Teaches Arab Almohad (Figure 51) Old Arab fabrics (Figures 239; 240; 241; 242) 7 . Manuscripts.ENTRIES. Guards of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 26) Last page of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 27) Decorations excerpts of an ancient Koran Cairo (Figure 24) Cover an ancient Koran (Figure 218) Seals of the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman and Ali (Figure 220-223) Muhammad digit; after an ancient inscription of the mosque of Tulun (Figure 25) Subscribe ornamental formed by the combination of Kufic characters (Figure 219) Friesland cutting forming an Arab inscription by the deformation of the bottom of the characters (Figure 224) Registration modern Arabic, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 225) modern Arabic inscription, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 226) Drawings of an ancient Arab manuscript depicting riders throwing Greek fire (Figure 235- 236) Drawing of an ancient manuscript representative incendiary projectiles used by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 237) Drawing of an ancient manuscript firearms representative employed by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 238) 8. MAPS. Map of Arabia and neighboring regions (card # 1) of the twelfth century Arab map (Figure 233) map of the Arab geographer Edrisi (Figure 234) Map of the empire of the Arabs at the time of their greatest power and pro current of Islamism (chart # 2) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 33 9. BOARDS IN COLOR. inlaid bronze table Sultan Mahomed ben money Kalaoun (thirteenth century) (frontispiece.) (Plate 2) Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem (Plate 3) Sanctuary of El Akza mosque in Jerusalem (Plate 4) Great mosque of Isfahan (5 board) ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (6 board) polychrome ornamentation of a pavilion of the Alhambra (plate 1) Ceiling of a modern home in Damascus (plate 7) Stained glass windows of the sanctuary the el-Akza mosque in Jerusalem (plate 9) Pavement marble of an old house in Cairo. Mosaics and marble pearl of the Great Mosque of Damascus (Plate 8) Old enamelled glass lamps mosques of Cairo (Plate 10) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 34 Dr. Gustave Le Bon (1884) The civilization of the Arabs Illustrated book photolithographies 10, 4 cards and 366 prints, 70 large boards, from the photographs of the author or by the most authentic documents. . The Sycamore 102 Boulevard Beaumarchais 75011 Paris Back to the Table of Contents Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 35 The civilization of the Arabs (1884) I Introduction Back to Table of Contents The readers of our previous books know the genesis of this new book. They know that after studying the man and societies, we must address the history of civilization. Our latest work 1 was devoted to describing the successive forms of physical and intellectual development of man, the various elements that societies consist. Going back to the most remote periods of our past, we see how were formed the first human settlements, how the family were born and societies, industry and the arts, institutions and beliefs; how these elements are transformed through the ages, and what were the factors of these transformations, After studying the isolated man and the evolution of society, we have to complete our plan to apply to the study of large civilizations methods we have outlined. 1 People and companies. Their origins and development, 2 vols. Paris: J. Rothschild Edition, 1981 Edition reproduced in Paris in 1987 by Editions Jean-Michel Place.Volume I: Physical development and intellectual (520 pages); Volume II: The companies. Their origins and development (432 pages). Book decorated with 90 engravings. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 36 The company is vast, its difficulties are great. Ignoring far we can lead it, we wanted each of the volumes that make up this book was complete and independent. If it is given to complete eight to ten volumes that includes our plan, nothing will be easier than then classified in a methodical order the history of civilizations in the study which each of them will have been spent. We started with the Arabs because their civilization is one of those our travels have we done better know, one of those whose cycle is the most comprehensive and where most clearly manifests the influence of factors we tried determine the action, one of those whose history is finally the most interesting yet least known.The civilization of the Arab kingdom for twelve centuries the vast region stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean beaches with sands of interior Africa. Populations that inhabit possess the same religion, the same language, the same institutions, the same arts, and once formed part of the same empire. Kissing in an overview of the principal manifestations of this civilization in nations where it prevailed, reproduce all the wonders it has left in Spain, Africa, Egypt, Syria, Persia and India, had not yet been tried. The arts themselves, the best known yet elements of Arab civilization, had not yet been submitted to the General Survey. The few authors who have tackled their description constataient always lacked it completely, but the default documents had prevented the attempt. It was obvious no doubt that the similarity of beliefs had to determine a great relationship in the demonstrations of arts of different countries subject to the law of Islam; but it was also clear that varieties of races and backgrounds had to lead to profound differences. What were the similarities and what were the differences? The reader who wants to browse through the chapters of this book devoted to the study of architecture and the arts will see how modern science was silent on these issues. As one enters the study of this civilization, the facts we see new horizons emerge and expand. We soon found that the Middle Ages knew no classical antiquity by Arabs; that for five hundred years, the universities of the West lived exclusively of their books, and that triple material point of view, intellectual and moral, it is they who have civilized Europe. When studying their scientific work and their findings, we see that no people in such great produced in such a short time. When considering their art, it is recognized that they possessed an originality that has not been exceeded The action of the Arabs, already so great in the West, was even more significant in the East. No race is never exerted a similar influence. The peoples who once ruled the world: the Assyrians, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans have disappeared under the dust of centuries and have left but shapeless debris; their religions, their languages and arts are more than just memories. The Arabs have disappeared in their turn; but the most essential elements of their culture, religion, language and the arts are alive again, and Morocco to India, over one hundred million men obey the institutions of the prophet. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 37 Various conquerors overthrew the Arabs, none thought to replace the civilization they had created. All have adopted religion, arts, and most of their language. Located somewhere, the law of the Prophet seem fixed forever there.She pushed back in India of old yet well religions. She made this entirely Arab ancient Egypt of the Pharaohs, on which the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans had so little influence. The peoples of India, Persia, Egypt, Africa had other masters Muhammad’s disciples since they received the law of the latter, they do not recognized else. It’s a wonderful story that illustrates this hallucinated whose voice subdued this rebellious people, no conqueror could not tame, in whose name the most powerful empires were overthrown, and who, from his tomb, holds yet millions of men under his rule. Modern science calls these great founders of religions and empires insane; and, from the standpoint of pure truth, she’s right. Yet we must revere. The soul of an era, the genius of a race are embodied in them. Generations of ancestors lost in the sleep of centuries speak through their voices. These ideals creators give birth without doubt that ghosts but those dreaded ghosts have made us what we are, and without them no civilization could not exist. History is the story of the events made by man to create some ideal, love it or destroy it. The civilization of the Arabs was created by a semi-barbarous people. Out of the deserts of Arabia, he overthrew the secular power of the Persians, Greeks and Romans founded a vast empire that stretched from India to Spain, and produced these wonderful works that debris hit admiration and amazement. What factors presided over the birth and development of this civilization and this empire? What were the causes of its greatness and its decline? The reasons given by the historians are too weak to support the truth test. A method of analysis could be considered better than applying it to such people. It is from the East that the West was born, and it is still in the East we have to go ask the key past events. On this wonderful land, the arts, languages and most of the great religions have arisen, the men are not what they are elsewhere. Ideas, thoughts and feelings are different. The transformations are now so slow that we can by traveling up the entire chain of ages. Artists, scholars and poets always return there. How often sitting in the shade of a palm tree or a temple pylon, am I immersed myself in long reveries full of clear visions of missing ages. We dozed slightly; and, on a bright background, soon amounted strange cities whose crenellated towers, fairy palaces, temples, minarets glisten under a golden sun, and travel nomadic caravans, crowds of dressed Asians vibrant colors, troops of slaves with tanned skin, veiled women. They died today, most of the great cities of the past, Nineveh, Damascus, Jerusalem, Athens, Granada, Memphis and Thebes of the hundred gates. The Palace of Asia, the temples of Egypt are now in ruins. The gods of Babylonia, Syria, Chaldea, the banks of the Nile are only memories. But things in the ruins, what a world of ideas in those memories. What secrets to ask all these different races succeeding columns of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 38 Hercules fertile plateaus of old Asia, beaches Ablutions in the sacred well of Zem-Zem during the pilgrimage to Mecca (Figure 22) Camp pilgrims near Mecca (2) Camp pilgrims at the gates of Medina (Figure 21) Shop Tunisian merchant (Figure 365) Public Writer in Jerusalem (Figure 181) Boutique Arabic armorer, Syria (Figure 179) A street in Jerusalem (Figure 160) Schoolmaster and his students, Damascus (Figure 64) Female manufacturer kouskoussou the Berber (Figure 115) encampment of nomad Arabs in Algeria (Figure 164) nomadic camp on the outskirts of Tangier (Figure 166) A market in Morocco (Figure 165) Grand market of Tangier (Morocco) (Figure 192) A street in Tangier (Morocco) (Figure 171) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 26 Water Merchants in Cairo (Figure 182) A Cairo Street (Figure 100) Street vendors in Cairo (Figure 180) Wedding procession in Cairo (Figure 176) Mount Cairo (Figure 172) Group of Arabs on the Nile (Figure 89) whirling Dervishes (Figure 214) 4. ARCHITECTURE. This series includes about 150 figures representing overviews and detail about 70 Arab monuments or currently existing mixed Arab influence in various parts of the former empire of the Caliphs.To facilitate research we divided them into corners. SAUDI Mecca. View of the Mosque (Figure 5) Mecca. Inside the mosque and to the Kaaba during the Hajj (6) Medina. City View (Figure 20) JERUSALEM AREA Jerusalem. City View (Figure 157) Jerusalem. Part of the walls (figure 156) Jerusalem. Damascus Gate (Figure 155) the Haram-esh-Sharif. Inside the enclosure where the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem, where once stood the Temple of Solomon (Figure 158) marble pulpit, pulpit Omar said, inside the Harm in Jerusalem ( Figure 159) Mosque of Omar (Figure 65) inside the Mosque of Omar (Figure 66) ceilings of the first inner gallery of the Mosque of Omar (Figure 67) Mihrab of Zacharias in the mosque el-Akza (Figure 68) Oratory of Omar, the mosque el-Akza (Figure 69) Arab Tower of Ramleh (Figure 70) DAMASCUS Damascus. City walls (figure 59) Street, Damascus (Figure 61) Faubourg Meidan, Damascus (Figure 60) Great Mosque of Damascus. courtyard (Figure 62) Minaret of Jesus (Grand Mosque of Damascus) (Figure 63) School Mosque in Damascus (Figure 215) Tomb of Fatima, daughter of the Prophet, in the largest cemetery in Damascus (Figure 23) Palace Azhad Pasha, in Damascus. Inside the harem (Figure 201) CAIRO Mosque of Amr (courtyard) (Figure 94) Tulun Mosque, sanctuary (Figure 96) Tulun Mosque (courtyard, fountain and minaret) (Figure 95) sepulchral chapel Abbasid Caliphs ( Figure 205) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 27 al-Azhar Mosque. El-door Saydet (Figure 97) Mosque al-Azhar. Minarets (Figure 98) Mosque al-Azhar.Entrance to one of the rooms which are ongoing (Figure 244) Mosque al-Azhar. One of mihrabs (Figure 203) Bab-el-Fotouh (Figure 109) Cairo Citadel (Figure 93) Wells said of Joseph (Figure 110) Former convent of dervishes and public fountain (Figure 216) Mosque Kalaoun. A window (Figure 99) Hassan Mosque. Overview (Figure 101) Hassan Mosque. Ablutions fountain (Figure 102) Funeral Mosque of al-Barquq (Figure 104) Mouaiad Mosque. Interior (Figure 106) Funeral Mosque of Kait Bey (Figure 107) Chair and sanctuary of the mosque of Kait Bey (Figure 108) Bey Mosque Kagh and views of Cairo (Figure 92) Mosque of Emir Achor (Figure 103) Plain tombs at the foot of the citadel (Figure 105) old house in Cairo (Figure 170) door of an old house in Cairo (Figure 173) Cairo reception Room (Figure 111) TUNIS Tunis and Kairouan. City View (Figure 112) Minaret of the Great Sidi Okba Mosque in Kairouan (Figure 117) Gate of great Sidi Okba Mosque in Kairouan (Figure 116) Ancient Mosque of Kairouan (Figure 118) Mihrab of the mosque Sidi -el-Habib in Kairouan (Figure 121) carved wooden panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) glazed earthenware panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) ALGERIA AND MOROCCO façade of the mosque Djama-el Kebir, Algiers (Figure 122) Interior of the mosque of Sidi-Bou-Medina to Tlemcen (Figure 124) tomb of an Arab holy in the grove of Blidah (Algeria) (Figure 204) General View of Tangier (Morocco ) (Figure 125) Minaret of the great mosque of Tanger (Figure 123) Sale of Tangier (Figure 191) SICILY main facade of the Arab castle of Ziza, Sicily (Figure 146) interior view of Castle Ziza (Figure 147) architectural details of one of the facades of the Arabian palace of Cuba (Figure 148) CORDOBA Plan of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 129) Interior of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 127) Arches in the mosque of Cordoba (figure 302 ) mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 128) Ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (color board) (board # 07) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 28 Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 340) Beating of the door of forgiveness, Cordoba (Figure 350) TOLEDO Sun Gate, in Toledo (Figure 130) Bisagra Gate (Figure 311) Arab Tower of the Church of Santiago in Toledo (Figure 310) Sept towers of various churches in Toledo copied ancient minarets (303-307 figures; 308- 309) church decoration details el Transito (Figure 347) Arcade Hispanic-Arabic (Figure 345) SEVILLE La Giralda (Figure 135) Alcazar Front (Figure 131) Hall of Moorish kings, the Alcazar (Figure 134) a door from the courtyard of the maids at the Alcazar (Figure 316) inside one of the Alcazar course (Figure 132) within one of the Alcazar course (Figure 133) upper Gallery of either during the Alcazar (Figure 315) door of the sacristy the main altar of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) GRANADA View taken in the Alhambra (Figure 312) Court of the Alberca, Alhambra (Figure 139) Courtyard of the Lions, Alhambra (Figure 142) Dining two sisters, Alhambra (Figure 140) floor details upper room of the sisters (Figure 314) Interior Lindaraja firm (Figure 141) Rise of the mihrab of the mosque of the Alhambra (figure 136 ) Front of the mosque of the Alhambra. (Figure 136) Details of a window of the Mosque of the Alhambra (Figure 143) Architectural Details of a door of the Alhambra (Figure 282) ornamental Detail of a marquee and a column Alhambra (Figure 313) SEGOVIA various views of the Alcazar of Segovia (figures 144, 145, 331, 332) Arabic ornamentation of Segovia convent (Figure 348) Saragossa, BELEM, ETC. Nine Arab capitals from various sources (Figures 335-343) Arab Arcade Aljafería, Saragossa (Figure 344) Hispano-Arabic apse of St. Peter’s Church, in Calatayud (Figure 334) Hispano-Arabic Tower of Belem ( Portugal) (Figure 333) Château de la Penha (Portugal) (Figure 355) PERSIAN Old mosque Hamadan (Figure 317) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 29 Mosque and tomb of Shah-Koda at Sultanich (Figure 318) A mosque Hispahan (Figure 321) Interior of a Mosque Hispahan (Figure 77) Royal Square in Isfahan (Figure 359) Pavilion Tcheel-Soutoun, Isfahan (Figure 76) Pavilion mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Sunni Mosque in Tabriz (Figure 320) SAMARCANDE mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 319) enamelled earthenware mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) BAGHDAD AND SURROUNDING. Shooting in Baghdad, near the Kiaïa Ahmet Mosque (Figure 73) shooting in Baghdad (Figure 75) Mosque of Urfa (Mesopotamia) (Figure 71) CONSTANTINOPLE Main façade of the Mosque of Sultan Achmet to Constantinople (type Turkish mosques) (Figure 360) Even mosque the previous view of the side of the Bosphorus (Figure 361) INDIA Tour Koutab near Delhi (Figure 80) Koutab the mosque gate near Delhi, and King of the iron column Dhava (Figure 79) Temple Benderaboun near Muttra (Figure 83) Musjid-Jumma, great mosque of Delhi (Figure 87) the Taj Mahal, Agra (Figure 84) great room and octagonal dome inside the Taj (Figure 85) carved white marble balustrade surrounding the cenotaphs of Shah Jehan and his wife, the Taj (2) Inside one of the rooms of the palace of the Mongol kings, Delhi (Figure 88) Tomb of Akbar in Secundra (Figure 82) Raja Palace Goverdhum (Figure 322) 5. COINS. Two currencies of Caliph Omar (Figures 284-285) Three coins of the first caliphs (Figure 28-30) Currency ommiade a Caliph of Damascus (Figure 31) Currency of the Caliph al-Mahady (Figure 32) Currency of the Caliph al-Ma’mun (Figure 33) Currency Tulun (Figure 34) Currency of Caliph Raddy (Figure 35) gold coins of Fatimid caliph Mostanser (figures 36-37) Sultan Saladin coins, minted in Damascus. It focuses on his lapel name Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad (Figure 38) Other currency Saladin (Figure 39) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 30 Mint Caliph el Mekel el Kamel, with the back of the Abbasid caliph the name of Baghdad (Figure 40) Sultan Currency Beybars (Figure 41) Nine currencies Arabs of Spain (Figures 42-50) Two currencies chrétiennes- Arab of the Norman kings of Sicily (figures 149-151) 6. FINE ARTS AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS. The 120 prints in this series are a collection of the most typical objects of art and industrial art left by the Arabs. We ranked them first following the worked material (precious stones, metals, etc.) and according to the nature of the objects.All jewelry such are gathered together; The same applies to weapons, windows, cabinets, doors, etc. JEWELRY AND PRECIOUS STONES. Arms of a cross in gold jeweled from Toledo Visigoths (Figure 126) Buire Arab tenth century rock crystal (Figure 152) Gold Bracelet pushed Hispano-Arabic style (figure 322 bis) Gold Necklace Hispano-Arabic style (Figure 352) silver brooch (Syria) (Figure 286) Arabic ornament silver (Syria) (Figure 287) engraved Agate (Figure 19a) Reproduction jewelry and precious stones engraved in gold, silver, carnelian , agate, chalcedony, etc. (Figures 245-281) STONE SCULPTURE. stone parapet of an Arab well, Cordoba (Figure 283) Fragment of Arab stone sculpture (Figure 189) carved stone door of an old house in Cairo (Figure 173) Gate carved stone Aladdin at Koutab (Figure 81) METALWORKING, DAMASQUINERIE, chasing, ETC. Headache (Figure 53) Dagger (Figure 54) Lance (Figure 55) Axes arms (Figure 56-57) Headset (Figure 58) Panoplies Arab weapons of different periods (Figure 153) sheaths and scabbards of Arab arms (Figure 154) Shield of Philip II of Spain (Figure 356) Old Arab astrolabe (Figure 228) Other face the same instrument (Figure 229) anterior an Arab astrolabe, kept at the national Library in Paris (Figure 230) posterior surface of the same astrolabe (Figure 231) Arabic astrolabe of Philip II of Spain (Figure 232) Ancient bronze mosque lamp (Figure 212) Cairo mosque lamp, bronze (Figure 190) Old Arab lamp from the mosque Alhambra (Figure 213) Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 210) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 31 Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 211) Sultan Kalaoun box (Figure 188) pedestal inlaid with silver bronze (Figure 288) Upper part of the previous round table (Figure 289) Ancient vase Arab copper (Figure 185) Arab Copper Vase inlaid, known as the Baptistery of saint Louis (Figure 162) copper Vase inlaid with silver (Figure 330) Arabic-Chinese bronze vase (Figure 326) Vases of Chinese-Arab bronze (figures 327-329) Vase Chinese-Arabic bronze (Figure 325) Ancient Arabic flat copper (Figure 163) inkwell embossed copper (Figure 217) Narghilé inlaid with silver Arabic (Figure 177) Keys of Arab towns and castles (Figure 52) Arab Padlock (Figure 186-187) Hammer portal Tarragona Cathedral (Figure 358) copper tray inlaid with silver, Damascus (Figure 202) WOODWORK AND IVORY. carved ivory casket, of Cordova, of the tenth century (figure 299) carved ivory box, the tenth century (figure 323) box of the eleventh century, Persian-Arabic style (Figure 406) Moroccan box carved ivory, the eleventh century (Figure 324) carved ivory box, the twelfth century. (Figure 298) Old Cairo Arabic box (Figure 297) Box Persian inlaid mother of pearl (Figure 227) wooden stool inlaid with mother of pearl, Damascus (Figure 366) Arabic Mark, wood, a baker (Figure 295) Table wood, inlaid, Cairo (Figure 293) pedestal Arabic, wood, Cairo (Figure 294) Ceiling of the Mouaiad mosque in Cairo (Figure 206) Ceiling of an old Arab house Cairo (Figure 174) D ‘ other limits are represented on various designs of monuments of this work, including the following: inner gallery of the mosque of Omar (Figure 66) Hall of Mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Old Cairo Arab door (Figure 290) inlaid wood panel ivory, caught in a door of Cairo (Figure 291) panel of a wooden door of the salon of ambassadors, the Alcazar of Seville (Figure 292) carved wood panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) other Arab wooden doors have been represented in various parts of this book and are listed in the architecture section. Most notable are the following: Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 349) Gate of court ladies in Seville (Figure 316) Door of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) Details of a door of Alhambra (Figure 282) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 32 GLASS, CERAMIC TILES. Former Arab cut glass (Figure 184) enamelled glass lamp (Figure 353) Arabic Glass said Charlemagne (Figure 161) Stained glass window of the palace harem of Azhad Pasha, Damascus (Figure 175) Stained Arab mosques of Cairo (Figure 207) mosque Stained glass (Figure 208) mosque Stained Glass (Figure 209) glazed earthenware ornaments taken in a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) Pottery glazed the main gate of the mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) Arab Vase of Alhambra (Figure 300) Narghilé Persian-Arabic (Figure 178) WORK LEATHER AND FABRICS. Old leather shield a stiff Granada (Figure 357) Ancient Arabic saddle (Figure 243) Ancient Koran binding (Figure 218) Teaches Arab Almohad (Figure 51) Old Arab fabrics (Figures 239; 240; 241; 242) 7 . Manuscripts.ENTRIES. Guards of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 26) Last page of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 27) Decorations excerpts of an ancient Koran Cairo (Figure 24) Cover an ancient Koran (Figure 218) Seals of the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman and Ali (Figure 220-223) Muhammad digit; after an ancient inscription of the mosque of Tulun (Figure 25) Subscribe ornamental formed by the combination of Kufic characters (Figure 219) Friesland cutting forming an Arab inscription by the deformation of the bottom of the characters (Figure 224) Registration modern Arabic, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 225) modern Arabic inscription, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 226) Drawings of an ancient Arab manuscript depicting riders throwing Greek fire (Figure 235- 236) Drawing of an ancient manuscript representative incendiary projectiles used by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 237) Drawing of an ancient manuscript firearms representative employed by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 238) 8. MAPS. Map of Arabia and neighboring regions (card # 1) of the twelfth century Arab map (Figure 233) map of the Arab geographer Edrisi (Figure 234) Map of the empire of the Arabs at the time of their greatest power and pro current of Islamism (chart # 2) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 33 9. BOARDS IN COLOR. inlaid bronze table Sultan Mahomed ben money Kalaoun (thirteenth century) (frontispiece.) (Plate 2) Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem (Plate 3) Sanctuary of El Akza mosque in Jerusalem (Plate 4) Great mosque of Isfahan (5 board) ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (6 board) polychrome ornamentation of a pavilion of the Alhambra (plate 1) Ceiling of a modern home in Damascus (plate 7) Stained glass windows of the sanctuary the el-Akza mosque in Jerusalem (plate 9) Pavement marble of an old house in Cairo. Mosaics and marble pearl of the Great Mosque of Damascus (Plate 8) Old enamelled glass lamps mosques of Cairo (Plate 10) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 34 Dr. Gustave Le Bon (1884) The civilization of the Arabs Illustrated book photolithographies 10, 4 cards and 366 prints, 70 large boards, from the photographs of the author or by the most authentic documents. . The Sycamore 102 Boulevard Beaumarchais 75011 Paris Back to the Table of Contents Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 35 The civilization of the Arabs (1884) I Introduction Back to Table of Contents The readers of our previous books know the genesis of this new book. They know that after studying the man and societies, we must address the history of civilization. Our latest work 1 was devoted to describing the successive forms of physical and intellectual development of man, the various elements that societies consist. Going back to the most remote periods of our past, we see how were formed the first human settlements, how the family were born and societies, industry and the arts, institutions and beliefs; how these elements are transformed through the ages, and what were the factors of these transformations, After studying the isolated man and the evolution of society, we have to complete our plan to apply to the study of large civilizations methods we have outlined. 1 People and companies. Their origins and development, 2 vols. Paris: J. Rothschild Edition, 1981 Edition reproduced in Paris in 1987 by Editions Jean-Michel Place.Volume I: Physical development and intellectual (520 pages); Volume II: The companies. Their origins and development (432 pages). Book decorated with 90 engravings. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 36 The company is vast, its difficulties are great. Ignoring far we can lead it, we wanted each of the volumes that make up this book was complete and independent. If it is given to complete eight to ten volumes that includes our plan, nothing will be easier than then classified in a methodical order the history of civilizations in the study which each of them will have been spent. We started with the Arabs because their civilization is one of those our travels have we done better know, one of those whose cycle is the most comprehensive and where most clearly manifests the influence of factors we tried determine the action, one of those whose history is finally the most interesting yet least known.The civilization of the Arab kingdom for twelve centuries the vast region stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean beaches with sands of interior Africa. Populations that inhabit possess the same religion, the same language, the same institutions, the same arts, and once formed part of the same empire. Kissing in an overview of the principal manifestations of this civilization in nations where it prevailed, reproduce all the wonders it has left in Spain, Africa, Egypt, Syria, Persia and India, had not yet been tried. The arts themselves, the best known yet elements of Arab civilization, had not yet been submitted to the General Survey. The few authors who have tackled their description constataient always lacked it completely, but the default documents had prevented the attempt. It was obvious no doubt that the similarity of beliefs had to determine a great relationship in the demonstrations of arts of different countries subject to the law of Islam; but it was also clear that varieties of races and backgrounds had to lead to profound differences. What were the similarities and what were the differences? The reader who wants to browse through the chapters of this book devoted to the study of architecture and the arts will see how modern science was silent on these issues. As one enters the study of this civilization, the facts we see new horizons emerge and expand. We soon found that the Middle Ages knew no classical antiquity by Arabs; that for five hundred years, the universities of the West lived exclusively of their books, and that triple material point of view, intellectual and moral, it is they who have civilized Europe. When studying their scientific work and their findings, we see that no people in such great produced in such a short time. When considering their art, it is recognized that they possessed an originality that has not been exceeded The action of the Arabs, already so great in the West, was even more significant in the East. No race is never exerted a similar influence. The peoples who once ruled the world: the Assyrians, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans have disappeared under the dust of centuries and have left but shapeless debris; their religions, their languages and arts are more than just memories. The Arabs have disappeared in their turn; but the most essential elements of their culture, religion, language and the arts are alive again, and Morocco to India, over one hundred million men obey the institutions of the prophet. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 37 Various conquerors overthrew the Arabs, none thought to replace the civilization they had created. All have adopted religion, arts, and most of their language. Located somewhere, the law of the Prophet seem fixed forever there.She pushed back in India of old yet well religions. She made this entirely Arab ancient Egypt of the Pharaohs, on which the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans had so little influence. The peoples of India, Persia, Egypt, Africa had other masters Muhammad’s disciples since they received the law of the latter, they do not recognized else. It’s a wonderful story that illustrates this hallucinated whose voice subdued this rebellious people, no conqueror could not tame, in whose name the most powerful empires were overthrown, and who, from his tomb, holds yet millions of men under his rule. Modern science calls these great founders of religions and empires insane; and, from the standpoint of pure truth, she’s right. Yet we must revere. The soul of an era, the genius of a race are embodied in them. Generations of ancestors lost in the sleep of centuries speak through their voices. These ideals creators give birth without doubt that ghosts but those dreaded ghosts have made us what we are, and without them no civilization could not exist. History is the story of the events made by man to create some ideal, love it or destroy it. The civilization of the Arabs was created by a semi-barbarous people. Out of the deserts of Arabia, he overthrew the secular power of the Persians, Greeks and Romans founded a vast empire that stretched from India to Spain, and produced these wonderful works that debris hit admiration and amazement. What factors presided over the birth and development of this civilization and this empire? What were the causes of its greatness and its decline? The reasons given by the historians are too weak to support the truth test. A method of analysis could be considered better than applying it to such people. It is from the East that the West was born, and it is still in the East we have to go ask the key past events. On this wonderful land, the arts, languages and most of the great religions have arisen, the men are not what they are elsewhere. Ideas, thoughts and feelings are different. The transformations are now so slow that we can by traveling up the entire chain of ages. Artists, scholars and poets always return there. How often sitting in the shade of a palm tree or a temple pylon, am I immersed myself in long reveries full of clear visions of missing ages. We dozed slightly; and, on a bright background, soon amounted strange cities whose crenellated towers, fairy palaces, temples, minarets glisten under a golden sun, and travel nomadic caravans, crowds of dressed Asians vibrant colors, troops of slaves with tanned skin, veiled women. They died today, most of the great cities of the past, Nineveh, Damascus, Jerusalem, Athens, Granada, Memphis and Thebes of the hundred gates. The Palace of Asia, the temples of Egypt are now in ruins. The gods of Babylonia, Syria, Chaldea, the banks of the Nile are only memories. But things in the ruins, what a world of ideas in those memories. What secrets to ask all these different races succeeding columns of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 38 Hercules fertile plateaus of old Asia, beaches Ablutions in the sacred well of Zem-Zem during the pilgrimage to Mecca (Figure 22) Camp pilgrims near Mecca (2) Camp pilgrims at the gates of Medina (Figure 21) Shop Tunisian merchant (Figure 365) Public Writer in Jerusalem (Figure 181) Boutique Arabic armorer, Syria (Figure 179) A street in Jerusalem (Figure 160) Schoolmaster and his students, Damascus (Figure 64) Female manufacturer kouskoussou the Berber (Figure 115) encampment of nomad Arabs in Algeria (Figure 164) nomadic camp on the outskirts of Tangier (Figure 166) A market in Morocco (Figure 165) Grand market of Tangier (Morocco) (Figure 192) A street in Tangier (Morocco) (Figure 171) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 26 Water Merchants in Cairo (Figure 182) A Cairo Street (Figure 100) Street vendors in Cairo (Figure 180) Wedding procession in Cairo (Figure 176) Mount Cairo (Figure 172) Group of Arabs on the Nile (Figure 89) whirling Dervishes (Figure 214) 4. ARCHITECTURE. This series includes about 150 figures representing overviews and detail about 70 Arab monuments or currently existing mixed Arab influence in various parts of the former empire of the Caliphs.To facilitate research we divided them into corners. SAUDI Mecca. View of the Mosque (Figure 5) Mecca. Inside the mosque and to the Kaaba during the Hajj (6) Medina. City View (Figure 20) JERUSALEM AREA Jerusalem. City View (Figure 157) Jerusalem. Part of the walls (figure 156) Jerusalem. Damascus Gate (Figure 155) the Haram-esh-Sharif. Inside the enclosure where the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem, where once stood the Temple of Solomon (Figure 158) marble pulpit, pulpit Omar said, inside the Harm in Jerusalem ( Figure 159) Mosque of Omar (Figure 65) inside the Mosque of Omar (Figure 66) ceilings of the first inner gallery of the Mosque of Omar (Figure 67) Mihrab of Zacharias in the mosque el-Akza (Figure 68) Oratory of Omar, the mosque el-Akza (Figure 69) Arab Tower of Ramleh (Figure 70) DAMASCUS Damascus. City walls (figure 59) Street, Damascus (Figure 61) Faubourg Meidan, Damascus (Figure 60) Great Mosque of Damascus. courtyard (Figure 62) Minaret of Jesus (Grand Mosque of Damascus) (Figure 63) School Mosque in Damascus (Figure 215) Tomb of Fatima, daughter of the Prophet, in the largest cemetery in Damascus (Figure 23) Palace Azhad Pasha, in Damascus. Inside the harem (Figure 201) CAIRO Mosque of Amr (courtyard) (Figure 94) Tulun Mosque, sanctuary (Figure 96) Tulun Mosque (courtyard, fountain and minaret) (Figure 95) sepulchral chapel Abbasid Caliphs ( Figure 205) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 27 al-Azhar Mosque. El-door Saydet (Figure 97) Mosque al-Azhar. Minarets (Figure 98) Mosque al-Azhar.Entrance to one of the rooms which are ongoing (Figure 244) Mosque al-Azhar. One of mihrabs (Figure 203) Bab-el-Fotouh (Figure 109) Cairo Citadel (Figure 93) Wells said of Joseph (Figure 110) Former convent of dervishes and public fountain (Figure 216) Mosque Kalaoun. A window (Figure 99) Hassan Mosque. Overview (Figure 101) Hassan Mosque. Ablutions fountain (Figure 102) Funeral Mosque of al-Barquq (Figure 104) Mouaiad Mosque. Interior (Figure 106) Funeral Mosque of Kait Bey (Figure 107) Chair and sanctuary of the mosque of Kait Bey (Figure 108) Bey Mosque Kagh and views of Cairo (Figure 92) Mosque of Emir Achor (Figure 103) Plain tombs at the foot of the citadel (Figure 105) old house in Cairo (Figure 170) door of an old house in Cairo (Figure 173) Cairo reception Room (Figure 111) TUNIS Tunis and Kairouan. City View (Figure 112) Minaret of the Great Sidi Okba Mosque in Kairouan (Figure 117) Gate of great Sidi Okba Mosque in Kairouan (Figure 116) Ancient Mosque of Kairouan (Figure 118) Mihrab of the mosque Sidi -el-Habib in Kairouan (Figure 121) carved wooden panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) glazed earthenware panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) ALGERIA AND MOROCCO façade of the mosque Djama-el Kebir, Algiers (Figure 122) Interior of the mosque of Sidi-Bou-Medina to Tlemcen (Figure 124) tomb of an Arab holy in the grove of Blidah (Algeria) (Figure 204) General View of Tangier (Morocco ) (Figure 125) Minaret of the great mosque of Tanger (Figure 123) Sale of Tangier (Figure 191) SICILY main facade of the Arab castle of Ziza, Sicily (Figure 146) interior view of Castle Ziza (Figure 147) architectural details of one of the facades of the Arabian palace of Cuba (Figure 148) CORDOBA Plan of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 129) Interior of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 127) Arches in the mosque of Cordoba (figure 302 ) mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 128) Ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (color board) (board # 07) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 28 Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 340) Beating of the door of forgiveness, Cordoba (Figure 350) TOLEDO Sun Gate, in Toledo (Figure 130) Bisagra Gate (Figure 311) Arab Tower of the Church of Santiago in Toledo (Figure 310) Sept towers of various churches in Toledo copied ancient minarets (303-307 figures; 308- 309) church decoration details el Transito (Figure 347) Arcade Hispanic-Arabic (Figure 345) SEVILLE La Giralda (Figure 135) Alcazar Front (Figure 131) Hall of Moorish kings, the Alcazar (Figure 134) a door from the courtyard of the maids at the Alcazar (Figure 316) inside one of the Alcazar course (Figure 132) within one of the Alcazar course (Figure 133) upper Gallery of either during the Alcazar (Figure 315) door of the sacristy the main altar of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) GRANADA View taken in the Alhambra (Figure 312) Court of the Alberca, Alhambra (Figure 139) Courtyard of the Lions, Alhambra (Figure 142) Dining two sisters, Alhambra (Figure 140) floor details upper room of the sisters (Figure 314) Interior Lindaraja firm (Figure 141) Rise of the mihrab of the mosque of the Alhambra (figure 136 ) Front of the mosque of the Alhambra. (Figure 136) Details of a window of the Mosque of the Alhambra (Figure 143) Architectural Details of a door of the Alhambra (Figure 282) ornamental Detail of a marquee and a column Alhambra (Figure 313) SEGOVIA various views of the Alcazar of Segovia (figures 144, 145, 331, 332) Arabic ornamentation of Segovia convent (Figure 348) Saragossa, BELEM, ETC. Nine Arab capitals from various sources (Figures 335-343) Arab Arcade Aljafería, Saragossa (Figure 344) Hispano-Arabic apse of St. Peter’s Church, in Calatayud (Figure 334) Hispano-Arabic Tower of Belem ( Portugal) (Figure 333) Château de la Penha (Portugal) (Figure 355) PERSIAN Old mosque Hamadan (Figure 317) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 29 Mosque and tomb of Shah-Koda at Sultanich (Figure 318) A mosque Hispahan (Figure 321) Interior of a Mosque Hispahan (Figure 77) Royal Square in Isfahan (Figure 359) Pavilion Tcheel-Soutoun, Isfahan (Figure 76) Pavilion mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Sunni Mosque in Tabriz (Figure 320) SAMARCANDE mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 319) enamelled earthenware mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) BAGHDAD AND SURROUNDING. Shooting in Baghdad, near the Kiaïa Ahmet Mosque (Figure 73) shooting in Baghdad (Figure 75) Mosque of Urfa (Mesopotamia) (Figure 71) CONSTANTINOPLE Main façade of the Mosque of Sultan Achmet to Constantinople (type Turkish mosques) (Figure 360) Even mosque the previous view of the side of the Bosphorus (Figure 361) INDIA Tour Koutab near Delhi (Figure 80) Koutab the mosque gate near Delhi, and King of the iron column Dhava (Figure 79) Temple Benderaboun near Muttra (Figure 83) Musjid-Jumma, great mosque of Delhi (Figure 87) the Taj Mahal, Agra (Figure 84) great room and octagonal dome inside the Taj (Figure 85) carved white marble balustrade surrounding the cenotaphs of Shah Jehan and his wife, the Taj (2) Inside one of the rooms of the palace of the Mongol kings, Delhi (Figure 88) Tomb of Akbar in Secundra (Figure 82) Raja Palace Goverdhum (Figure 322) 5. COINS. Two currencies of Caliph Omar (Figures 284-285) Three coins of the first caliphs (Figure 28-30) Currency ommiade a Caliph of Damascus (Figure 31) Currency of the Caliph al-Mahady (Figure 32) Currency of the Caliph al-Ma’mun (Figure 33) Currency Tulun (Figure 34) Currency of Caliph Raddy (Figure 35) gold coins of Fatimid caliph Mostanser (figures 36-37) Sultan Saladin coins, minted in Damascus. It focuses on his lapel name Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad (Figure 38) Other currency Saladin (Figure 39) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 30 Mint Caliph el Mekel el Kamel, with the back of the Abbasid caliph the name of Baghdad (Figure 40) Sultan Currency Beybars (Figure 41) Nine currencies Arabs of Spain (Figures 42-50) Two currencies chrétiennes- Arab of the Norman kings of Sicily (figures 149-151) 6. FINE ARTS AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS. The 120 prints in this series are a collection of the most typical objects of art and industrial art left by the Arabs. We ranked them first following the worked material (precious stones, metals, etc.) and according to the nature of the objects.All jewelry such are gathered together; The same applies to weapons, windows, cabinets, doors, etc. JEWELRY AND PRECIOUS STONES. Arms of a cross in gold jeweled from Toledo Visigoths (Figure 126) Buire Arab tenth century rock crystal (Figure 152) Gold Bracelet pushed Hispano-Arabic style (figure 322 bis) Gold Necklace Hispano-Arabic style (Figure 352) silver brooch (Syria) (Figure 286) Arabic ornament silver (Syria) (Figure 287) engraved Agate (Figure 19a) Reproduction jewelry and precious stones engraved in gold, silver, carnelian , agate, chalcedony, etc. (Figures 245-281) STONE SCULPTURE. stone parapet of an Arab well, Cordoba (Figure 283) Fragment of Arab stone sculpture (Figure 189) carved stone door of an old house in Cairo (Figure 173) Gate carved stone Aladdin at Koutab (Figure 81) METALWORKING, DAMASQUINERIE, chasing, ETC. Headache (Figure 53) Dagger (Figure 54) Lance (Figure 55) Axes arms (Figure 56-57) Headset (Figure 58) Panoplies Arab weapons of different periods (Figure 153) sheaths and scabbards of Arab arms (Figure 154) Shield of Philip II of Spain (Figure 356) Old Arab astrolabe (Figure 228) Other face the same instrument (Figure 229) anterior an Arab astrolabe, kept at the national Library in Paris (Figure 230) posterior surface of the same astrolabe (Figure 231) Arabic astrolabe of Philip II of Spain (Figure 232) Ancient bronze mosque lamp (Figure 212) Cairo mosque lamp, bronze (Figure 190) Old Arab lamp from the mosque Alhambra (Figure 213) Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 210) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 31 Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 211) Sultan Kalaoun box (Figure 188) pedestal inlaid with silver bronze (Figure 288) Upper part of the previous round table (Figure 289) Ancient vase Arab copper (Figure 185) Arab Copper Vase inlaid, known as the Baptistery of saint Louis (Figure 162) copper Vase inlaid with silver (Figure 330) Arabic-Chinese bronze vase (Figure 326) Vases of Chinese-Arab bronze (figures 327-329) Vase Chinese-Arabic bronze (Figure 325) Ancient Arabic flat copper (Figure 163) inkwell embossed copper (Figure 217) Narghilé inlaid with silver Arabic (Figure 177) Keys of Arab towns and castles (Figure 52) Arab Padlock (Figure 186-187) Hammer portal Tarragona Cathedral (Figure 358) copper tray inlaid with silver, Damascus (Figure 202) WOODWORK AND IVORY. carved ivory casket, of Cordova, of the tenth century (figure 299) carved ivory box, the tenth century (figure 323) box of the eleventh century, Persian-Arabic style (Figure 406) Moroccan box carved ivory, the eleventh century (Figure 324) carved ivory box, the twelfth century. (Figure 298) Old Cairo Arabic box (Figure 297) Box Persian inlaid mother of pearl (Figure 227) wooden stool inlaid with mother of pearl, Damascus (Figure 366) Arabic Mark, wood, a baker (Figure 295) Table wood, inlaid, Cairo (Figure 293) pedestal Arabic, wood, Cairo (Figure 294) Ceiling of the Mouaiad mosque in Cairo (Figure 206) Ceiling of an old Arab house Cairo (Figure 174) D ‘ other limits are represented on various designs of monuments of this work, including the following: inner gallery of the mosque of Omar (Figure 66) Hall of Mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Old Cairo Arab door (Figure 290) inlaid wood panel ivory, caught in a door of Cairo (Figure 291) panel of a wooden door of the salon of ambassadors, the Alcazar of Seville (Figure 292) carved wood panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) other Arab wooden doors have been represented in various parts of this book and are listed in the architecture section. Most notable are the following: Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 349) Gate of court ladies in Seville (Figure 316) Door of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) Details of a door of Alhambra (Figure 282) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 32 GLASS, CERAMIC TILES. Former Arab cut glass (Figure 184) enamelled glass lamp (Figure 353) Arabic Glass said Charlemagne (Figure 161) Stained glass window of the palace harem of Azhad Pasha, Damascus (Figure 175) Stained Arab mosques of Cairo (Figure 207) mosque Stained glass (Figure 208) mosque Stained Glass (Figure 209) glazed earthenware ornaments taken in a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) Pottery glazed the main gate of the mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) Arab Vase of Alhambra (Figure 300) Narghilé Persian-Arabic (Figure 178) WORK LEATHER AND FABRICS. Old leather shield a stiff Granada (Figure 357) Ancient Arabic saddle (Figure 243) Ancient Koran binding (Figure 218) Teaches Arab Almohad (Figure 51) Old Arab fabrics (Figures 239; 240; 241; 242) 7 . Manuscripts.ENTRIES. Guards of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 26) Last page of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 27) Decorations excerpts of an ancient Koran Cairo (Figure 24) Cover an ancient Koran (Figure 218) Seals of the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman and Ali (Figure 220-223) Muhammad digit; after an ancient inscription of the mosque of Tulun (Figure 25) Subscribe ornamental formed by the combination of Kufic characters (Figure 219) Friesland cutting forming an Arab inscription by the deformation of the bottom of the characters (Figure 224) Registration modern Arabic, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 225) modern Arabic inscription, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 226) Drawings of an ancient Arab manuscript depicting riders throwing Greek fire (Figure 235- 236) Drawing of an ancient manuscript representative incendiary projectiles used by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 237) Drawing of an ancient manuscript firearms representative employed by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 238) 8. MAPS. Map of Arabia and neighboring regions (card # 1) of the twelfth century Arab map (Figure 233) map of the Arab geographer Edrisi (Figure 234) Map of the empire of the Arabs at the time of their greatest power and pro current of Islamism (chart # 2) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 33 9. BOARDS IN COLOR. inlaid bronze table Sultan Mahomed ben money Kalaoun (thirteenth century) (frontispiece.) (Plate 2) Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem (Plate 3) Sanctuary of El Akza mosque in Jerusalem (Plate 4) Great mosque of Isfahan (5 board) ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (6 board) polychrome ornamentation of a pavilion of the Alhambra (plate 1) Ceiling of a modern home in Damascus (plate 7) Stained glass windows of the sanctuary the el-Akza mosque in Jerusalem (plate 9) Pavement marble of an old house in Cairo. Mosaics and marble pearl of the Great Mosque of Damascus (Plate 8) Old enamelled glass lamps mosques of Cairo (Plate 10) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 34 Dr. Gustave Le Bon (1884) The civilization of the Arabs Illustrated book photolithographies 10, 4 cards and 366 prints, 70 large boards, from the photographs of the author or by the most authentic documents. . The Sycamore 102 Boulevard Beaumarchais 75011 Paris Back to the Table of Contents Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 35 The civilization of the Arabs (1884) I Introduction Back to Table of Contents The readers of our previous books know the genesis of this new book. They know that after studying the man and societies, we must address the history of civilization. Our latest work 1 was devoted to describing the successive forms of physical and intellectual development of man, the various elements that societies consist. Going back to the most remote periods of our past, we see how were formed the first human settlements, how the family were born and societies, industry and the arts, institutions and beliefs; how these elements are transformed through the ages, and what were the factors of these transformations, After studying the isolated man and the evolution of society, we have to complete our plan to apply to the study of large civilizations methods we have outlined. 1 People and companies. Their origins and development, 2 vols. Paris: J. Rothschild Edition, 1981 Edition reproduced in Paris in 1987 by Editions Jean-Michel Place.Volume I: Physical development and intellectual (520 pages); Volume II: The companies. Their origins and development (432 pages). Book decorated with 90 engravings. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 36 The company is vast, its difficulties are great. Ignoring far we can lead it, we wanted each of the volumes that make up this book was complete and independent. If it is given to complete eight to ten volumes that includes our plan, nothing will be easier than then classified in a methodical order the history of civilizations in the study which each of them will have been spent. We started with the Arabs because their civilization is one of those our travels have we done better know, one of those whose cycle is the most comprehensive and where most clearly manifests the influence of factors we tried determine the action, one of those whose history is finally the most interesting yet least known.The civilization of the Arab kingdom for twelve centuries the vast region stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean beaches with sands of interior Africa. Populations that inhabit possess the same religion, the same language, the same institutions, the same arts, and once formed part of the same empire. Kissing in an overview of the principal manifestations of this civilization in nations where it prevailed, reproduce all the wonders it has left in Spain, Africa, Egypt, Syria, Persia and India, had not yet been tried. The arts themselves, the best known yet elements of Arab civilization, had not yet been submitted to the General Survey. The few authors who have tackled their description constataient always lacked it completely, but the default documents had prevented the attempt. It was obvious no doubt that the similarity of beliefs had to determine a great relationship in the demonstrations of arts of different countries subject to the law of Islam; but it was also clear that varieties of races and backgrounds had to lead to profound differences. What were the similarities and what were the differences? The reader who wants to browse through the chapters of this book devoted to the study of architecture and the arts will see how modern science was silent on these issues. As one enters the study of this civilization, the facts we see new horizons emerge and expand. We soon found that the Middle Ages knew no classical antiquity by Arabs; that for five hundred years, the universities of the West lived exclusively of their books, and that triple material point of view, intellectual and moral, it is they who have civilized Europe. When studying their scientific work and their findings, we see that no people in such great produced in such a short time. When considering their art, it is recognized that they possessed an originality that has not been exceeded The action of the Arabs, already so great in the West, was even more significant in the East. No race is never exerted a similar influence. The peoples who once ruled the world: the Assyrians, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans have disappeared under the dust of centuries and have left but shapeless debris; their religions, their languages and arts are more than just memories. The Arabs have disappeared in their turn; but the most essential elements of their culture, religion, language and the arts are alive again, and Morocco to India, over one hundred million men obey the institutions of the prophet. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 37 Various conquerors overthrew the Arabs, none thought to replace the civilization they had created. All have adopted religion, arts, and most of their language. Located somewhere, the law of the Prophet seem fixed forever there.She pushed back in India of old yet well religions. She made this entirely Arab ancient Egypt of the Pharaohs, on which the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans had so little influence. The peoples of India, Persia, Egypt, Africa had other masters Muhammad’s disciples since they received the law of the latter, they do not recognized else. It’s a wonderful story that illustrates this hallucinated whose voice subdued this rebellious people, no conqueror could not tame, in whose name the most powerful empires were overthrown, and who, from his tomb, holds yet millions of men under his rule. Modern science calls these great founders of religions and empires insane; and, from the standpoint of pure truth, she’s right. Yet we must revere. The soul of an era, the genius of a race are embodied in them. Generations of ancestors lost in the sleep of centuries speak through their voices. These ideals creators give birth without doubt that ghosts but those dreaded ghosts have made us what we are, and without them no civilization could not exist. History is the story of the events made by man to create some ideal, love it or destroy it. The civilization of the Arabs was created by a semi-barbarous people. Out of the deserts of Arabia, he overthrew the secular power of the Persians, Greeks and Romans founded a vast empire that stretched from India to Spain, and produced these wonderful works that debris hit admiration and amazement. What factors presided over the birth and development of this civilization and this empire? What were the causes of its greatness and its decline? The reasons given by the historians are too weak to support the truth test. A method of analysis could be considered better than applying it to such people. It is from the East that the West was born, and it is still in the East we have to go ask the key past events. On this wonderful land, the arts, languages and most of the great religions have arisen, the men are not what they are elsewhere. Ideas, thoughts and feelings are different. The transformations are now so slow that we can by traveling up the entire chain of ages. Artists, scholars and poets always return there. How often sitting in the shade of a palm tree or a temple pylon, am I immersed myself in long reveries full of clear visions of missing ages. We dozed slightly; and, on a bright background, soon amounted strange cities whose crenellated towers, fairy palaces, temples, minarets glisten under a golden sun, and travel nomadic caravans, crowds of dressed Asians vibrant colors, troops of slaves with tanned skin, veiled women. They died today, most of the great cities of the past, Nineveh, Damascus, Jerusalem, Athens, Granada, Memphis and Thebes of the hundred gates. The Palace of Asia, the temples of Egypt are now in ruins. The gods of Babylonia, Syria, Chaldea, the banks of the Nile are only memories. But things in the ruins, what a world of ideas in those memories. What secrets to ask all these different races succeeding columns of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 38 Hercules fertile plateaus of old Asia, beaches Algiers (Figure 122) Interior of the Mosque of Sidi-Bou-Medina to Tlemcen (Figure 124) tomb of an Arab holy in the grove of Blidah (Algeria) (Figure 204) General View of Tangier (Morocco) ( Figure 125) Minaret of the great mosque of Tanger (Figure 123) Sale of Tangier (Figure 191) SICILY main facade of the Arab castle of Ziza, Sicily (Figure 146) interior view of Castle Ziza (Figure 147) Details of architecture of one of the facades of the Arabian palace of Cuba (Figure 148) CORDOBA Plan of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 129) Interior of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 127) Arches in the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 302) Mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 128) Ceiling mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (color board) (board # 07) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 28 Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 340) Beating of the door of forgiveness, Cordoba (Figure 350) TOLEDO Sun Gate, in Toledo (Figure 130) Bisagra Gate (Figure 311) Arab Tower of the Church of Santiago in Toledo (Figure 310) Sept towers of various churches in Toledo copied ancient minarets (303-307 figures; 308- 309) church decoration details el Transito (Figure 347) Arcade Hispanic-Arabic (Figure 345) SEVILLE La Giralda (Figure 135) Alcazar Front (Figure 131) Hall of Moorish kings, the Alcazar (Figure 134) a door from the courtyard of the maids at the Alcazar (Figure 316) inside one of the Alcazar course (Figure 132) within one of the Alcazar course (Figure 133) upper Gallery of either during the Alcazar (Figure 315) door of the sacristy the main altar of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) GRANADA View taken in the Alhambra (Figure 312) Court of the Alberca, Alhambra (Figure 139) Courtyard of the Lions, Alhambra (Figure 142) Dining two sisters, Alhambra (Figure 140) floor details upper room of the sisters (Figure 314) Interior Lindaraja firm (Figure 141) Rise of the mihrab of the mosque of the Alhambra (figure 136 ) Front of the mosque of the Alhambra. (Figure 136) Details of a window of the Mosque of the Alhambra (Figure 143) Architectural Details of a door of the Alhambra (Figure 282) ornamental Detail of a marquee and a column Alhambra (Figure 313) SEGOVIA various views of the Alcazar of Segovia (figures 144, 145, 331, 332) Arabic ornamentation of Segovia convent (Figure 348) Saragossa, BELEM, ETC. Nine Arab capitals from various sources (Figures 335-343) Arab Arcade Aljafería, Saragossa (Figure 344) Hispano-Arabic apse of St. Peter’s Church, in Calatayud (Figure 334) Hispano-Arabic Tower of Belem ( Portugal) (Figure 333) Château de la Penha (Portugal) (Figure 355) PERSIAN Old mosque Hamadan (Figure 317) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 29 Mosque and tomb of Shah-Koda at Sultanich (Figure 318) A mosque Hispahan (Figure 321) Interior of a Mosque Hispahan (Figure 77) Royal Square in Isfahan (Figure 359) Pavilion Tcheel-Soutoun, Isfahan (Figure 76) Pavilion mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Sunni Mosque in Tabriz (Figure 320) SAMARCANDE mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 319) enamelled earthenware mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) BAGHDAD AND SURROUNDING. Shooting in Baghdad, near the Kiaïa Ahmet Mosque (Figure 73) shooting in Baghdad (Figure 75) Mosque of Urfa (Mesopotamia) (Figure 71) CONSTANTINOPLE Main façade of the Mosque of Sultan Achmet to Constantinople (type Turkish mosques) (Figure 360) Even mosque the previous view of the side of the Bosphorus (Figure 361) INDIA Tour Koutab near Delhi (Figure 80) Koutab the mosque gate near Delhi, and King of the iron column Dhava (Figure 79) Temple Benderaboun near Muttra (Figure 83) Musjid-Jumma, great mosque of Delhi (Figure 87) the Taj Mahal, Agra (Figure 84) great room and octagonal dome inside the Taj (Figure 85) carved white marble balustrade surrounding the cenotaphs of Shah Jehan and his wife, the Taj (2) Inside one of the rooms of the palace of the Mongol kings, Delhi (Figure 88) Tomb of Akbar in Secundra (Figure 82) Raja Palace Goverdhum (Figure 322) 5. COINS. Two currencies of Caliph Omar (Figures 284-285) Three coins of the first caliphs (Figure 28-30) Currency ommiade a Caliph of Damascus (Figure 31) Currency of the Caliph al-Mahady (Figure 32) Currency of the Caliph al-Ma’mun (Figure 33) Currency Tulun (Figure 34) Currency of Caliph Raddy (Figure 35) gold coins of Fatimid caliph Mostanser (figures 36-37) Sultan Saladin coins, minted in Damascus. It focuses on his lapel name Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad (Figure 38) Other currency Saladin (Figure 39) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 30 Mint Caliph el Mekel el Kamel, with the back of the Abbasid caliph the name of Baghdad (Figure 40) Sultan Currency Beybars (Figure 41) Nine currencies Arabs of Spain (Figures 42-50) Two currencies chrétiennes- Arab of the Norman kings of Sicily (figures 149-151) 6. FINE ARTS AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS. The 120 prints in this series are a collection of the most typical objects of art and industrial art left by the Arabs. We ranked them first following the worked material (precious stones, metals, etc.) and according to the nature of the objects.All jewelry such are gathered together; The same applies to weapons, windows, cabinets, doors, etc. JEWELRY AND PRECIOUS STONES. Arms of a cross in gold jeweled from Toledo Visigoths (Figure 126) Buire Arab tenth century rock crystal (Figure 152) Gold Bracelet pushed Hispano-Arabic style (figure 322 bis) Gold Necklace Hispano-Arabic style (Figure 352) silver brooch (Syria) (Figure 286) Arabic ornament silver (Syria) (Figure 287) engraved Agate (Figure 19a) Reproduction jewelry and precious stones engraved in gold, silver, carnelian , agate, chalcedony, etc. (Figures 245-281) STONE SCULPTURE. stone parapet of an Arab well, Cordoba (Figure 283) Fragment of Arab stone sculpture (Figure 189) carved stone door of an old house in Cairo (Figure 173) Gate carved stone Aladdin at Koutab (Figure 81) METALWORKING, DAMASQUINERIE, chasing, ETC. Headache (Figure 53) Dagger (Figure 54) Lance (Figure 55) Axes arms (Figure 56-57) Headset (Figure 58) Panoplies Arab weapons of different periods (Figure 153) sheaths and scabbards of Arab arms (Figure 154) Shield of Philip II of Spain (Figure 356) Old Arab astrolabe (Figure 228) Other face the same instrument (Figure 229) anterior an Arab astrolabe, kept at the national Library in Paris (Figure 230) posterior surface of the same astrolabe (Figure 231) Arabic astrolabe of Philip II of Spain (Figure 232) Ancient bronze mosque lamp (Figure 212) Cairo mosque lamp, bronze (Figure 190) Old Arab lamp from the mosque Alhambra (Figure 213) Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 210) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 31 Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 211) Sultan Kalaoun box (Figure 188) pedestal inlaid with silver bronze (Figure 288) Upper part of the previous round table (Figure 289) Ancient vase Arab copper (Figure 185) Arab Copper Vase inlaid, known as the Baptistery of saint Louis (Figure 162) copper Vase inlaid with silver (Figure 330) Arabic-Chinese bronze vase (Figure 326) Vases of Chinese-Arab bronze (figures 327-329) Vase Chinese-Arabic bronze (Figure 325) Ancient Arabic flat copper (Figure 163) inkwell embossed copper (Figure 217) Narghilé inlaid with silver Arabic (Figure 177) Keys of Arab towns and castles (Figure 52) Arab Padlock (Figure 186-187) Hammer portal Tarragona Cathedral (Figure 358) copper tray inlaid with silver, Damascus (Figure 202) WOODWORK AND IVORY. carved ivory casket, of Cordova, of the tenth century (figure 299) carved ivory box, the tenth century (figure 323) box of the eleventh century, Persian-Arabic style (Figure 406) Moroccan box carved ivory, the eleventh century (Figure 324) carved ivory box, the twelfth century. (Figure 298) Old Cairo Arabic box (Figure 297) Box Persian inlaid mother of pearl (Figure 227) wooden stool inlaid with mother of pearl, Damascus (Figure 366) Arabic Mark, wood, a baker (Figure 295) Table wood, inlaid, Cairo (Figure 293) pedestal Arabic, wood, Cairo (Figure 294) Ceiling of the Mouaiad mosque in Cairo (Figure 206) Ceiling of an old Arab house Cairo (Figure 174) D ‘ other limits are represented on various designs of monuments of this work, including the following: inner gallery of the mosque of Omar (Figure 66) Hall of Mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Old Cairo Arab door (Figure 290) inlaid wood panel ivory, caught in a door of Cairo (Figure 291) panel of a wooden door of the salon of ambassadors, the Alcazar of Seville (Figure 292) carved wood panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) other Arab wooden doors have been represented in various parts of this book and are listed in the architecture section. Most notable are the following: Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 349) Gate of court ladies in Seville (Figure 316) Door of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) Details of a door of Alhambra (Figure 282) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 32 GLASS, CERAMIC TILES. Former Arab cut glass (Figure 184) enamelled glass lamp (Figure 353) Arabic Glass said Charlemagne (Figure 161) Stained glass window of the palace harem of Azhad Pasha, Damascus (Figure 175) Stained Arab mosques of Cairo (Figure 207) mosque Stained glass (Figure 208) mosque Stained Glass (Figure 209) glazed earthenware ornaments taken in a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) Pottery glazed the main gate of the mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) Arab Vase of Alhambra (Figure 300) Narghilé Persian-Arabic (Figure 178) WORK LEATHER AND FABRICS. Old leather shield a stiff Granada (Figure 357) Ancient Arabic saddle (Figure 243) Ancient Koran binding (Figure 218) Teaches Arab Almohad (Figure 51) Old Arab fabrics (Figures 239; 240; 241; 242) 7 . Manuscripts.ENTRIES. Guards of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 26) Last page of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 27) Decorations excerpts of an ancient Koran Cairo (Figure 24) Cover an ancient Koran (Figure 218) Seals of the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman and Ali (Figure 220-223) Muhammad digit; after an ancient inscription of the mosque of Tulun (Figure 25) Subscribe ornamental formed by the combination of Kufic characters (Figure 219) Friesland cutting forming an Arab inscription by the deformation of the bottom of the characters (Figure 224) Registration modern Arabic, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 225) modern Arabic inscription, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 226) Drawings of an ancient Arab manuscript depicting riders throwing Greek fire (Figure 235- 236) Drawing of an ancient manuscript representative incendiary projectiles used by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 237) Drawing of an ancient manuscript firearms representative employed by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 238) 8. MAPS. Map of Arabia and neighboring regions (card # 1) of the twelfth century Arab map (Figure 233) map of the Arab geographer Edrisi (Figure 234) Map of the empire of the Arabs at the time of their greatest power and pro current of Islamism (chart # 2) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 33 9. BOARDS IN COLOR. inlaid bronze table Sultan Mahomed ben money Kalaoun (thirteenth century) (frontispiece.) (Plate 2) Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem (Plate 3) Sanctuary of El Akza mosque in Jerusalem (Plate 4) Great mosque of Isfahan (5 board) ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (6 board) polychrome ornamentation of a pavilion of the Alhambra (plate 1) Ceiling of a modern home in Damascus (plate 7) Stained glass windows of the sanctuary the el-Akza mosque in Jerusalem (plate 9) Pavement marble of an old house in Cairo. Mosaics and marble pearl of the Great Mosque of Damascus (Plate 8) Old enamelled glass lamps mosques of Cairo (Plate 10) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 34 Dr. Gustave Le Bon (1884) The civilization of the Arabs Illustrated book photolithographies 10, 4 cards and 366 prints, 70 large boards, from the photographs of the author or by the most authentic documents. . The Sycamore 102 Boulevard Beaumarchais 75011 Paris Back to the Table of Contents Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 35 The civilization of the Arabs (1884) I Introduction Back to Table of Contents The readers of our previous books know the genesis of this new book. They know that after studying the man and societies, we must address the history of civilization. Our latest work 1 was devoted to describing the successive forms of physical and intellectual development of man, the various elements that societies consist. Going back to the most remote periods of our past, we see how were formed the first human settlements, how the family were born and societies, industry and the arts, institutions and beliefs; how these elements are transformed through the ages, and what were the factors of these transformations, After studying the isolated man and the evolution of society, we have to complete our plan to apply to the study of large civilizations methods we have outlined. 1 People and companies. Their origins and development, 2 vols. Paris: J. Rothschild Edition, 1981 Edition reproduced in Paris in 1987 by Editions Jean-Michel Place.Volume I: Physical development and intellectual (520 pages); Volume II: The companies. Their origins and development (432 pages). Book decorated with 90 engravings. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 36 The company is vast, its difficulties are great. Ignoring far we can lead it, we wanted each of the volumes that make up this book was complete and independent. If it is given to complete eight to ten volumes that includes our plan, nothing will be easier than then classified in a methodical order the history of civilizations in the study which each of them will have been spent. We started with the Arabs because their civilization is one of those our travels have we done better know, one of those whose cycle is the most comprehensive and where most clearly manifests the influence of factors we tried determine the action, one of those whose history is finally the most interesting yet least known.The civilization of the Arab kingdom for twelve centuries the vast region stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean beaches with sands of interior Africa. Populations that inhabit possess the same religion, the same language, the same institutions, the same arts, and once formed part of the same empire. Kissing in an overview of the principal manifestations of this civilization in nations where it prevailed, reproduce all the wonders it has left in Spain, Africa, Egypt, Syria, Persia and India, had not yet been tried. The arts themselves, the best known yet elements of Arab civilization, had not yet been submitted to the General Survey. The few authors who have tackled their description constataient always lacked it completely, but the default documents had prevented the attempt. It was obvious no doubt that the similarity of beliefs had to determine a great relationship in the demonstrations of arts of different countries subject to the law of Islam; but it was also clear that varieties of races and backgrounds had to lead to profound differences. What were the similarities and what were the differences? The reader who wants to browse through the chapters of this book devoted to the study of architecture and the arts will see how modern science was silent on these issues. As one enters the study of this civilization, the facts we see new horizons emerge and expand. We soon found that the Middle Ages knew no classical antiquity by Arabs; that for five hundred years, the universities of the West lived exclusively of their books, and that triple material point of view, intellectual and moral, it is they who have civilized Europe. When studying their scientific work and their findings, we see that no people in such great produced in such a short time. When considering their art, it is recognized that they possessed an originality that has not been exceeded The action of the Arabs, already so great in the West, was even more significant in the East. No race is never exerted a similar influence. The peoples who once ruled the world: the Assyrians, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans have disappeared under the dust of centuries and have left but shapeless debris; their religions, their languages and arts are more than just memories. The Arabs have disappeared in their turn; but the most essential elements of their culture, religion, language and the arts are alive again, and Morocco to India, over one hundred million men obey the institutions of the prophet. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 37 Various conquerors overthrew the Arabs, none thought to replace the civilization they had created. All have adopted religion, arts, and most of their language. Located somewhere, the law of the Prophet seem fixed forever there.She pushed back in India of old yet well religions. She made this entirely Arab ancient Egypt of the Pharaohs, on which the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans had so little influence. The peoples of India, Persia, Egypt, Africa had other masters Muhammad’s disciples since they received the law of the latter, they do not recognized else. It’s a wonderful story that illustrates this hallucinated whose voice subdued this rebellious people, no conqueror could not tame, in whose name the most powerful empires were overthrown, and who, from his tomb, holds yet millions of men under his rule. Modern science calls these great founders of religions and empires insane; and, from the standpoint of pure truth, she’s right. Yet we must revere. The soul of an era, the genius of a race are embodied in them. Generations of ancestors lost in the sleep of centuries speak through their voices. These ideals creators give birth without doubt that ghosts but those dreaded ghosts have made us what we are, and without them no civilization could not exist. History is the story of the events made by man to create some ideal, love it or destroy it. The civilization of the Arabs was created by a semi-barbarous people. Out of the deserts of Arabia, he overthrew the secular power of the Persians, Greeks and Romans founded a vast empire that stretched from India to Spain, and produced these wonderful works that debris hit admiration and amazement. What factors presided over the birth and development of this civilization and this empire? What were the causes of its greatness and its decline? The reasons given by the historians are too weak to support the truth test. A method of analysis could be considered better than applying it to such people. It is from the East that the West was born, and it is still in the East we have to go ask the key past events. On this wonderful land, the arts, languages and most of the great religions have arisen, the men are not what they are elsewhere. Ideas, thoughts and feelings are different. The transformations are now so slow that we can by traveling up the entire chain of ages. Artists, scholars and poets always return there. How often sitting in the shade of a palm tree or a temple pylon, am I immersed myself in long reveries full of clear visions of missing ages. We dozed slightly; and, on a bright background, soon amounted strange cities whose crenellated towers, fairy palaces, temples, minarets glisten under a golden sun, and travel nomadic caravans, crowds of dressed Asians vibrant colors, troops of slaves with tanned skin, veiled women. They died today, most of the great cities of the past, Nineveh, Damascus, Jerusalem, Athens, Granada, Memphis and Thebes of the hundred gates. The Palace of Asia, the temples of Egypt are now in ruins. The gods of Babylonia, Syria, Chaldea, the banks of the Nile are only memories. But things in the ruins, what a world of ideas in those memories. What secrets to ask all these different races succeeding columns of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 38 Hercules fertile plateaus of old Asia, beaches Algiers (Figure 122) Interior of the Mosque of Sidi-Bou-Medina to Tlemcen (Figure 124) tomb of an Arab holy in the grove of Blidah (Algeria) (Figure 204) General View of Tangier (Morocco) ( Figure 125) Minaret of the great mosque of Tanger (Figure 123) Sale of Tangier (Figure 191) SICILY main facade of the Arab castle of Ziza, Sicily (Figure 146) interior view of Castle Ziza (Figure 147) Details of architecture of one of the facades of the Arabian palace of Cuba (Figure 148) CORDOBA Plan of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 129) Interior of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 127) Arches in the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 302) Mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (Figure 128) Ceiling mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (color board) (board # 07) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 28 Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 340) Beating of the door of forgiveness, Cordoba (Figure 350) TOLEDO Sun Gate, in Toledo (Figure 130) Bisagra Gate (Figure 311) Arab Tower of the Church of Santiago in Toledo (Figure 310) Sept towers of various churches in Toledo copied ancient minarets (303-307 figures; 308- 309) church decoration details el Transito (Figure 347) Arcade Hispanic-Arabic (Figure 345) SEVILLE La Giralda (Figure 135) Alcazar Front (Figure 131) Hall of Moorish kings, the Alcazar (Figure 134) a door from the courtyard of the maids at the Alcazar (Figure 316) inside one of the Alcazar course (Figure 132) within one of the Alcazar course (Figure 133) upper Gallery of either during the Alcazar (Figure 315) door of the sacristy the main altar of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) GRANADA View taken in the Alhambra (Figure 312) Court of the Alberca, Alhambra (Figure 139) Courtyard of the Lions, Alhambra (Figure 142) Dining two sisters, Alhambra (Figure 140) floor details upper room of the sisters (Figure 314) Interior Lindaraja firm (Figure 141) Rise of the mihrab of the mosque of the Alhambra (figure 136 ) Front of the mosque of the Alhambra. (Figure 136) Details of a window of the Mosque of the Alhambra (Figure 143) Architectural Details of a door of the Alhambra (Figure 282) ornamental Detail of a marquee and a column Alhambra (Figure 313) SEGOVIA various views of the Alcazar of Segovia (figures 144, 145, 331, 332) Arabic ornamentation of Segovia convent (Figure 348) Saragossa, BELEM, ETC. Nine Arab capitals from various sources (Figures 335-343) Arab Arcade Aljafería, Saragossa (Figure 344) Hispano-Arabic apse of St. Peter’s Church, in Calatayud (Figure 334) Hispano-Arabic Tower of Belem ( Portugal) (Figure 333) Château de la Penha (Portugal) (Figure 355) PERSIAN Old mosque Hamadan (Figure 317) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 29 Mosque and tomb of Shah-Koda at Sultanich (Figure 318) A mosque Hispahan (Figure 321) Interior of a Mosque Hispahan (Figure 77) Royal Square in Isfahan (Figure 359) Pavilion Tcheel-Soutoun, Isfahan (Figure 76) Pavilion mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Sunni Mosque in Tabriz (Figure 320) SAMARCANDE mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 319) enamelled earthenware mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) BAGHDAD AND SURROUNDING. Shooting in Baghdad, near the Kiaïa Ahmet Mosque (Figure 73) shooting in Baghdad (Figure 75) Mosque of Urfa (Mesopotamia) (Figure 71) CONSTANTINOPLE Main façade of the Mosque of Sultan Achmet to Constantinople (type Turkish mosques) (Figure 360) Even mosque the previous view of the side of the Bosphorus (Figure 361) INDIA Tour Koutab near Delhi (Figure 80) Koutab the mosque gate near Delhi, and King of the iron column Dhava (Figure 79) Temple Benderaboun near Muttra (Figure 83) Musjid-Jumma, great mosque of Delhi (Figure 87) the Taj Mahal, Agra (Figure 84) great room and octagonal dome inside the Taj (Figure 85) carved white marble balustrade surrounding the cenotaphs of Shah Jehan and his wife, the Taj (2) Inside one of the rooms of the palace of the Mongol kings, Delhi (Figure 88) Tomb of Akbar in Secundra (Figure 82) Raja Palace Goverdhum (Figure 322) 5. COINS. Two currencies of Caliph Omar (Figures 284-285) Three coins of the first caliphs (Figure 28-30) Currency ommiade a Caliph of Damascus (Figure 31) Currency of the Caliph al-Mahady (Figure 32) Currency of the Caliph al-Ma’mun (Figure 33) Currency Tulun (Figure 34) Currency of Caliph Raddy (Figure 35) gold coins of Fatimid caliph Mostanser (figures 36-37) Sultan Saladin coins, minted in Damascus. It focuses on his lapel name Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad (Figure 38) Other currency Saladin (Figure 39) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 30 Mint Caliph el Mekel el Kamel, with the back of the Abbasid caliph the name of Baghdad (Figure 40) Sultan Currency Beybars (Figure 41) Nine currencies Arabs of Spain (Figures 42-50) Two currencies chrétiennes- Arab of the Norman kings of Sicily (figures 149-151) 6. FINE ARTS AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS. The 120 prints in this series are a collection of the most typical objects of art and industrial art left by the Arabs. We ranked them first following the worked material (precious stones, metals, etc.) and according to the nature of the objects.All jewelry such are gathered together; The same applies to weapons, windows, cabinets, doors, etc. JEWELRY AND PRECIOUS STONES. Arms of a cross in gold jeweled from Toledo Visigoths (Figure 126) Buire Arab tenth century rock crystal (Figure 152) Gold Bracelet pushed Hispano-Arabic style (figure 322 bis) Gold Necklace Hispano-Arabic style (Figure 352) silver brooch (Syria) (Figure 286) Arabic ornament silver (Syria) (Figure 287) engraved Agate (Figure 19a) Reproduction jewelry and precious stones engraved in gold, silver, carnelian , agate, chalcedony, etc. (Figures 245-281) STONE SCULPTURE. stone parapet of an Arab well, Cordoba (Figure 283) Fragment of Arab stone sculpture (Figure 189) carved stone door of an old house in Cairo (Figure 173) Gate carved stone Aladdin at Koutab (Figure 81) METALWORKING, DAMASQUINERIE, chasing, ETC. Headache (Figure 53) Dagger (Figure 54) Lance (Figure 55) Axes arms (Figure 56-57) Headset (Figure 58) Panoplies Arab weapons of different periods (Figure 153) sheaths and scabbards of Arab arms (Figure 154) Shield of Philip II of Spain (Figure 356) Old Arab astrolabe (Figure 228) Other face the same instrument (Figure 229) anterior an Arab astrolabe, kept at the national Library in Paris (Figure 230) posterior surface of the same astrolabe (Figure 231) Arabic astrolabe of Philip II of Spain (Figure 232) Ancient bronze mosque lamp (Figure 212) Cairo mosque lamp, bronze (Figure 190) Old Arab lamp from the mosque Alhambra (Figure 213) Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 210) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 31 Flambeau Kalaoun Sultan (Figure 211) Sultan Kalaoun box (Figure 188) pedestal inlaid with silver bronze (Figure 288) Upper part of the previous round table (Figure 289) Ancient vase Arab copper (Figure 185) Arab Copper Vase inlaid, known as the Baptistery of saint Louis (Figure 162) copper Vase inlaid with silver (Figure 330) Arabic-Chinese bronze vase (Figure 326) Vases of Chinese-Arab bronze (figures 327-329) Vase Chinese-Arabic bronze (Figure 325) Ancient Arabic flat copper (Figure 163) inkwell embossed copper (Figure 217) Narghilé inlaid with silver Arabic (Figure 177) Keys of Arab towns and castles (Figure 52) Arab Padlock (Figure 186-187) Hammer portal Tarragona Cathedral (Figure 358) copper tray inlaid with silver, Damascus (Figure 202) WOODWORK AND IVORY. carved ivory casket, of Cordova, of the tenth century (figure 299) carved ivory box, the tenth century (figure 323) box of the eleventh century, Persian-Arabic style (Figure 406) Moroccan box carved ivory, the eleventh century (Figure 324) carved ivory box, the twelfth century. (Figure 298) Old Cairo Arabic box (Figure 297) Box Persian inlaid mother of pearl (Figure 227) wooden stool inlaid with mother of pearl, Damascus (Figure 366) Arabic Mark, wood, a baker (Figure 295) Table wood, inlaid, Cairo (Figure 293) pedestal Arabic, wood, Cairo (Figure 294) Ceiling of the Mouaiad mosque in Cairo (Figure 206) Ceiling of an old Arab house Cairo (Figure 174) D ‘ other limits are represented on various designs of monuments of this work, including the following: inner gallery of the mosque of Omar (Figure 66) Hall of Mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) Old Cairo Arab door (Figure 290) inlaid wood panel ivory, caught in a door of Cairo (Figure 291) panel of a wooden door of the salon of ambassadors, the Alcazar of Seville (Figure 292) carved wood panel of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) other Arab wooden doors have been represented in various parts of this book and are listed in the architecture section. Most notable are the following: Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 349) Gate of court ladies in Seville (Figure 316) Door of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) Details of a door of Alhambra (Figure 282) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 32 GLASS, CERAMIC TILES. Former Arab cut glass (Figure 184) enamelled glass lamp (Figure 353) Arabic Glass said Charlemagne (Figure 161) Stained glass window of the palace harem of Azhad Pasha, Damascus (Figure 175) Stained Arab mosques of Cairo (Figure 207) mosque Stained glass (Figure 208) mosque Stained Glass (Figure 209) glazed earthenware ornaments taken in a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) Pottery glazed the main gate of the mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) Arab Vase of Alhambra (Figure 300) Narghilé Persian-Arabic (Figure 178) WORK LEATHER AND FABRICS. Old leather shield a stiff Granada (Figure 357) Ancient Arabic saddle (Figure 243) Ancient Koran binding (Figure 218) Teaches Arab Almohad (Figure 51) Old Arab fabrics (Figures 239; 240; 241; 242) 7 . Manuscripts.ENTRIES. Guards of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 26) Last page of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 27) Decorations excerpts of an ancient Koran Cairo (Figure 24) Cover an ancient Koran (Figure 218) Seals of the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman and Ali (Figure 220-223) Muhammad digit; after an ancient inscription of the mosque of Tulun (Figure 25) Subscribe ornamental formed by the combination of Kufic characters (Figure 219) Friesland cutting forming an Arab inscription by the deformation of the bottom of the characters (Figure 224) Registration modern Arabic, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 225) modern Arabic inscription, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 226) Drawings of an ancient Arab manuscript depicting riders throwing Greek fire (Figure 235- 236) Drawing of an ancient manuscript representative incendiary projectiles used by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 237) Drawing of an ancient manuscript firearms representative employed by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 238) 8. MAPS. Map of Arabia and neighboring regions (card # 1) of the twelfth century Arab map (Figure 233) map of the Arab geographer Edrisi (Figure 234) Map of the empire of the Arabs at the time of their greatest power and pro current of Islamism (chart # 2) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 33 9. BOARDS IN COLOR. inlaid bronze table Sultan Mahomed ben money Kalaoun (thirteenth century) (frontispiece.) (Plate 2) Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem (Plate 3) Sanctuary of El Akza mosque in Jerusalem (Plate 4) Great mosque of Isfahan (5 board) ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (6 board) polychrome ornamentation of a pavilion of the Alhambra (plate 1) Ceiling of a modern home in Damascus (plate 7) Stained glass windows of the sanctuary the el-Akza mosque in Jerusalem (plate 9) Pavement marble of an old house in Cairo. Mosaics and marble pearl of the Great Mosque of Damascus (Plate 8) Old enamelled glass lamps mosques of Cairo (Plate 10) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 34 Dr. Gustave Le Bon (1884) The civilization of the Arabs Illustrated book photolithographies 10, 4 cards and 366 prints, 70 large boards, from the photographs of the author or by the most authentic documents. . The Sycamore 102 Boulevard Beaumarchais 75011 Paris Back to the Table of Contents Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 35 The civilization of the Arabs (1884) I Introduction Back to Table of Contents The readers of our previous books know the genesis of this new book. They know that after studying the man and societies, we must address the history of civilization. Our latest work 1 was devoted to describing the successive forms of physical and intellectual development of man, the various elements that societies consist. Going back to the most remote periods of our past, we see how were formed the first human settlements, how the family were born and societies, industry and the arts, institutions and beliefs; how these elements are transformed through the ages, and what were the factors of these transformations, After studying the isolated man and the evolution of society, we have to complete our plan to apply to the study of large civilizations methods we have outlined. 1 People and companies. Their origins and development, 2 vols. Paris: J. Rothschild Edition, 1981 Edition reproduced in Paris in 1987 by Editions Jean-Michel Place.Volume I: Physical development and intellectual (520 pages); Volume II: The companies. Their origins and development (432 pages). Book decorated with 90 engravings. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 36 The company is vast, its difficulties are great. Ignoring far we can lead it, we wanted each of the volumes that make up this book was complete and independent. If it is given to complete eight to ten volumes that includes our plan, nothing will be easier than then classified in a methodical order the history of civilizations in the study which each of them will have been spent. We started with the Arabs because their civilization is one of those our travels have we done better know, one of those whose cycle is the most comprehensive and where most clearly manifests the influence of factors we tried determine the action, one of those whose history is finally the most interesting yet least known.The civilization of the Arab kingdom for twelve centuries the vast region stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean beaches with sands of interior Africa. Populations that inhabit possess the same religion, the same language, the same institutions, the same arts, and once formed part of the same empire. Kissing in an overview of the principal manifestations of this civilization in nations where it prevailed, reproduce all the wonders it has left in Spain, Africa, Egypt, Syria, Persia and India, had not yet been tried. The arts themselves, the best known yet elements of Arab civilization, had not yet been submitted to the General Survey. The few authors who have tackled their description constataient always lacked it completely, but the default documents had prevented the attempt. It was obvious no doubt that the similarity of beliefs had to determine a great relationship in the demonstrations of arts of different countries subject to the law of Islam; but it was also clear that varieties of races and backgrounds had to lead to profound differences. What were the similarities and what were the differences? The reader who wants to browse through the chapters of this book devoted to the study of architecture and the arts will see how modern science was silent on these issues. As one enters the study of this civilization, the facts we see new horizons emerge and expand. We soon found that the Middle Ages knew no classical antiquity by Arabs; that for five hundred years, the universities of the West lived exclusively of their books, and that triple material point of view, intellectual and moral, it is they who have civilized Europe. When studying their scientific work and their findings, we see that no people in such great produced in such a short time. When considering their art, it is recognized that they possessed an originality that has not been exceeded The action of the Arabs, already so great in the West, was even more significant in the East. No race is never exerted a similar influence. The peoples who once ruled the world: the Assyrians, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans have disappeared under the dust of centuries and have left but shapeless debris; their religions, their languages and arts are more than just memories. The Arabs have disappeared in their turn; but the most essential elements of their culture, religion, language and the arts are alive again, and Morocco to India, over one hundred million men obey the institutions of the prophet. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 37 Various conquerors overthrew the Arabs, none thought to replace the civilization they had created. All have adopted religion, arts, and most of their language. Located somewhere, the law of the Prophet seem fixed forever there.She pushed back in India of old yet well religions. She made this entirely Arab ancient Egypt of the Pharaohs, on which the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans had so little influence. The peoples of India, Persia, Egypt, Africa had other masters Muhammad’s disciples since they received the law of the latter, they do not recognized else. It’s a wonderful story that illustrates this hallucinated whose voice subdued this rebellious people, no conqueror could not tame, in whose name the most powerful empires were overthrown, and who, from his tomb, holds yet millions of men under his rule. Modern science calls these great founders of religions and empires insane; and, from the standpoint of pure truth, she’s right. Yet we must revere. The soul of an era, the genius of a race are embodied in them. Generations of ancestors lost in the sleep of centuries speak through their voices. These ideals creators give birth without doubt that ghosts but those dreaded ghosts have made us what we are, and without them no civilization could not exist. History is the story of the events made by man to create some ideal, love it or destroy it. The civilization of the Arabs was created by a semi-barbarous people. Out of the deserts of Arabia, he overthrew the secular power of the Persians, Greeks and Romans founded a vast empire that stretched from India to Spain, and produced these wonderful works that debris hit admiration and amazement. What factors presided over the birth and development of this civilization and this empire? What were the causes of its greatness and its decline? The reasons given by the historians are too weak to support the truth test. A method of analysis could be considered better than applying it to such people. It is from the East that the West was born, and it is still in the East we have to go ask the key past events. On this wonderful land, the arts, languages and most of the great religions have arisen, the men are not what they are elsewhere. Ideas, thoughts and feelings are different. The transformations are now so slow that we can by traveling up the entire chain of ages. Artists, scholars and poets always return there. How often sitting in the shade of a palm tree or a temple pylon, am I immersed myself in long reveries full of clear visions of missing ages. We dozed slightly; and, on a bright background, soon amounted strange cities whose crenellated towers, fairy palaces, temples, minarets glisten under a golden sun, and travel nomadic caravans, crowds of dressed Asians vibrant colors, troops of slaves with tanned skin, veiled women. They died today, most of the great cities of the past, Nineveh, Damascus, Jerusalem, Athens, Granada, Memphis and Thebes of the hundred gates. The Palace of Asia, the temples of Egypt are now in ruins. The gods of Babylonia, Syria, Chaldea, the banks of the Nile are only memories. But things in the ruins, what a world of ideas in those memories. What secrets to ask all these different races succeeding columns of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 38 Hercules fertile plateaus of old Asia, beaches a baker (Figure 295) Wooden Table, inlaid, Cairo (Figure 293) Pedestal Arabic, Wood, Cairo (Figure 294) Ceiling of the Mouaiad mosque in Cairo (Figure 206) Ceiling of an old house Arab Cairo (Figure 174) other ceilings are shown in various drawings of monuments of this work, including the following: inner gallery of the mosque of Omar (Figure 66) Hall of Mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) old Arab door Cairo (Figure 290) inlaid wood panel ivory, caught in a door of Cairo (Figure 291) panel of a wooden door of the salon of ambassadors, the Alcazar of Seville (Figure 292) Panel carved wood of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) other Arab wooden doors have been represented in various parts of this book and are listed in the architecture section. Most notable are the following: Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 349) Gate of court ladies in Seville (Figure 316) Door of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) Details of a door of Alhambra (Figure 282) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 32 GLASS, CERAMIC TILES. Former Arab cut glass (Figure 184) enamelled glass lamp (Figure 353) Arabic Glass said Charlemagne (Figure 161) Stained glass window of the palace harem of Azhad Pasha, Damascus (Figure 175) Stained Arab mosques of Cairo (Figure 207) mosque Stained glass (Figure 208) mosque Stained Glass (Figure 209) glazed earthenware ornaments taken in a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) Pottery glazed the main gate of the mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) Arab Vase of Alhambra (Figure 300) Narghilé Persian-Arabic (Figure 178) WORK LEATHER AND FABRICS. Old leather shield a stiff Granada (Figure 357) Ancient Arabic saddle (Figure 243) Ancient Koran binding (Figure 218) Teaches Arab Almohad (Figure 51) Old Arab fabrics (Figures 239; 240; 241; 242) 7 . Manuscripts.ENTRIES. Guards of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 26) Last page of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 27) Decorations excerpts of an ancient Koran Cairo (Figure 24) Cover an ancient Koran (Figure 218) Seals of the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman and Ali (Figure 220-223) Muhammad digit; after an ancient inscription of the mosque of Tulun (Figure 25) Subscribe ornamental formed by the combination of Kufic characters (Figure 219) Friesland cutting forming an Arab inscription by the deformation of the bottom of the characters (Figure 224) Registration modern Arabic, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 225) modern Arabic inscription, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 226) Drawings of an ancient Arab manuscript depicting riders throwing Greek fire (Figure 235- 236) Drawing of an ancient manuscript representative incendiary projectiles used by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 237) Drawing of an ancient manuscript firearms representative employed by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 238) 8. MAPS. Map of Arabia and neighboring regions (card # 1) of the twelfth century Arab map (Figure 233) map of the Arab geographer Edrisi (Figure 234) Map of the empire of the Arabs at the time of their greatest power and pro current of Islamism (chart # 2) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 33 9. BOARDS IN COLOR. inlaid bronze table Sultan Mahomed ben money Kalaoun (thirteenth century) (frontispiece.) (Plate 2) Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem (Plate 3) Sanctuary of El Akza mosque in Jerusalem (Plate 4) Great mosque of Isfahan (5 board) ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (6 board) polychrome ornamentation of a pavilion of the Alhambra (plate 1) Ceiling of a modern home in Damascus (plate 7) Stained glass windows of the sanctuary the el-Akza mosque in Jerusalem (plate 9) Pavement marble of an old house in Cairo. Mosaics and marble pearl of the Great Mosque of Damascus (Plate 8) Old enamelled glass lamps mosques of Cairo (Plate 10) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 34 Dr. Gustave Le Bon (1884) The civilization of the Arabs Illustrated book photolithographies 10, 4 cards and 366 prints, 70 large boards, from the photographs of the author or by the most authentic documents. . The Sycamore 102 Boulevard Beaumarchais 75011 Paris Back to the Table of Contents Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 35 The civilization of the Arabs (1884) I Introduction Back to Table of Contents The readers of our previous books know the genesis of this new book. They know that after studying the man and societies, we must address the history of civilization. Our latest work 1 was devoted to describing the successive forms of physical and intellectual development of man, the various elements that societies consist. Going back to the most remote periods of our past, we see how were formed the first human settlements, how the family were born and societies, industry and the arts, institutions and beliefs; how these elements are transformed through the ages, and what were the factors of these transformations, After studying the isolated man and the evolution of society, we have to complete our plan to apply to the study of large civilizations methods we have outlined. 1 People and companies. Their origins and development, 2 vols. Paris: J. Rothschild Edition, 1981 Edition reproduced in Paris in 1987 by Editions Jean-Michel Place.Volume I: Physical development and intellectual (520 pages); Volume II: The companies. Their origins and development (432 pages). Book decorated with 90 engravings. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 36 The company is vast, its difficulties are great. Ignoring far we can lead it, we wanted each of the volumes that make up this book was complete and independent. If it is given to complete eight to ten volumes that includes our plan, nothing will be easier than then classified in a methodical order the history of civilizations in the study which each of them will have been spent. We started with the Arabs because their civilization is one of those our travels have we done better know, one of those whose cycle is the most comprehensive and where most clearly manifests the influence of factors we tried determine the action, one of those whose history is finally the most interesting yet least known.The civilization of the Arab kingdom for twelve centuries the vast region stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean beaches with sands of interior Africa. Populations that inhabit possess the same religion, the same language, the same institutions, the same arts, and once formed part of the same empire. Kissing in an overview of the principal manifestations of this civilization in nations where it prevailed, reproduce all the wonders it has left in Spain, Africa, Egypt, Syria, Persia and India, had not yet been tried. The arts themselves, the best known yet elements of Arab civilization, had not yet been submitted to the General Survey. The few authors who have tackled their description constataient always lacked it completely, but the default documents had prevented the attempt. It was obvious no doubt that the similarity of beliefs had to determine a great relationship in the demonstrations of arts of different countries subject to the law of Islam; but it was also clear that varieties of races and backgrounds had to lead to profound differences. What were the similarities and what were the differences? The reader who wants to browse through the chapters of this book devoted to the study of architecture and the arts will see how modern science was silent on these issues. As one enters the study of this civilization, the facts we see new horizons emerge and expand. We soon found that the Middle Ages knew no classical antiquity by Arabs; that for five hundred years, the universities of the West lived exclusively of their books, and that triple material point of view, intellectual and moral, it is they who have civilized Europe. When studying their scientific work and their findings, we see that no people in such great produced in such a short time. When considering their art, it is recognized that they possessed an originality that has not been exceeded The action of the Arabs, already so great in the West, was even more significant in the East. No race is never exerted a similar influence. The peoples who once ruled the world: the Assyrians, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans have disappeared under the dust of centuries and have left but shapeless debris; their religions, their languages and arts are more than just memories. The Arabs have disappeared in their turn; but the most essential elements of their culture, religion, language and the arts are alive again, and Morocco to India, over one hundred million men obey the institutions of the prophet. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 37 Various conquerors overthrew the Arabs, none thought to replace the civilization they had created. All have adopted religion, arts, and most of their language. Located somewhere, the law of the Prophet seem fixed forever there.She pushed back in India of old yet well religions. She made this entirely Arab ancient Egypt of the Pharaohs, on which the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans had so little influence. The peoples of India, Persia, Egypt, Africa had other masters Muhammad’s disciples since they received the law of the latter, they do not recognized else. It’s a wonderful story that illustrates this hallucinated whose voice subdued this rebellious people, no conqueror could not tame, in whose name the most powerful empires were overthrown, and who, from his tomb, holds yet millions of men under his rule. Modern science calls these great founders of religions and empires insane; and, from the standpoint of pure truth, she’s right. Yet we must revere. The soul of an era, the genius of a race are embodied in them. Generations of ancestors lost in the sleep of centuries speak through their voices. These ideals creators give birth without doubt that ghosts but those dreaded ghosts have made us what we are, and without them no civilization could not exist. History is the story of the events made by man to create some ideal, love it or destroy it. The civilization of the Arabs was created by a semi-barbarous people. Out of the deserts of Arabia, he overthrew the secular power of the Persians, Greeks and Romans founded a vast empire that stretched from India to Spain, and produced these wonderful works that debris hit admiration and amazement. What factors presided over the birth and development of this civilization and this empire? What were the causes of its greatness and its decline? The reasons given by the historians are too weak to support the truth test. A method of analysis could be considered better than applying it to such people. It is from the East that the West was born, and it is still in the East we have to go ask the key past events. On this wonderful land, the arts, languages and most of the great religions have arisen, the men are not what they are elsewhere. Ideas, thoughts and feelings are different. The transformations are now so slow that we can by traveling up the entire chain of ages. Artists, scholars and poets always return there. How often sitting in the shade of a palm tree or a temple pylon, am I immersed myself in long reveries full of clear visions of missing ages. We dozed slightly; and, on a bright background, soon amounted strange cities whose crenellated towers, fairy palaces, temples, minarets glisten under a golden sun, and travel nomadic caravans, crowds of dressed Asians vibrant colors, troops of slaves with tanned skin, veiled women. They died today, most of the great cities of the past, Nineveh, Damascus, Jerusalem, Athens, Granada, Memphis and Thebes of the hundred gates. The Palace of Asia, the temples of Egypt are now in ruins. The gods of Babylonia, Syria, Chaldea, the banks of the Nile are only memories. But things in the ruins, what a world of ideas in those memories. What secrets to ask all these different races succeeding columns of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 38 Hercules fertile plateaus of old Asia, beaches a baker (Figure 295) Wooden Table, inlaid, Cairo (Figure 293) Pedestal Arabic, Wood, Cairo (Figure 294) Ceiling of the Mouaiad mosque in Cairo (Figure 206) Ceiling of an old house Arab Cairo (Figure 174) other ceilings are shown in various drawings of monuments of this work, including the following: inner gallery of the mosque of Omar (Figure 66) Hall of Mirrors, Esfahan (Figure 78) old Arab door Cairo (Figure 290) inlaid wood panel ivory, caught in a door of Cairo (Figure 291) panel of a wooden door of the salon of ambassadors, the Alcazar of Seville (Figure 292) Panel carved wood of a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 120) other Arab wooden doors have been represented in various parts of this book and are listed in the architecture section. Most notable are the following: Door of Forgiveness in Cordoba (Figure 349) Gate of court ladies in Seville (Figure 316) Door of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Seville (Figure 351) Details of a door of Alhambra (Figure 282) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 32 GLASS, CERAMIC TILES. Former Arab cut glass (Figure 184) enamelled glass lamp (Figure 353) Arabic Glass said Charlemagne (Figure 161) Stained glass window of the palace harem of Azhad Pasha, Damascus (Figure 175) Stained Arab mosques of Cairo (Figure 207) mosque Stained glass (Figure 208) mosque Stained Glass (Figure 209) glazed earthenware ornaments taken in a mosque in Kairouan (Figure 119) Pottery glazed the main gate of the mausoleum of Tamerlane (Figure 301) Arab Vase of Alhambra (Figure 300) Narghilé Persian-Arabic (Figure 178) WORK LEATHER AND FABRICS. Old leather shield a stiff Granada (Figure 357) Ancient Arabic saddle (Figure 243) Ancient Koran binding (Figure 218) Teaches Arab Almohad (Figure 51) Old Arab fabrics (Figures 239; 240; 241; 242) 7 . Manuscripts.ENTRIES. Guards of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 26) Last page of an old Koran library of El Escorial (Figure 27) Decorations excerpts of an ancient Koran Cairo (Figure 24) Cover an ancient Koran (Figure 218) Seals of the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman and Ali (Figure 220-223) Muhammad digit; after an ancient inscription of the mosque of Tulun (Figure 25) Subscribe ornamental formed by the combination of Kufic characters (Figure 219) Friesland cutting forming an Arab inscription by the deformation of the bottom of the characters (Figure 224) Registration modern Arabic, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 225) modern Arabic inscription, discovered in a house in Damascus (Figure 226) Drawings of an ancient Arab manuscript depicting riders throwing Greek fire (Figure 235- 236) Drawing of an ancient manuscript representative incendiary projectiles used by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 237) Drawing of an ancient manuscript firearms representative employed by the Arabs in the thirteenth century (figure 238) 8. MAPS. Map of Arabia and neighboring regions (card # 1) of the twelfth century Arab map (Figure 233) map of the Arab geographer Edrisi (Figure 234) Map of the empire of the Arabs at the time of their greatest power and pro current of Islamism (chart # 2) Gustave Le Bon (1884), the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 33 9. BOARDS IN COLOR. inlaid bronze table Sultan Mahomed ben money Kalaoun (thirteenth century) (frontispiece.) (Plate 2) Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem (Plate 3) Sanctuary of El Akza mosque in Jerusalem (Plate 4) Great mosque of Isfahan (5 board) ceiling of the mihrab of the mosque of Cordoba (6 board) polychrome ornamentation of a pavilion of the Alhambra (plate 1) Ceiling of a modern home in Damascus (plate 7) Stained glass windows of the sanctuary the el-Akza mosque in Jerusalem (plate 9) Pavement marble of an old house in Cairo. Mosaics and marble pearl of the Great Mosque of Damascus (Plate 8) Old enamelled glass lamps mosques of Cairo (Plate 10) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 34 Dr. Gustave Le Bon (1884) The civilization of the Arabs Illustrated book photolithographies 10, 4 cards and 366 prints, 70 large boards, from the photographs of the author or by the most authentic documents. . The Sycamore 102 Boulevard Beaumarchais 75011 Paris Back to the Table of Contents Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 35 The civilization of the Arabs (1884) I Introduction Back to Table of Contents The readers of our previous books know the genesis of this new book. They know that after studying the man and societies, we must address the history of civilization. Our latest work 1 was devoted to describing the successive forms of physical and intellectual development of man, the various elements that societies consist. Going back to the most remote periods of our past, we see how were formed the first human settlements, how the family were born and societies, industry and the arts, institutions and beliefs; how these elements are transformed through the ages, and what were the factors of these transformations, After studying the isolated man and the evolution of society, we have to complete our plan to apply to the study of large civilizations methods we have outlined. 1 People and companies. Their origins and development, 2 vols. Paris: J. Rothschild Edition, 1981 Edition reproduced in Paris in 1987 by Editions Jean-Michel Place.Volume I: Physical development and intellectual (520 pages); Volume II: The companies. Their origins and development (432 pages). Book decorated with 90 engravings. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 36 The company is vast, its difficulties are great. Ignoring far we can lead it, we wanted each of the volumes that make up this book was complete and independent. If it is given to complete eight to ten volumes that includes our plan, nothing will be easier than then classified in a methodical order the history of civilizations in the study which each of them will have been spent. We started with the Arabs because their civilization is one of those our travels have we done better know, one of those whose cycle is the most comprehensive and where most clearly manifests the influence of factors we tried determine the action, one of those whose history is finally the most interesting yet least known.The civilization of the Arab kingdom for twelve centuries the vast region stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean beaches with sands of interior Africa. Populations that inhabit possess the same religion, the same language, the same institutions, the same arts, and once formed part of the same empire. Kissing in an overview of the principal manifestations of this civilization in nations where it prevailed, reproduce all the wonders it has left in Spain, Africa, Egypt, Syria, Persia and India, had not yet been tried. The arts themselves, the best known yet elements of Arab civilization, had not yet been submitted to the General Survey. The few authors who have tackled their description constataient always lacked it completely, but the default documents had prevented the attempt. It was obvious no doubt that the similarity of beliefs had to determine a great relationship in the demonstrations of arts of different countries subject to the law of Islam; but it was also clear that varieties of races and backgrounds had to lead to profound differences. What were the similarities and what were the differences? The reader who wants to browse through the chapters of this book devoted to the study of architecture and the arts will see how modern science was silent on these issues. As one enters the study of this civilization, the facts we see new horizons emerge and expand. We soon found that the Middle Ages knew no classical antiquity by Arabs; that for five hundred years, the universities of the West lived exclusively of their books, and that triple material point of view, intellectual and moral, it is they who have civilized Europe. When studying their scientific work and their findings, we see that no people in such great produced in such a short time. When considering their art, it is recognized that they possessed an originality that has not been exceeded The action of the Arabs, already so great in the West, was even more significant in the East. No race is never exerted a similar influence. The peoples who once ruled the world: the Assyrians, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans have disappeared under the dust of centuries and have left but shapeless debris; their religions, their languages and arts are more than just memories. The Arabs have disappeared in their turn; but the most essential elements of their culture, religion, language and the arts are alive again, and Morocco to India, over one hundred million men obey the institutions of the prophet. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 37 Various conquerors overthrew the Arabs, none thought to replace the civilization they had created. All have adopted religion, arts, and most of their language. Located somewhere, the law of the Prophet seem fixed forever there.She pushed back in India of old yet well religions. She made this entirely Arab ancient Egypt of the Pharaohs, on which the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans had so little influence. The peoples of India, Persia, Egypt, Africa had other masters Muhammad’s disciples since they received the law of the latter, they do not recognized else. It’s a wonderful story that illustrates this hallucinated whose voice subdued this rebellious people, no conqueror could not tame, in whose name the most powerful empires were overthrown, and who, from his tomb, holds yet millions of men under his rule. Modern science calls these great founders of religions and empires insane; and, from the standpoint of pure truth, she’s right. Yet we must revere. The soul of an era, the genius of a race are embodied in them. Generations of ancestors lost in the sleep of centuries speak through their voices. These ideals creators give birth without doubt that ghosts but those dreaded ghosts have made us what we are, and without them no civilization could not exist. History is the story of the events made by man to create some ideal, love it or destroy it. The civilization of the Arabs was created by a semi-barbarous people. Out of the deserts of Arabia, he overthrew the secular power of the Persians, Greeks and Romans founded a vast empire that stretched from India to Spain, and produced these wonderful works that debris hit admiration and amazement. What factors presided over the birth and development of this civilization and this empire? What were the causes of its greatness and its decline? The reasons given by the historians are too weak to support the truth test. A method of analysis could be considered better than applying it to such people. It is from the East that the West was born, and it is still in the East we have to go ask the key past events. On this wonderful land, the arts, languages and most of the great religions have arisen, the men are not what they are elsewhere. Ideas, thoughts and feelings are different. The transformations are now so slow that we can by traveling up the entire chain of ages. Artists, scholars and poets always return there. How often sitting in the shade of a palm tree or a temple pylon, am I immersed myself in long reveries full of clear visions of missing ages. We dozed slightly; and, on a bright background, soon amounted strange cities whose crenellated towers, fairy palaces, temples, minarets glisten under a golden sun, and travel nomadic caravans, crowds of dressed Asians vibrant colors, troops of slaves with tanned skin, veiled women. They died today, most of the great cities of the past, Nineveh, Damascus, Jerusalem, Athens, Granada, Memphis and Thebes of the hundred gates. The Palace of Asia, the temples of Egypt are now in ruins. The gods of Babylonia, Syria, Chaldea, the banks of the Nile are only memories. But things in the ruins, what a world of ideas in those memories. What secrets to ask all these different races succeeding columns of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 38 Hercules fertile plateaus of old Asia, beachesgreen Aegean Sea to shining sands of Ethiopia. It is reported many lessons from these distant lands; it also loses many beliefs. Their study shows how deep the gulf between men, and how are chimerical ideas of civilization and universal brotherhood, how many truths and principles that seem most absolute change may, in fact, a country to another. So there are many issues to resolve in the history of the Arabs, and more than one lesson. This people is one of those who best embody these races of the East, so different from those of the West. Europe knows little yet; she must learn to know them, because the hour is approaching when its fate will depend on many of them. The contrast between East and West is now too large, so we can never hope to accept one’s ideas and ways of thinking of the other. Our old societies undergoing profound changes; the rapid progress of science and industry have upset all our physical and moral conditions. violent antagonism within the social body; general malaise that leads us constantly changing our institutions to remedy the ills that these changes generate; mismatch between the old and new feelings beliefs; destruction of the ideas that had lived the ancient ages. As today is the West. Family, property, religion, morals, beliefs, everything changes or will change. The principles that we had lived so far, modern research question them. What will come out of the new science no one could tell. Now the crowds are enthusiastic about some very simple theories consist mainly of a set of radical negations; but the consequences of these denials, they foresee them yet. New gods have replaced the old gods. Current science tries to defend: that could be said to defend the future? The East offers a different spectacle. Instead of our divisions and our hectic lives, it presents the picture of tranquility and rest. These people, who form their largest number portion of mankind, came to this long quiet resignation that is at least the image of happiness, these ancient societies that have lost strength ours. The beliefs we have not, they still have. The family, which tends to dissociate so deeply here, it retains its secular stability. The principles that have lost all influence we have retained all their power over them. Religion, family, institutions, authority of tradition and custom, these fundamentals of ancient societies so deeply undermined in the West, have kept their prestige in the East. The dreaded problem of having to replace the people of the East do not have to think about it. II Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 39 Back to Table of Contents We have enough exposed elsewhere investigation methods that seem applicable to the study of historical phenomena Suffice it to recall the most essential. The notion of cause which now dominates the study of scientific facts also dominates the historical facts. Investigative methods for each are also others. A social phenomenon must be studied as a physical or any chemical phenomenon.It is subject to certain laws or, if preferred, certain hierarchies necessities. The man is agitated, leading the superior forces: Nature, Providence, Fate or Destiny, it does not matter. Before us from birth to death in a spiral of beneficial or harmful forces always irresistible. Our supreme effort is to get to know some terms of their events. The history of humanity can be considered a huge frame whose parts are held and whose first stitches back to the earliest origins of our planet. Any historical phenomenon is always the result of a long series of past events. This is son of the past and the future in germ door. In current events sufficient intelligence could read the endless succession of things. But such intelligence probably never appear. Even though we would know all the factors that have given birth to the present and the respective strengths of each of them, it would be impossible to subject to analysis. It is above the astronomy efforts to determine by calculating the direction that would take only a body subjected to the action of the other three. That would be the problem if it were of thousands of body? All the so-called laws that are believed to derive from the study of history are really only the empirical findings of fact. One can also compare the empirical observations of statisticians. One million of known age individuals are given, they can predict with certainty how many will die at a given time and how much to another; how many crimes are committed and what those crimes. Past experience makes these easy predictions. Back to the causes of observed facts would be entirely impossible. The determining factors are far too many. The inability to go far back in the chain of causes that determines a social phenomenon has inspired a certain disdain for Historical Sciences to scientists who have tried to deepen. A prominent writer, Renan, calls them “small speculative sciences unmade constantly having made, and we will neglect in a hundred years. We began to see an age where man will attach much interest to his past. I fear, he says, that our writings accuracy of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, intended to give some precision to the story, do not rot before it was played. “The same author believes that the future belongs to natural science that will give us” the secret of being, the world of God, as it may be called. “Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 40 Everyone can probably expect; but nothing so far has justified such expectations. The most positive science can tell us anything of the first because of a single phenomenon. Only simple relationships they discover which their apparent strength. As soon as they prey on some complex phenomena, they are lost in conjectures. Modern science beginning to stammer an answer to questions that man asks himself every day. From cradle to grave, nature has sown our path of insoluble problems. The sights that puts us in the heart, it never satisfies them.Science evokes ideas, much more than it solves problems; and our globe will probably come in the space the old worlds cooled before the eternal Sphinx has responded to a single reason. It is therefore not illusions about the scope of science and ask them what they can give. They teach us to decipher a man, an animal, a plant or a company, to reconstruct the true picture of an era, to determine the sequence of major historical events. Do not demand more of the historian. The task is quite heavy indeed to require all his attention. The materials for reconstructing the picture of a civilization is difficult to obtain, even more difficult to implement.It is not in these genealogies of sovereigns, in these stories of battles and conquests, which form the background of the classic story, such materials must be sought. We will find them especially in the study of languages, arts, literature, beliefs, political or social institutions of each era. These various elements of civilization should not be considered the result of the caprice of men, chance or the will of the gods, but as the expression of needs, ideas, feelings races where they have manifested . Religion, philosophy, literature, art involve certain modes of feeling and thinking and not involve others. Properly interpreted, the actions and works of men tell us their thoughts. They tell us their thoughts and allow us to reconstruct the image of an era, but this table is not enough. It must also explain its formation. The people that are studying at a specific time has not made a single shot. It is the result of a long history and varied influences medium to which he has been constantly subjected. It is in the past of a race to look for an explanation of its current state. We could give the social embryology name to the study of the formation of the various elements of which society is composed. It is destined to become the most solid foundation of history, as the embryology of living beings is today the surest basis of biological sciences. living beings or corporations must still go through a slow succession of lower forms before reaching higher stages of evolution. These extinct forms, history shows us not always.Although the terms of the series are now lost. The observation, however, possible to reconstruct the essential terms. As living beings, all companies have not reached the same periods of development. Many have not exceeded these intermediate steps Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 41 that the West eventually cross and represent the image of the past immobilized. One can see by browsing the globe – and only then – can we see them – the main periods in the history of mankind from primitive stone carved times down to the present time. It can happen to reconstruct the past and all of a people, the evolution of the elements its civilization consists. Although various elements, monuments, literature, languages, institutions, beliefs, etc., can be used to reconstruct the history of a civilization and its training. It is rare that we have them all. Just owning a few to find the others. The same methods used to reconstruct an animal with some fragments of the skeleton are applicable to history. The appearance of some characters always implies the existence of others. All these build-up materials are sometimes insufficient, from the standpoint of accuracy especially. Modern science will leave more accurate to our descendants. It is easy to predict that future historians will write books very different from those of today. In the stories of the twentieth century civilization text will undoubtedly reduced the title of the work and replaced by collections of photographs, maps and graphic curves representing the numerical variations of all social phenomena. Any size, force, weight, length, etc., can always be expressed as a number or a line. There is no psychological or social phenomenon so complex that supposes that can not be considered a value which can be digitally translated. Just break it down into its essential elements to find him a measure. The statistic is undoubtedly the least advanced of all the new science in the making; it teaches us already allows however foresee that it will teach us one day. The production and consumption of a country, its wealth, its needs, physical or moral aptitudes of the race who live, changes in feelings and beliefs, the influence of various factors that may act on it, we are clearly revealed by the numbers statisticians meeting today. Pending such future time when historical essays have been replaced by photographs, maps and geometric curves representing the state of all social phenomena and their changes, we must strive to choose from among the documents he left us Historically, the most accurate.With all the evidence we have listed it has in hand the necessary materials to present the whole picture of past civilizations and the history of their formation. To implement these materials, it is essential to study on site the remains that these civilizations have left. The appearance of things can only give this clear notion of the past that no book can not offer. Whether natural or social sciences, we do not learn from books. It is especially when it comes to such a people as the Arabs whose remains are numerous in countries where civilization has flourished as the study of the media is essential. There is also the trips that we can learn to withdraw ourselves from the yoke made opinions, legacy of traditions and prejudices of the past. The reader will find in this book the principles that have just been presented briefly. They led the author to completely rule out conventional views on most issues affecting the Orientals: religion Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 42 Mohammed, polygamy, slavery, crusades, institutions and arts, the action of Arabs in Europe and many others. III Back to Table of Contents The debris that remain of the Arabs of civilization are numerous enough to allow us to reconstruct easily in its essential parts. We have used the most: scientific, literary, artistic and industrial institutions and beliefs. Among the elements that we had most willingly resort, we must especially mention the plastic works. Under their tangible form, they speak clearly in mind. we always find a faithful expression of the needs, feelings, time they arose. The influence of race and the environment it is clearly felt. In the works of an era, whatever these works, one can often read this entire time. A cave of the Stone Age, an Egyptian temple, a mosque, a cathedral, a railway station, the boudoir of a fashionable woman, a flint ax, a two-handed sword or a gun fifty tons say a lot more than essays heaps. He has only one way to describe the plastic works of a people, is to represent them. Parthenon photographs, the Alhambra, the Venus de Milo seem preferable to the complete collection of books all authors worldwide have written on them. This is because we were impressed with the importance of such documents to evoke in the minds of the faithful image time we want to revive, we have committed to increase their reproductions. The reader who is confined only to browse the boards of this work, would know more about the civilization of the Arabs and the changes it has undergone in the various countries where it manifested itself, after reading many volumes . Put the works themselves under the eyes dispensation together those long descriptions which give no idea of the things they claim to describe. It was rightly said that one hundred pages of text are not worth a good figure; one might have said both hundred volumes. When it comes to shapes to define words in any language are not sufficient, Especially when it comes from the East that figures are needed.It is through the eyes we can only know its landscapes, monuments, works of art, the various races that drive. The most colorful style will never give a similar feel to that produced by the sight of things, or, if things by their true image. But such monuments, works of art, these landscapes, these types of races, these scenes of private life, you have to get them far, and if we want them faithful, Gustave Le Bon (1884), The Arab civilization: books I and II. 43 single photograph can give them. It is to her that we have requested them. Days added to days would not allow the most skilled artist to achieve perfection it takes a few seconds. If one wanted to be confined only to the reproduction of monuments, a sufficiently skilled artist, and for which the time would be something worthless, perhaps happen to struggle with photography. For the thousand scenes of public life that form a large part of the existence of a people, the struggle is no longer possible. Instant photography is only able to reproduce moving objects: a busy street, a market, a horse galloping, a wedding procession, and all similar topics. It is only yesterday that new methods can be used while traveling. It was used for the first time in this work. The reader can judge the importance of the results it provides. Each of the photographs contained in this book is a true document, it is the nature of such documents not being able to grow old. I can express myself freely with regard to these photographs, as the sun alone is the author. The scientist who disdain the picturesque scenes that contains this book wants to think carefully for a moment and wonder if he did not prefer the mountains of books we have about the Greeks and Romans, a collection of instant photographs, which would include, with their monuments, all the scenes of their existence. How many things these photographs we learn, and how is minimal in comparison all the writings tell us. For everything related to the faithful reproduction of monuments or beings, the design has had its day: the photograph must be replaced. In books of science, history or travel, it is the only method that can be tolerated today. It can be painful to subdue probably transported to distant countries with aircraft of delicate handling;but it is a necessity to which every traveler, every scientist eager to inspire confidence, will now have to submit. This essential operation should never entrust it to anyone; because if the technique of photography is simple, choice of things and to reproduce the conditions under which it must replicate is much easier. Just look the same landscape, the same building, the same person executed by different operators to understand how lighting, chosen perspective, perspective, etc., can change their appearance, the goal always faithful, but nature has changed.The same building, the same landscape, illuminated by a winter sun, or the warm light of a beautiful summer day, is not the same building, the same landscape – from sunrise to sunset, he can in one day turn several times. be exact is essential; but reproduce things from the point where they impressed us most, which is all art, is also a fundamental condition. The fidelity of contours is not sufficient to determine a similar impression to that produced by the objects themselves. I admire the scholarly book Mr. Perrot, on Egypt, but the pale and dry engravings which he adorned give me country monuments and an absolutely different impression from that produced by reality 1. It is a any other purpose that an author should seek to achieve. 1 The reader will compare the boards of the book I just mentioned, representing the views of the pyramids in Cairo, the temples of Philae, etc., with good photographs, readily recognize how the impression is different, consequently how such drawings are imperfect. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 44 The means to reproduce our photographs varied according to the impression that it was proposed to give. For the overall effects in which the details were to disappear, they were directly converted into clichés by new methods of photogravure; for those where the smallest details were to be made, photographs were engraved with chisels, after being postponed on wood without any intervention of the designer.Apart from very few exceptions, we have made use of drawings to show that some delicate details of architecture that other methods have not sufficiently made, Of the 366 prints of this book, none is due to the capricious whim of an artist. Rather than give documents which imagination would have some place, we decided to almost completely abandon a source of magnificent engravings, these beautiful work of MM. Ebers and Maspero on Egypt, that had our editor. We have to use those, unfortunately few, executed from photographs, and therefore it was unnecessary to repeat. While taking photography for fundamental basis engravings of this work, we have not neglected however existing documents when their loyalty we had demonstrated. Thus we have reproduced several drawings Coste, Prisse Avesnes, Jones, and especially the authors of two wonderful books that are now published in Spain, the art and architecture of this peninsula. Here again, however, the picture was valuable because it is by gravure that the drawings were reduced. The necessities of artwork do not always permit orderly distribute the prints of this book. A table of special materials, which are classified according to the nature of the objects represented, allow the reader to immediately find the category of documents he might need. Just go to the see how these documents are varied, and how many of those who had not yet appeared in any book. Have been deleted, printing, all bibliographical indications that our manuscript contained on each page. The necessities of illustration and book development have made it impossible to reproduce. They have been replaced by a methodical index, placed at the end of the volume, where the reader will find the information necessary to complete consideration of items he would like to pursue. Each chapter of this book should be considered a summarizing of much research. The indications I just bet will complement. We will conclude this introduction, releasing the above method we have followed in this volume and we will follow in all those on our history of civilization. As general principles: the need of historical phenomena; close relationship between any phenomenon and those that preceded it. As restorative materials: materials borrowed only to the people studied and exact reproduction of those documents; intellectual and physical description of the breed, consideration of the environment where it originated, the various factors to which it was submitted; analysis of the elements of civilization: institutions, beliefs, scientific, Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 45 literary, artistic and industrial, and history of the formation of each. If the overall picture created with these materials gives the reader a clear picture of the time it is to revive the proposed goal has been completed 1. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 1 Map # 01 Map of Arabia and Egypt, according to the most recent documents downloaded from the website: the classics of social sciences, section classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): the civilization of the Arabs (1884 ). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) 1 It is a duty for me to finish this introduction by thanking the people I used the help during the writing of this book, or in my recent travels. I especially mention among them, Mr. Schefer, of the Institute, Director of the School of Oriental Languages; MP Simoès, professor at the University of Coimbra; Dr. Souza Viterbo, Lisbon; Mr. Ch Relvas, artist Gollegan (Portugal) ME Daluin Minister near the Emperor of Morocco. M. MALPERTUY, chancellor of the consulate of France in Jerusalem Dr. Suquet and Mr. Podhorki count in Beirut; Mr. Schlumberger, director of the Imperial bank in Damascus;MM. Lavoix and Thierry, director at the National Library of Paris; MM. Small and Huyot, engravers. Last but not least, Mr Firmin-Didot. I had the rare fortune to find him a publisher who has spared no costly expenses necessitated by the publication of this book. His friendly advice and artistic knowledge was invaluable to me. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 46 Gustave Le Bon, The civilization of the Arabs (1884) first book The middle and race back to the table of contents Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 47 Gustave Le Bon, The civilization of the Arabs (1884) Book One: The middle and race 1. Chapter I Arabia – Saudi Geography Back to Table of Contents SAUDI was the birthplace of Islam, the first outbreak of the vast empire founded by the successors of Mohammed. It is a large covered peninsula of deserts and lapped by three seas: the Red Sea to the west, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf to the east, the Indian Ocean to the south. Its eastern and western extremities, this peninsula key to Africa and Asia. On three sides, that is to say, to the west, east and south boundaries of Arabia are formed by seas that we have just named. In the north, its borders are poorly defined. They extend roughly in the direction of a line stretching from Gaza, Palestinian city located on the shores of the Mediterranean, to the south of the Dead Sea and the Dead Sea in Damascus, and finally Damascus to the Euphrates, then it follows to the Persian Gulf. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 48 measured in its greatest length, the major axis of the Arabian Peninsula has nearly 23 degrees, or 2 500 kilometers. Between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, its width is approximately 1.000 kilometers. The total area of Saudi exceeds 3,000,000 square kilometers, six times that of France. The current figure of its population is uncertain; it is estimated there are some 10 million years; but according to more recent work, he hardly would amount to only half. At least a fifth of the population lives in nomadic state. Considered from the standpoint of its configuration, Arabia can be considered a large tray similar to the African Sahara, and made it as arid plains, sandy or rocky, interspersed with fertile regions. The general slope of the plateau is directed to the Persian Gulf. The immense solitudes of Arabia are cut valleys and mountainous areas sown towns and villages inhabited by an agricultural population. The desert has more inhabitants than the nomads who travel the. The central part of the Arabian plate received the name of Nejd, or high country. It can be considered as a fertile island, instead of being surrounded by water, would belt of mountains and deserts. It is estimated that about half of Saudi consists of fertile areas, and half deserted regions. The appearance of cards suggests that the proportion of the latter is greater; but it is that Saudi has been very little explored yet, geographers are forced to leave blank the unknown regions. Saudi contains several mountain ranges which are also very little known. The best studied is the one that runs along the eastern coast of the Red Sea; some of its peaks reach 2,500 meters. One of the most characteristic features of Arabia is the absence of large permanent streams. The riverbed is dry most of the year. These dry rivers or wady crisscross the country in all directions. There are those who, like the first wady Roumina have 1.300 kilometers long. When water fills during the rainy season, they can not be compared as the largest known rivers. Since historical times Arabia was known for its aridity, its heat and drought. This is especially the drought that has always suffered. This drought has been increasing due to the gradual destruction of forests. This is a phenomenon similar to what is observed today in Algeria, fertile at the time of the Romans, so dry now.Without the rainy season, which usually lasts several months, Saudi would have almost uninhabitable. When rains are missing, drought resulting ruin all private water area. In drought has often join the terrible wind called Khamsin or simoun. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. the sun remains of its rays, has a bloody appearance; the atmosphere becomes charged a fine sand prevails in the wind like the foam of the sea during the storm. Then he must fly as fast, because soon everything is stirred under the breath of the Khamsin; the desert widens and becomes heated; chest traveler is oppressed, his bloody eye, his dry and burning lips. Sometimes the camels prevail in a spirited gallop, sometimes they stop, and hide their long necks in the sand, trying to escape, pressing their noses against the floor, fumes of simoun. If, despite the whirlwinds raised by the hurricane, the caravan can recognize the way she takes shelter in a rock crevice, and awaits safe that calm has returned;but if it gets lost in the vastness of the desert, it is too far from a shelter, or the storm redoubled force, men and animals lose all energy, the same instinct of preservation escapes them.Oppressed by the burning heat, suffering from vertigo, they cease to flee, and soon the sand that piles up around them serves their tomb, until another storm, waving back the waves of the desert discovers their bleached bones. “In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 3 Figure # 1 The desert; from a photograph. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) In the interior of Arabia, the temperature is generally quite high. In the desert, it hardly drops below 43 degrees during the day and 38 degrees at night. In mountainous areas or those near the sea, the temperature is not excessive.In Yemen, Niebuhr did not see the thermometer exceeding 29 degrees centigrade during the end of July. Sana, it freezes during the winter. All Arabia does not, however, the drought and hot weather we were talking about. There are areas, as large as major European states, which are extremely fertile. Such, for example, the Yemen, this is still the Nejd, the climate, according to Palgrave, would be one of safest in the world. The deserts of Arabia consist only of vast plains of sand, however, one meets there wells and oasis containing palm trees and pastures. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 50 The desert is constantly traversed by nomadic tribes. Life in the desert, which seems so awful to a European, is so full of charm for nomads they prefer to any other, and preferably does not date from yesterday, because the nomads of today are son Arabs whom the Bible speaks. They kept in taste, manners and customs. The brief overview above shows us that the climate and soil of Saudi vary by region.The conditions of life, flora, fauna should therefore also vary, and we must therefore expect to find very large differences between the inhabitants of different regions. 2. – Productions of Saudi Return to Table of Contents The most important productions of Arabia, we must mention the date palm and coffee. The fruits of the first are the most important food resource of the inhabitants, and the second is their main current wealth. Saudi still has special products such as incense, cassia, senna, the balm of Mecca, which are objects of commerce for her since very ancient times. Due to the differences in the climate of Arabia, the products of warm climates and those from temperate climates are found there; thus it produces cotton, sugarcane, sycamore, acacia, ash, etc. Forest trees are rare. The most common tree is the palm tree; it is he who gives them special physiognomy oriental landscapes. Found in the fertile regions of Saudi most trees and plants cultivated in Europe: apricot, peach, fig, almond, grapes, wheat, corn, barley, millet, bean, tobacco, etc. In Yemen, the country is well cultivated; but the work is very difficult, because of the need to constantly water the earth with water that it took place in reserve in wells or walled tanks during the rainy season. Pets known in Europe, mule, donkey, ox, sheep, goats, etc., are also known in Arabia. There are several wild animals such as the lion, the leopard and the leopard. The wild animals are far from the most dangerous of the inhabitants of Arabia. The most formidable are the locusts, which sometimes carry terrible Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 51 toll. They are not the rest of no use, because in the desert, they are often the sole food of the travelers and their horses for several weeks. Of all the animals that live in Arabia, the two most important for humans are horse and camel. The camel is the pet par excellence of Arabic; without him, the desert would be an absolutely insuperable barrier. His frugality, his ability to endure thirst for several days, his fatigue resistance and strength make it an animal no one else replace or as a mount or to carry burdens. The camel can cross the entire desert Aleppo to Basra with a load of 500 pounds on the back and with an insignificant expense of food. His frugality is really extraordinary and it can eat food that no other animal could bear. I could never look without astonishment a camel quietly eating the cactus leaves that line the roads without worrying about huge thorns they are studded. As for the Arabian horse, his reputation is universal. His description has been made many times, I will only reproduce one of the best, due to the author we have quoted above.”Strong, nervous, thin, proud of its independence, the Arab horse, wandering freely in the pastures, offers the type of elegance in the forms of perfection in quality. Lean head and slight, his ardent pupil, her gaping nostrils, his withers statement, its solid sides and short, its a bit long rump, tail projecting backwards, his thin, sinewy legs, give him over all his rivals the palm of beauty, such as docility, courage, frugality, speed assure him the edge over our most esteemed European races. The Bedouins count five noble breeds of horses descended, according to their traditions, the five favorite mares mounted by their prophet. At the birth of a foal of noble race, are combined under canvas a number of witnesses who prepare written reporting of the new offspring, and the name and the offspring of his mother. This family tree, duly confirmed by affixing the stamps and signatures, is contained in a small leather bag and hung from the neck of the horse. Therefore it ranks among the precious steeds, whose envied possession more than once caused a war between two tribes. “Because, in the desert, the speed of the horse often saves the life of the warrior. Burckhardt says that in 1815, a band of well-mounted Bedouin Druze attacked a band in the Hauran, and drove them to their camp;there, surrounded on all sides, assailed by superior forces, they were all killed, except for one which, bringing his mare and passing through enemy lines, and fled, pursued by the best mounted horsemen of the victorious troops. Rocks, plains, hills, everything was taken with the rapid whirlpool and the prosecution still continued because the Druze were relentless and had sworn the death of the last of their enemies. Finally, after hours of hellish race, defeated in their anger by their admiration for the mare that caused his master away from them, they promised him life and implored him to stop, that they might just kiss the front of this excellent runner.The Arab consented, and Druze, leaving him, told him that proverbial sentence with them, “Go wash the feet of your horse and then drink the water. “They want to express their extreme and affection for these courageous companions of their dangers. “I would add to the above that the Arabian horse hardly knows two gaits: pace and canter. His obedience to the master that he knows is remarkable. I saw often Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 52 wind Arabs dismount and leave the animal the rein without that cherchât never to walk away. Despite its usefulness, the horse is not as multiplied Arable one might assume. The reason is simple: as the camel can be high everywhere, the horse can be done only in areas where pastures exist, as in the plains of Mesopotamia, Syria and Nejd. It is in the Nejd exists the most valuable race and finer. Saudi happened once to be very rich in precious metals and stones; but there remains little evidence today. We are reports that some mines of iron and copper. Our knowledge of the country the rest too superficial, so that we may speak with certainty about the mineral wealth they possess. The industry and commerce a part of Arabia remained still what they were the first time in history. Goldsmith’s works executed in Yemen, dates, horses, indigo, senna, frankincense, myrrh, etc., are the main export items. Export trade with Europe, import to Africa, India and Persia, is, as in biblical times, for caravans. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 6 Figure # 2 Camp pilgrims near Mecca, at the time of the pilgrimage; according to instant photography. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) routes distances are measured in Arabia, and the rest as in the East, by hours of walking. For a lightly loaded camel, there are usually three miles per hour. As a result of the distances that seem insignificant on map require long days to be completed. In Arabia, the roads themselves do not exist. The caravan routes are generally formed by the wadi, or dry rivers, we talked. Apart from these roads, follow directions carefully determined by the position of the wells, because without them life would be impossible. The same routes are followed in Saudi since the earliest times. The most popular are those that go from Damascus to Baghdad and Riadh in the Nejd, to Mecca, Muscat, Baghdad and Damascus. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 3. 53 – Saudi Provinces Back to Table of Contents Inside the Saudi was little known to the ancients. Herodotus says a few words. Strabo, Diodorus of Sicily provide us with little information about it, and they attribute most often in this country the products he received from India and exported abroad. Ptolemy, who appears to have been the best this country, mentions in Arabia Felix hundred and seventy cities, including five major capitals. The Romans always knew badly Arabia. As they believed it was producing spices, perfumes, fabrics and precious stones she received actually from India or China, they tried several times to conquer, but always without success. These masters of the world, before which all nations had folded, could never subdue the nomadic hordes, protected by their sand ramparts and climate. It was not until modern times that Europeans have penetrated Saudi. Before Niebuhr, who visited in 1762, we did it on that information very vague, taken in the old Arab geographers or Ptolemy.His card was the first that was based on scientific evidence; he could not go through the rest part of Yemen. For half a century after Saudi Niebuhr remained unexplored; his study was not truly taken by Burckhardt in 1815. The latter gathered great information about Saudi and the two cities of Mecca and Medina. The Egyptian expeditions around at that time against the Wahabis were originally extended investigations in various parts of the peninsula. It was later covered by several travelers among whom we must mention Wallin (1845), Burton (1852), and Palgrave (1862). The latter visited in the central regions of Arabia almost completely unknown country before it 1. Saudi had been divided by the former into three regions: Arabia Petraea, northwest, Arabia Felix, south -west and the Saudi desert, in the center and east. 1 Desiring to complete with a visit to the center of Saudi studies I made in different parts of the former empire of the Arabs, and try to clarify questions that I had found the solution anywhere I recently suggested to the Minister of education, director of fund scientific missions to instruct me from exploringSaudi throughout its length, and gather in photography, and with proper scientific instruments, the most important documents. The project was not accepted. Not being able to mine all the costs of an expensive expedition, I had to give it up, and limit my trips to the ancient empire of the Arabs to the most easily affordable regions. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 54 Saudi Petraea included whole area between Palestine and the Red Sea. – The Saudi desert consisted of the great desert of sand stretching from the borders of Syria and Mesopotamia to the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf. – Saudi kissing happy all the southern part of the peninsula, the Nejd, the Hijaz, Yemen, Oman, etc. These geographical divisions have always remained unknown to the Eastern geographers. Saudi Petraea not part for them to Arabia; the only divisions they admit are: The Hijaz, mountainous and sandy area, forming the middle part of the flooded area by the Red Sea. It contains the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. The Yemen, located south of the Hejaz. It is the southwest corner of the Arabian Peninsula which is the richest and most fertile region. The Hadramaut, the Mahrah, Oman and HACA that follow, as seen on the map, from the Gulf of Aden to the Persian Gulf.Nejed, vast fertile plateau, people of major cities, but surrounded by deserts, in the center of Arabia. The divisions above, most of which date back to the earliest times of history, no longer correspond to political divisions. Before Muhammad, Arabia was divided into thousands of independent tribes. Under the Arab empire, all these tribes formed one people. After the fall of that empire, Saudi returned to its primitive form of existence; and, with the exception of three empires forms the Nejd, Yemen and Oman, it consists of small principalities and independent tribes obeying each as a leader. Let’s take a quick look at the various areas we just mentioned.Arabia Petraea. – We have already said that Saudi Petraea was not considered by the Arab geographers as part of Arabia; but the geographic and ethnographic point of view, it is impossible not to relate it. It includes the entire peninsula of Mount Sinai, and extends the borders of Palestine to the Red Sea. The qualification Petraea exactly matches the look of the country. The center of the peninsula is occupied by high granite mountain that forms the Sinai.The surrounding region is stony, sandy and does not become that, approaching shore.Vegetation is scarce and most miserable. This desolate area is yet one of the most famous in history. This is Edom of the Bible, the land of the Amalekites, Midianites, the Nabateans, and all those peoples whose Hebrew books speak to us on every page. It was in the deserts of Arabia Petraea the Israelites wandered for so long after their departure from Egypt, before entering the promised land. It still shows the sacred mountain where Moses dictated the law to his people, the stone where it brought forth water from a wand and the cave of Mount Horeb where Elijah hid for escape the fury of Queen Jezebel. It is in this ancient biblical country are the ruins of Petra, which was once the entrepot trade of southern Arabia and Yemen where the tribes of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 55 brought incense and aromatics, and received in exchange the products of the Phoenicians. Nejd. – The Nejd is a huge fertile plateau in the center of Arabia, and all sides of deserts and mountains. The knowledge of this region, where the headquarters of the powerful Wahhabi Empire, is quite modern. It is the people of this country Palgrave could say, “That could be among them, as among the inhabitants of Sheffield and Birmingham, engineers can trace railways, to build machines and boats steamed. “It’s also about the Nejd he pointed out that this prejudice of watching Arabia as a barbarian country, is that travelers usually visit a certain area of the coast.In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 9 Figure # 3 View from the top of Sinai. (Drawing by M. de Laborde) downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Despite the defeats that the Egyptians have done to her in both campaigns of 1810 and 1818 the Wahhabi empire was quickly restored. Its sovereign habitually resident in the important city of Riadh. Agriculture is the mainstay of the people of Nejd “The abundant harvests of corn and wheat, said Palgrave, excellent quality, dates show that Nejdeans are skilled farmers. “Hijaz. – Located on the coast of the Red Sea, the Hejaz is most famous because it was the birthplace of Islam, and the seat of the two holy cities Mecca and Medina which each year attract pilgrims of the most dots remotest of the Muslim world. The Hejaz contains some fertile areas, but most of its territory is barren. Its nominal ruler is now the Sultan of Constantinople, but the real ruler is the great Sherif of Mecca, who lives in Taif. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 56 Mecca is the type of those cited located in the desert, that we encounter in Saudi. The surrounding soil is so poor that it could be enough to maintain the population. They are obliged to bring their supplies of Jeddah, a city on the Red Sea, which is the port of Mecca Mecca, its inhabitants have named mother of cities, has long been unknown to Europeans. Today, they can not approach it on pain of death, and the few travelers who visited were unable to penetrate that disguise and with a thorough knowledge of the Arabic language. We do not possess that once too inadequate sketches to give us a clear idea, but we can represent it faithfully today, thanks to photographs carried by Sadik Bey, Lieutenant Colonel of the Egyptian army, which arrived in Europe in 1881. It is from these photographs that were executed our drawings. Mecca is distinguished from other Arab cities by its greater regularity. The water is rare. The best is brought to Mount Arafa tanks, located a few hours from the city by an aqueduct that tradition attributes to Zobéid, the favorite wife of the famous Caliph Haroun al Raschid. During the time of the pilgrimage, Mecca is the center of the richest and most varied of the Muslim world trade. In the midst of Mecca that the mosque stands at which “the mother of cities” is famous. In its interior is the Kaaba, famous temple, whose foundation, according to the Oriental historians, dates back to Abraham.Caliphs, sultans, conquerors have since Muhammad wanted to show their piety adorning the famous mosque; and today nothing remains of its original ornamentation. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 11 Figure # 4 Oasis of Dahab on the Gulf Élanitique. – Saudi Petraea.(Drawing by M. de Laborde.) Downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) The Great Mosque of Mecca in the shape of a regular quadrilateral. When penetrated the interior of the monument by doors that provide access, it is in a large courtyard surrounded by arches supported by a forest of columns, above which stood a considerable number small domes. Minarets placed on various parts of the quadrilateral overcome. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 57 The temple of Mecca served as a model, especially in Syria, many other mosques. I found several built on the same type in Damascus. Those of Cairo, on the contrary, quite different by the shape of minarets and the details of their ornamentation. The small temple of the Kaaba is located in the same courtyard of the Grand Mosque of Mecca. It is a gray stone cube, which, according Burckhart, 40 feet high, 18 paces in length and 14 in width. It has no other opening than a small door placed 7 feet from the ground, which we can only happen by an escalator, it only applies during the period of pilgrimages. Its interior is a paved room of marble, illuminated by lamps of solid gold, and covered with inscriptions. The ornamentation of the interior of the Kaaba has always been very rich. One of the earliest descriptions that I know of is the one found in the Nassiri Khosran travel the relationship in Syria, Palestine, Arabia, etc., performed in the years 1035 and 1042 AD. This interesting relationship has recently published the learned director of the School of Oriental Languages, Mr. Schefer, contains the following passage: “The walls of the Kaaba are covered with marble of various colors. On the side of the West there are six mirahbs silver, fixed to the wall with nails: each has the height of a man; they are adorned with gold inlays and silver inlaid with a dark black color. The walls are up to the height of four Arech, audessus of the earth in their original state; From this height, they are up to the ceiling, covered with marble slabs decorated with arabesques and sculptures which the largest part is golden. “In one of the outer walls of the Kaaba is embedded brought the famous black stone, according to the Arabs, of Paradise by the angels to serve as a stepping to Abraham built the temple. This relic has little as 7 inches in diameter. No other subject has been surrounded by a long revered by men, for many centuries before Mohammed, the black stone was already venerated. The Kaaba is always covered with a huge black veil, except where the sacred stone is located. This veil is lifted a few feet off the ground. During the first days of the pilgrimage, it is surrounded by the middle of the height of a strip bearing in gold inscriptions from the Koran.Once a year this veil is renewed. In the same courtyard of the mosque is another square structure covering the source, according to tradition, an angel brought forth when Hagar wandering in the desert veiled face not to see die of thirst his son Ishmael . Arab columnists ensure that Mecca once numbered 100,000; according to Burckhardt, it would count only 20,000 today. It is also in the Hijaz that is Medina, the ancient capital of the Arabs, the largest city of the Muslim world religious views after Mecca. It was in Medina, in fact, that Muhammad took refuge, established his religion and died. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 58 As Mecca, Medina is surrounded by arid territories that do not provide the people of sustenance. They must bring what they need Yambo, a town on the Red Sea.Thanks to the devotion of pilgrims, Medina became very rich. The houses, built of stone, have at least two stages, the streets are paved, the town is surrounded by a high wall. With the exception of the famous mosque where Mohammed had once taught, and today serves as a shrine, Medina contains very few old buildings. But the tomb of the prophet alone is sufficient to make it a place almost as important pilgrimage to Mecca. ACYR countries. – Between the Hijaz and Yemen is a big country, appointed ACYR, which until the beginning of this century, was completely unknown to Europeans. We know the rest only this: it is full of warlike tribes, and contains several important cities. Yemen. – The Yemen, which forms the southwest part of the peninsula, is the most fertile region, the richest and most populous of Arabia. This is the most important part of the territory called Happy Arabia by the elders. The people of Yemen are both traders and farmers. Since the ancient times, they were related to the Egyptians, the Persians, the people of India, etc. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 13 Figure # 5 City Mosque in Mecca; from a photograph of the Egyptian colonel Sadik Bey. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) The people of Yemen today obey a ruler named Iman, who lives in Sana, city of 60,000 residents.”This old city, the Arab geographer Edrisi wrote, was the residence of the kings of Yemen and the capital of Arabia. Its kings there had such a famous palace that much stronger, it still contains many palaces surrounded by extensive gardens, and houses built in stone and adorned with Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 59 stained glass windows. Twenty mosques, many of which have their golden domes contribute to adorn the ancient capital of Yemen. “Cruttenden, who had the opportunity to visit SANA describes as follows the visit we made every Friday at the Sultan Mosque” Fifty armed Bedouins led the way, ranked six by six and singing along. The main heads of families were next, each on horseback and carrying in his hand a long spear whose banners floated in the air. Iman was coming after them, mounted on a horse of dazzling whiteness, this breed that feeds the desert Djof, north of Sanaa, which, higher than the Nejd breed, or not conceding speed or elegance. In his right hand, the prince wore a lance whose point was money and chased gold handle; left hand, he leaned on the shoulder of a eunuch, while two slaves held the reins of the horse. A large sunshade, fringe trimmed with silver bells, was worn over his head, and sheltered against the sun. The Seif al-Khalifah then walked under a canopy as rich as that of the sovereign. The commander of the troops, the parents of Iman, and his principal officers, followed immediately.Hundred armed Bedouins brought up the rear. “In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 14 Figure # 6 Kaaba, the mosque of Mecca during the pilgrimage; from a photograph. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Sana is still today the most important cities of Arabia. Mr Halevy, who visited there a few years, says she has the mosques “whose architecture recalls the famous monuments of Muslim architecture. “Many cities in Yemen, including Rodah near Sana, are famous for their gardens and pleasure houses. At Rodah, vines form, as in Italy, cradles supported by trellises. At about thirty miles east of Sana are the ruins of Mareb or Saba, former capital of the Sabeans, who is now only a village. Edrisi, writing in the twelfth century, then claims it contained the remains of two castles built, one by Solomon, the other by one of the women of David. It’s Saba that reigned queen who, according to Jewish books, went to visit Solomon. Among the other famous cities of Yemen, we must mention the ports of Mocha and Aden on the Red Sea. Aden, now destroyed, was of importance Gustave Le Bon (1884), the Arab civilization: Books I and II.60 by its position as the English do they have seized. It was once a brilliant and populous city, the geographer Edrisi said 600 years ago: “It brings Sind, India and China, precious objects, such as inlaid sword blades, the shagreen skins, musk, horse saddles, fragrant pepper and not fragrant, coconut, the Hernout (scented seed), cardamom, cinnamon, galangal (a kind of fragrant herb), mace, myrobalan, ebony, tortoiseshell, camphor, nutmeg, clove, the cubède, various fabrics herbs tissues, and others rich and velvety; Elephant teeth, tin, rattan and other reeds, and most of the bitter aloe intended for trade. “One of the main current riches of Yemen is coffee, of which the province provides worldwide. It is also cultivated in other parts of the globe; but under any climate, he could not reach the quality of that of Yemen. Its main warehouse is the city of Moka. The rulers of Yemen are now deprived of their ancient splendor.Their action is hardly exerted on distant points of big cities. Their influence is zero on independent tribes existing in various parts of the country. Hadramawt, Mahrah, Oman and HACA. – The Hadramaut and Mahra country extend from eastern Yemen to Oman, along the Indian Ocean coast. They are populated by independent tribes and towns contain some little known. The capital of Hadramaut is Schibam. In a day of Schibam is Terim important city, since, according to Fresnel, there are as many mosques than churches in Rome. Oman, which follows the Mahrah, is bathed by both the waters of the Indian Ocean and those of the Persian Gulf. It is a sandy country, interspersed with numerous oasis and fertile valleys. The ruler of the country is a sultan living in Muscat city today irrelevant. HACA, stretching from Oman at the mouth of the Euphrates, along the Persian Gulf is a region hardly known. the sparsely populated believed.From the city of ElKalit to Basra, the country is a vast desert. It is in front of this region are located the Bahrain islands where the world’s largest pearl fisheries are. We have to look now what the people inhabiting the vast peninsula that just described summarily. No region of the world, as we shall see, has printed its climate and its soil, a characteristic style to its inhabitants.These are not stories of conquest of a people or chronologies of its kings, which can help to understand its history. On the basis of such a study ranks the review of the various factors that have determined its evolution, and first in the knowledge of the race to which he belongs. What are the moral and intellectual characteristics of this breed? What changes could print her environment, heredity, various nations with which she found herself in contact? That’s what is important to know and that first we must seek. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 61 In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 16 Color Plate # 1 FULL COLOR DECORATION OF THE FLAG OF ALHAMBRA IN GRANADA Restitution by Mr. Garcia and Dr. Gustave Le Bon downloaded from the website: The Classics social sciences section classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 62 Gustave Le Bon, The civilization of the Arabs (1884) Book One: The middle and race Chapter II 1. The Arabs – The idea of race based on current science Back to Table of Contents Before addressing the study of the Arabs, I think it necessary to present some anthropological concepts necessary for the understanding of this chapter. Human settlements scattered over various parts of the world were divided into a number of groups to which they gave the name of races. This term implies that there once between human groups designated under the title of differences smaller than those found between the groups of animals referred to as cash. But the progress of modern science has proven that the various races of men are separated by characters as deep as those that distinguish related animal species, we must now consider the word race when applied to the human species as a synonym for the word. Can be defined very simply the meanings of race or mankind, saying they designate individuals communities having a common set of characters is transmitted regularly by heredity. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 63 for foreigners to anthropology, the terms “people” and “race” are almost synonymous, but in reality their meaning is absolutely different. A people is an agglomeration of individuals belonging to often very different races united under one government and having therefore a number of common interests. Today there are English people, German, Austrian, French, etc. : There is no English breeds, German, Austrian or French. The elements involved are too diverse backgrounds and merged too bad even for us to give them such a title. Groups of individuals can be united under the same laws, led to profess the same religion and speak the same language; but they manage to form a homogeneous race when the medium crosses and heredity have set among them a number of common physical and moral characters. But this acquisition of common characters demand a very long time. Very slow to fix, hereditary characters are also very slow to fade. So is it with extreme slowness that races manage to merge and transform. changes must be accumulated by heredity, for centuries in the same direction, so that the media influences and crossovers end up determining profound changes. Among the influences that transform and set characters in a race, often cites the middle. But if the medium is a powerful factor, heredity, which represents the skills accumulated during a past of immense length, is a much more powerful factor yet. Many historical examples show that when a race is old, the characters set by heredity are so stable, that the medium is now no action on it, and this race perish rather than change.Thus, in all latitudes, the son of Israel retain their invariable kind; thus even the burning soil of Egypt was powerless, despite her energy, transforming too old races who successively invaded, and all have found their grave. The heredity alone is powerful enough to fight against heredity, and that is why the media can hardly act on the new races, that is to say on races from crosses between different people with abilities different hereditary. Under similar conditions, so heavy influences from the past being canceled or disrupted by hereditary influences of equal weight, the medium no longer has to fight against them and can act freely. But for the crossings themselves can act, they have to be repeated for a long time, and that people of various cross breeds are not in too unequal number. If there is a clear disparity in the proportion of the elements brought together, the characters that dominate in the mixture will ultimately prevail and eliminate others. A small number of white introduced in a black population rapidly disappears without a trace, after a few generations. That is why the characters of a conquered people disappear if the invaders are too many. The modern Greeks may be invoked as an example because they have nothing in reality features, so set by the sculpture of their ancestors 1. This is the one I do not think me too forward in ensuring that we do encounter today as a well exceptionally true Greeks in Greece. I have found neither in Athens nor in the Levant, frequented long ago by the Greeks of the various parts of the archipelago. I would add Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 64 Because even though the conquering peoples disappear, however, if they are too small proportion against conquered peoples. Such, for example, the case of the Romans in Gaul. We are their son by civilization and language, but not by blood. Such was also the case of the Arabs in Egypt. We will see that the Egyptians, who were refractory remains the Persian civilizations, Greek and Roman, and had always refused to learn the language of their conquerors, quickly adopted the language, religion and Arab civilization, to the point that Egypt became in reality and remained most Arab countries professing the religion of Mohammed. Crosses between the Egyptians and their new conquerors became so frequent, that by the second or third generation, had formed intermediate types which we could not distinguish the origin. But the superior numbers of the ancient Egyptians on the invaders and slowing invasions had resulted to soon disappear almost entirely the influence of Arab blood. Arabic remained the religion and language, today fellah is actually the son of the Egyptians of the time of the pyramids which he is surplus to the live image. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 19 Figure # 7 Nomads and nomads leaders from neighboring Arab tribes independent of the Dead Sea, photographed by the author.downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) that long ago no doubt that there are more Greeks in Greece, because in a very curious collection of large busts characters certainly very old owned by the museum in Athens, I have not met a single individual with the Greek type. Mr. Schliemann, with whom I traveled for some time, I was advised by Megara, Ithaca, Lesbos and various points that I have not visited, we still encounter issues with the Greek type; but these are atavistic reminiscences in too small numbers to refute what I have to move forward. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 2. 65 – The importance of the study of psychological characteristics to classify races Back to Table of Contents We can already see by the above, it is not the language, religion, or political groupings that can allow to classify a race. The anatomical characters such as skull shape, color of skin, the face 1, etc., permitting little more. They make possible probably some great fundamental divisions, challenged the rest for most, but tell us almost nothing yet so profound differences between neighboring peoples, such as the various nations of Europe, for example. There are, however, in our opinion, such fixed characters that anatomical characters, and which, though neglected by modern anthropology, probably serve a fundamental basis of an updated classification of races: I mean the intellectual and moral character . The most convinced advocate of anatomical descriptions would certainly not support, that given any two races involved, it would have more information about them in the knowledge of their anatomical characteristics as that of their psychological characteristics.Psychological characters recur elsewhere as persistently as the anatomical characters. When following the evolution of a people, we are surprised to see how consistently his moral and intellectual abilities are perpetual killing through ages. The institutions of a people and its role in the world are mainly the result of these skills. It is in the character, that is to say, in this set of provisions that each individual brings at birth, and which determine its way of feeling and reacting, that unconscious motives of conduct are. It varies with each race and this variation explains why similar institutions applied to various people produce such different results; why the wretch anarchy of the Spanish republics of America, for example, compared to the prosperity of the US population under identical institutions. The energy, 1 Among the characters there is one, the aspect that has not been used to date as a means of classification of human races, but that seems to me to be very important. I was led to recognize noting in my various travels in Europe, Asia and Africa, how easily the natives can distinguish unerringly individuals belonging to various races who are in daily contact with them, even as the costume is the same. I tried to show the importance of this classification method in a special memory to which I refer the reader. It finds particular indication of the means to be employed to identify common physiognomic characters in all individuals of the same race. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 66 foresight, courage, initiative, the ability to govern themselves, the self-control, etc., are feelings that heredity can give, but that no institution can create. They are trained in the individual who will be born and represent the legacy of a long history. It is, in fact, in the distant past that have developed patterns of our present actions.Although the moral and intellectual character of a people are as stable as its physical characteristics, they can, like these, change slowly under the influence of various factors, including those we énumérions above: the physical environment and moral and crossovers. A Roman time of Heliogabalus had more the character of his ancestors of the republic, and the inhabitants of the United States have very different by the character of the English which it is derived, in the 1980 print edition appears on page 21 Figure # 8 Bedouin nomads of Syria;Jericho photographed by the author. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) In most modern nations, character is in transformation and far from fixed yet. The great invasions which they derive were attended too dissimilar elements, and mixed for too little time for too little time for home ended up creating a lot of common feelings. It is understandable when you see the how many people who seem at first very homogeneous, such as French, for example, are made of different elements. Kimris, Normans, Celts, Aquitaine, Romans, etc., have trod our soil and their descendants have not mixed well again. I have reviewed in a recent book the profound influence that can have on the destinies of a people the elements that go into its midst, especially when these have different trends, and sought to show that it is in this study , far more than in that of political institutions – institutions that are consequences and rarely causes – we can find the key role that nations have played or will play in history. I can not stress more on a subject that I could only touch here. The little I have said has been sufficient to show the reader the importance of the study of the psychology of peoples, yet barely sketched science 1. Regarding the Arabs, in particular, we see that it is 1 I developed these ideas in the following works or memoirs: the Man and Societies, their origins and history, Volume II. – Current Anthropology and the study of the races. (Scientific Review.) – From Moscow to the Tatra Mountains; Study on the current formation of a race. (. Bulletins of the Geographical Society) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 67 in the study of their character we find largely explaining the causes that determined their grandeur and decadence.3. – Origin Arabs Back to Table of Contents Various considerations based primarily on language were classified in one family called Semitic, these diverse populations: Arabs, Jews, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Syrians, Babylonians, Assyrians, who occupied and still occupy Arabia and Asia Minor to the Euphrates. The relationship we admit them due to the analogy in the language spoken by these different peoples, and certain physical characteristics they have in common, such as the dark color of the hair, plenty of beard, dullness of skin, etc. Much could be said about the value of these characters, but as this move away from my subject, I prefer to limit myself to reproduce such that usually gives in elementary books. It is generally accepted, the physical point of view, that all the peoples that we have just named have two types, one end, the other rude. “The first, says Girard, is characterized by a slender waist that does not often above average, with dry and nervous members, thin ties, with a long face and thin at the lower end, the chin is fleeing, small mouth; teeth are white and well planted, thin lips; narrow nose, attaches directly to the forehead and aquiline form affects a very pronounced in curving beak of a bird of prey to the end; black and well-shaped eyes, sheltering under eyebrows undeveloped;the skull is dolichocephalic. It is the most common type among the Arabs; it is also found among the Israelites, Syrians and ancient and modern Egyptians. “The second is characterized by a more or less tall, but heavy and massive, with strongly muscular limbs, a face broader and stronger, with a strong jaw, often undershot; the chin is prominent, strong mouth; fleshy lips;aquiline nose, but wide, is thick at the end; accented eyebrows shade of black and large eyes;the front is straight and low. The Assyrians have this type in its prime. There are also among Jews and among Arabs, especially the South, and the Egyptians. They have blood undoubted African elements, as indicated certain features of their physiognomy and proportions of their bodies. “Either of very questionable value following us characters that precede and relatives of the peoples called Semitic, it is certain that their community of origin, if it exists, goes back to prehistoric times. In times Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 68 remotest whose tradition has preserved the memory, these peoples were already differentiated. If we judge according to our modern ideas of political and social conceptions of the Semites, always nearby patriarchal conceptions of the state, we must note that they have never been much higher. It should not however forget that these people have founded powerful civilizations, and that of the five or six major religions that exist today in the world, three of the most important: Judaism, Christianity and Islam were begotten by this branch of the Semitic family consisting of Jews and Arabs. The only branch of the Semites which we have to deal with now, Arabs, or rather presented this long with Jews a great relationship. This relationship is indicated by the similarity of their languages and traditions that attribute a common origin. There is little resemblance between the Arab surely as it appears to us at the time of its civilization, and the Jew, as we know for centuries too often flat, cowardly, avaricious and greedy; and it seems humiliating at first be compared to the second; but do not forget that it is the particular conditions of existence to which the Jews were subjected for centuries that have made the race so little we know today estimated 1. Any people, subject to conditions ‘similar existence, having no other profession possible trade and usury, despised everywhere, had become what the Jew that we know and that, rich or poor, keep these sordid instincts that twenty centuries of heredity seems to have fixed him forever. 1 While acknowledging their kinship with the Jews, the Arabs were the first to blush. I had occasion to note in my travels in Germany, Poland, Galicia, Russia and the East, how many Jews are little esteemed there. But the feelings they caused throughout Europe are nothing compared to the revulsion they inspire the Arabs. The Jew is for them a kind of unclean animal for which anything goes. When an Arab of Algeria is for a Jew, it is only by calling it “carrion, son of carrion. “He knows the rest recognize in all disguises. Having had a chance to stay in Algeria at a time when a conference had brought many Europeans, I saw several Arabs tell me without ever fool the Israelite origin of persons to whom it was impossible to find anything is special in the face. In Arab countries that are quite independent of the influence of the Europeans, Jews are absolutely outlawed and much abused animals. Here is how Mr. Cottes, writing in 1855, speaks about the state of the Jews in Morocco: “The Jews are condemned to wear only black clothes, this color is the symbol of misfortune and curse. It is forbidden to ride a horse; if they pass in front of a mosque, a zaouïa (chapel), a saint, a marabout, a Sharif, they must remove their shoes and carried by hand until they passed. They can not cross Muslim cemeteries; their wives, on the slightest pretext, are whipped in the public square by the ahrifa, Muslim specially responsible for this function. If a Muslim hits them, they are prohibited, on pain of death, to defend themselves except by flight or by address. Children frequently seen 7 or 8 years of vigorous young men stoned, hit them with sticks, the slap, bite, tear with their nails. These men are Jews; they bend, twist, make efforts to emerge; but their movements betray concern not hit or hurt any of the attackers. “The above is perfectly true even for the interior of Morocco, but is not the same degree to Tangier, where today several European consuls resident under whose protection are usually placed Jews. When I visited this strange city, I had occasion to visit the Pasha accompanied by the dragoman Minister of Belgium, distinguished Jew, who was well received. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 69 To appear the relationship between the Jewish and Arab, going back to the time of Abraham, and represent us with the thought that patriarch as the sheikh of a small tribe of nomadic, warring with its neighbors and disturbing, as today, agricultural populations.The Egyptian captivity is probably the result of a campaign as a result of which the Egyptians cantoned this plundering tribe in northern Egypt, a territory where she could not get out, and she only escaped with Moses when, after a long stay in Egypt the Hebrews were become numerous enough to withstand the Pharaohs and resume the nomadic life for forty years. to David, the existence of the Jews as a nation hardly differed from that of other Arab tribes of Palestine and Arabia. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 24 Figure # 9 sedentary Arabs from Syria; photographed in Damascus by the author. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) 4. – Diversity of Arabs return to the table of contents is generally regarded Arabs as forming a single race and, for most Europeans, while Mohammedan of Africa and Asia, from Morocco to Saudi, is an Arab, just as, for the Orientals, all Europeans: English, Italians, Germans, Russians, etc., are the representatives of one people they designate as the Franks. The way we judge the Arabs is, in reality, as inaccurate as they deem Europeans. There are among them as different as we can observe in Europe. Following various environments they encountered and the various peoples with whom they mixed the Arabs ended up forming very complex mixtures. Thus, for example, that the Arabs who now inhabit Mecca, and that once formed one of the most pure breeds, are a product of the mix of all the various peoples from the Atlantic to the Indus annually come on pilgrimage in this city since Muhammad. It was the same in Africa and Syria: Phoenicians, Berbers, Turks, Chaldeans, Turkmen, Persians, Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 70 Greeks and Romans, have more or less mixed with the Arabs. Even in the more central parts and most isolated of Arabia, as the Nejd, he takes that race is pure. For centuries, black element is there mixed in large proportions. All travelers who visited the interior of Arabia were hit this influence Negroes in the peninsula. Rotta cites the Yemen region where the population has become almost black, while in the mountains, the same population, little mixed, remained white. Speaking of the family of sheikhs of the region, he said that among his children “there were of all colors, from black to white, according to the race of their mothers. “Wallin observed in Djof whole tribes of black slaves. The Negroes are also very common in the Nejd, where, as in the rest of Arabia, no color prejudice exists and therefore does not prevent crossovers. Palgrave says that Katif important city of Nejd, was at the time of his trip governed by a negro. “I saw in Riadh, he said, several mulatto son who proudly wore the sword to handle money, and their servants were among the Ismaili Arab blood or kahtanite purest. “In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 25 Figure # 10 sedentary Arab Syria;photographed in Damascus by the author. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) This lack of prejudice against color also hit lady A. Blunt, who in the recent account of his journey to the Nejd (1878) says that the Governor of one of the largest cities in the Nejd, Meskakeh, was “a negro entirely black, with the repulsive features of the African. It seemed eminently absurd, she said, to see what negro, who is still a slave, in the center of a group of Caucasian courtiers; because all these Arabs, most of which are noble blood, is arcboutaient before him, ready to obey any of his looks or laugh at his poor jokes. “It is mainly in sedentary Arabs that is the mixture of different races, each relating to Arab honor to have women of many colors in his harem. Among the tribes of the desert, and especially among the mountaineers, the purity of the race is much greater. However, note that among the nomadic tribes of Eastern Syria, including near Palmyra in the desert, we meet blond with blue eyes, which seems to imply a mix with populations from a more northern origin. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 5. 71 – Description of the various Arab populations Back to Table of Contents The only fundamental division that can be established among the Arabs, division justified by all their traditions and their way of life, is that Arabs into sedentary and nomadic Arabs . This distinction is absolutely essential, and we must always have in mind when studying their history. The nomads, or as it’s commonly called, Bedouin, were from Morocco to Saudi a way of life, customs and Moe For centuries, black element is there mixed in large proportions. All travelers who visited the interior of Arabia were hit this influence Negroes in the peninsula. Rotta cites the Yemen region where the population has become almost black, while in the mountains, the same population, little mixed, remained white. Speaking of the family of sheikhs of the region, he said that among his children “there were of all colors, from black to white, according to the race of their mothers. “Wallin observed in Djof whole tribes of black slaves. The Negroes are also very common in the Nejd, where, as in the rest of Arabia, no color prejudice exists and therefore does not prevent crossovers. Palgrave says that Katif important city of Nejd, was at the time of his trip governed by a negro. “I saw in Riadh, he said, several mulatto son who proudly wore the sword to handle money, and their servants were among the Ismaili Arab blood or kahtanite purest. “In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 25 Figure # 10 sedentary Arab Syria;photographed in Damascus by the author. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) This lack of prejudice against color also hit lady A. Blunt, who in the recent account of his journey to the Nejd (1878) says that the Governor of one of the largest cities in the Nejd, Meskakeh, was “a negro entirely black, with the repulsive features of the African. It seemed eminently absurd, she said, to see what negro, who is still a slave, in the center of a group of Caucasian courtiers; because all these Arabs, most of which are noble blood, is arcboutaient before him, ready to obey any of his looks or laugh at his poor jokes. “It is mainly in sedentary Arabs that is the mixture of different races, each relating to Arab honor to have women of many colors in his harem. Among the tribes of the desert, and especially among the mountaineers, the purity of the race is much greater. However, note that among the nomadic tribes of Eastern Syria, including near Palmyra in the desert, we meet blond with blue eyes, which seems to imply a mix with populations from a more northern origin. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 5. 71 – Description of the various Arab populations Back to Table of Contents The only fundamental division that can be established among the Arabs, division justified by all their traditions and their way of life, is that Arabs into sedentary and nomadic Arabs . This distinction is absolutely essential, and we must always have in mind when studying their history. The nomads, or as it’s commonly called, Bedouin, were from Morocco to Saudi a way of life, customs and Moe For centuries, black element is there mixed in large proportions. All travelers who visited the interior of Arabia were hit this influence Negroes in the peninsula. Rotta cites the Yemen region where the population has become almost black, while in the mountains, the same population, little mixed, remained white. Speaking of the family of sheikhs of the region, he said that among his children “there were of all colors, from black to white, according to the race of their mothers. “Wallin observed in Djof whole tribes of black slaves. The Negroes are also very common in the Nejd, where, as in the rest of Arabia, no color prejudice exists and therefore does not prevent crossovers. Palgrave says that Katif important city of Nejd, was at the time of his trip governed by a negro. “I saw in Riadh, he said, several mulatto son who proudly wore the sword to handle money, and their servants were among the Ismaili Arab blood or kahtanite purest. “In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 25 Figure # 10 sedentary Arab Syria;photographed in Damascus by the author. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) This lack of prejudice against color also hit lady A. Blunt, who in the recent account of his journey to the Nejd (1878) says that the Governor of one of the largest cities in the Nejd, Meskakeh, was “a negro entirely black, with the repulsive features of the African. It seemed eminently absurd, she said, to see what negro, who is still a slave, in the center of a group of Caucasian courtiers; because all these Arabs, most of which are noble blood, is arcboutaient before him, ready to obey any of his looks or laugh at his poor jokes. “It is mainly in sedentary Arabs that is the mixture of different races, each relating to Arab honor to have women of many colors in his harem. Among the tribes of the desert, and especially among the mountaineers, the purity of the race is much greater. However, note that among the nomadic tribes of Eastern Syria, including near Palmyra in the desert, we meet blond with blue eyes, which seems to imply a mix with populations from a more northern origin. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 5. 71 – Description of the various Arab populations Back to Table of Contents The only fundamental division that can be established among the Arabs, division justified by all their traditions and their way of life, is that Arabs into sedentary and nomadic Arabs . This distinction is absolutely essential, and we must always have in mind when studying their history. The nomads, or as it’s commonly called, Bedouin, were from Morocco to Saudi a way of life, customs and Moesisters today are exactly what they were there thousands of years, and they probably always will be. As in biblical times, they live in tribes as moving their herds have depleted the soil where they were temporarily camped. The Arab sedentary changes following the contrary places and very diverse populations with whom he has contact. This division into sedentary and nomadic Arabs also corresponds to that established by the traditions. These relate, in fact, the origin of the Arabs in three races, the first of which disappeared before the Islamic. The second is formed by the descendants of Kahtan (Joctan the Bible), sedentary people who settled in Yemen, which is considered the purest Arab breed. The third branch descended from Ishmael, son of Abraham from Egyptian slavery. We understand, from what we have said before various mixtures that make up today’s Arab population, it can hardly be of Arabic type as is generally believed. A well-defined Arab type, that is to say, a type which can be said that it is very special to the Arab, seems equally impossible to give a kind of French or Italian . All trials of definition of physical Arabs guy, the one that seemed to relate to the larger number of purebred individuals is due to the former chief surgeon of the army of Egypt, Larrey ” they are, he says, with a size slightly above average, robust and well made; their skin is tan or brown, and elastic. They have the oval face, copper color; The forehead is broad, high, black eyebrow, detached; the eye of the same color, crisp and pressed. The nose is straight, medium size, well shaped mouth, well-set teeth, beautiful and white as ivory; ear of a beautiful form and of normal size, slightly bent forward;the ear hole is perfectly parallel with the external or temporal canthus. As in the individuals of all nations are observed in their women some advantageous differences; we especially admire the graceful contours of their members, regular proportions of their hands and their feet, the pride of their attitude and their approach, etc. The Bedouin shepherds or Arabs, are generally divided by scattered tribes on the edges of fertile land at the entrance or on the edges of deserts: they live in tents they carry from one place to another as needed . They have the greatest relationship with other Arabs; however their eyes are gleaming, Gustave Le Bon traits (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 72 their faces usually less pronounced, and their size is lower than among civilized Arabs. They are also more agile, lean, and although they are very robust. They have a sharp mind, the proud and independent character; they are suspicious, concealed, but brave and fearless. They are especially great skill, a deep and rare intelligence. They go to great riders, and it boasts with due dexterity to handle the spear and the javelin. Moreover, they are very suitable for the performance of all the arts and all trades.”Among the characters reported by Larrey, those who have most struck me among the Arabs that I have had occasion to observe, are truly shine striking eyes especially in children, the gleaming white teeth, finesse ends and the pride of attitude; but these features do not apply today as nomads. The only practical distinction that we can now establish between Arabs, apart from the fundamental distinction which we have spoken above, is the one that takes to base the country where they live. This is the one we will adopt successively describing the Arabs of Arabia, Syria, Egypt, Africa and China. We will focus much more on description of the psychological characteristics, which we have shown the highest importance to the physical, very varied types, as we have said. Reproduction of our photographs give the rest more information on these types that longer explanations. Arab Saudi. – The Arab central regions of Arabia is one that, despite its repeated mixtures with Negroes, seems to have remained the most similar to its ancestors of the early ages, especially considering it to the nomadic state. It is these latter that we study first. These nomads, many people assume constitute the entire population of Arabia form a half-savage race without civilization or history. To find out what they were 3000 years ago, simply observe today: besides religion, nothing has changed at home. They stayed as we can represent them based on biblical stories or descriptions of Herodotus, and are condemned not to change. If fertile regions, such as those in Yemen, create and sedentary farming populations, the arid desert sands can only create nomads. Nomadic Arabs have always lived, as now, in small tribes under the patriarchal authority of a chief, appoints Sheikh or lord, a family heads of the tribe. His authority, a very narrow, limited to approximately lead warriors into battle and rule the division of the spoils or at certain ceremonies. Both are exclusive occupations of nomadic war and herd livestock. The battles they engage from tribe to tribe on the slightest pretext are endless because the biblical law of retaliation: eye for eye, tooth for tooth, having always been their law, every murder leads to another as retaliation. It is only when two tribes are nearly exhausted they make peace and accept in exchange for a compensation murder. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 73 The qualities and defects of nomadic Arabs are naturally the qualities and defects caused by their living conditions. “The Arabs, said Herder, maintained the patriarchal customs of their ancestors; they are, by a singular contrast, bloodthirsty and obsequious, superstitious and enthusiastic, eager beliefs and fictions; they seem endowed with eternal youth, and are capable of greater things when a new idea dominates. Free, generous and proud, Arabic is both irascible and full of daring; we can see in him the kind of virtues and vices of his nation; the need to fill himself to his needs makes it active; he is patient because of the suffering of any kind is obliged to bear; he likes the independence as the only good that he is given to enjoy, but it is quarrelsome hatred of all domination. Hard on himself, he becomes cruel and is too often eager for revenge. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 28 Figure # 11 Arabs of Upper Egypt; photographed near Thebes by the author. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) “The analogy of situation and sentiment inspired in all the same points of honor, the sword, hospitality, eloquence made their glory; the sword was the only guarantee of their rights; hospitality for them kissed the code of humanity and eloquence in writing default was used to finish the disputes that are not emptied by force. “” Perhaps, said Desvergers, the trait he is the most prominent Arab character of this intimate mixture of eagerness for plunder and hospitality, spirit of greed and generosity, cruelty and chivalrous generosity, that puts in turn raised the most opposite qualities, and called twenty times in the same person in the course of a narrative, admiration and blame. It would be difficult to realize these perpetual inconsistencies, if not put the exceptional perspective of a single nation from contact by its position and to stand on ellemême on the most ungrateful soil. The poverty of their territory was for them the excuse looting; deprived of abundant harvests, or the rich pastures were sufficient to the needs of other people, they repaired the injustice of fate open force, and thought back on each caravan attacked them by the portion of goods that ought to have been assigned in the division of the earth. Making no difference between war and ambush the robbery seemed to them a right of conquest: strip the traveler was in their eyes as meritorious as taking a city by storm or reduce a province. Of such inclinations would have deserved no sympathy, had they not been purchased by noble virtues. The same warrior thirst for plunder, the desire for revenge, pride offended was Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 74 acts of incredible cruelty, became his tent a liberal host and full of courtesy. The oppressed who sought his protection or confided in his honor was received not only as a friend but as a family member. His life was sacred, and his guest would have defended at the risk of his own, even if he had discovered that the stranger sitting at home was the enemy he had a hundred times the desired loss. Maybe he did not even scruple to remove by force or by camel address of its neighbor to give his host a larger and more generous hospitality. Generosity has always been under the Arabs have estimated more than any other, and they looked as it as a special prerogative of their nation. ) I would add to the above that the nomad Arabs, both in Saudi in Syria or Africa, still have the main character a sense of independence relates to a point that is difficult to be European idea. They despise deeply dweller they see as a slave. For them to attach to the land that is to say goodbye to freedom, the man set the ground being fatally destined to have soon a master. The nomad has only his freedom, but this property is superior to him in every other and he knew the preserve intact throughout the ages. All conquerors: Greeks, Romans, Persians, etc., which have dominated the world could never enslave.Domination nomads will always ephemeral and can even establish an ephemeral way only if nomads are opposed by nomads. This sense of independence back to the first time in their history. Diodorus of Sicily ensures that in Nabateans, nomads of Arabia Petrea, it was forbidden to plant wheat, fruit trees, and build houses. They raient considerable, indeed, that to keep such property, we willingly sacrifices his freedom. So they were never conquered. Herodotus observed that as Phoenicia and Palestine were forced to send heavy tribute to the kings of Persia, the only Arabs were exempt. The instinct of pugnacity looting and nomadic Arabs are still formidable neighbors to civilized peoples, and they gladly consider the real robbers but the view of the Arabs is another. They are just as proud of looting a caravan that Europeans may be the bombing of a city, of the conquest of a province, or similar exploits. They do not raise statues to their celebrity chefs, because it is Saudi person statue erected, but they believe they are entitled to have for them as a respectful reverence that we have for our great conquerors. It was also thanks to these ingrained instincts of war and pillage, that nomadic Arabs became great warriors under Muhammad’s successors and quickly conquered the world. In the new conditions in which they found themselves subjected, their primitive instincts remained invariable, because the character of a people hardly changes, but they manifested themselves in new forms: the love of pillage became the love of conquest; their generosity habits gave rise to these chivalrous manners that all the peoples of Europe have imitated then. Their habits rivalries were initially useful to them to some degree, by causing their lively spirit of emulation;but, too entrenched to be long contained within bounds, they lost them. These were the nomadic Arabs who formed much of the armies of the successors of Mohammed, and as conquerors, rendered the greatest services to Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 75 thereof; but it was certainly not among them that recruited scientists and artists who gave a brilliant sheen to the civilization of the disciples of the prophet. The nomads have always disdained absolutely the conquests of civilization, and much prefer their existence in the desert. This is an analogue hereditary feelings to those we also found among the American Indians, and against which no argument can not prevail. They refused, Syria in particular, the land that gave them to fix it. These nomads, whose proud and noble bearing strikes all travelers know to be enough, without artificial resources of civilization, and they would not have given way to more vast feudal baron of the Middle Ages. The desert life is not in surplus without charm, and I confesserais happy if I had to choose between this independent life and the existence of a maneuver busy twelve hours a day in a factory in a mindless job, the hesitation would not be long. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 31 Figure # 12 Arab women in environs of Cairo; from a photograph. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) While remaining the most primitive forms of the evolution of human societies, forms the living conditions of the desert prevent them from crossing, nomadic Arabs are strong superior to other pastoral peoples that we still encounter in various parts of the globe. I talked many times with them, and I felt that their conception of life was certainly worth that of many very civilized Europeans. We will see later in their poems that if these nomads are actually half-wild with their customs, they are not their thoughts. Rarely does a nomad is not coupled with a poet. It is lined with a poet, and as many poets, it is also lined with a child. Psychological characteristics that we gave the nomad must, indeed, add it, the most important of all perhaps: he has, despite his apparent calm, a very mobile nature which approaches the woman and of the child. Like them, he has little to guide the instinct of the moment. Like them too, he judges by appearances, is easily dazzled by the noise, brightness, external pump; and dazzle is the best way to convince him.This is true of all races or all primitive nations, and is so women and children because they also represent forms Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. below 76 in human evolution. The Nomad is really only a half-wild. Intelligent half-wild sure, but for thousands of years has not taken a step toward civilization and therefore has not undergone any transformation accumulated by heredity in civilized man. If, as we believe, the psychological characteristics sufficient to establish profound differences between men, we can say that the sedentary and nomadic Arabic Arabic form two races actually separated by an abyss. The sedentary Arabs of Arabia which we are about now are very different nomadic we just talk.These are not half-barbarous as is generally believed. Palgrave rightly pointed out that this erroneous opinion is simply the result of what travelers have usually visited only a few points unimportant shoreline of this vast peninsula. He speaks with admiration of the instruction of the people of Oman; and according to him, it would not be difficult to find in the Nejd individuals equally capable than the English to build machines or draw railways. We know, moreover, that in Yemen there are two universities, those of Zebid and Damar, who, though the importance of the Cairo ancient and famous university, contribute, like the latter, to spread an instruction strong among the educated classes of the population. We are accustomed today to judge the Arabs after the sad samples that we offer the people of Syria, Egypt and Algeria, debased by all mixes and all easements; but it is obviously the very cradle of the Arab people need to study them to have a clear idea. The author I quoted a moment ago, and lived long among them are considered one of the noblest races of the earth, and adds: In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 33 Figure # 13 Muslims of Nubia; after photographs of the author.downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) “I said,” one of the noblest races of the earth “; Arab towns deserve this praise indeed. I have traveled, I have had frequent contacts with many different peoples, Africans, Asians, Europeans, and very few seem to me worthy of being placed above the inhabitants of central Arabia. These yet speak the same language as desert nomads, the same blood flows in their veins; but what distance separates them! “Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 77 We were out earlier than sedentary Arabs have, and the rest that all civilized peoples, considerable differences from one country to another. These differences already exist in Arabia. In the same province of Nejd, largest province, it is true that many European states there are between Arabs such profound differences than those between the inhabitants of northern Europe from that of the south. The Wahhabis, for example, would a very different character than attributed to most Arabs. They are energetic, would not give the impulse of the moment, but would be very hidden, especially envious. Here is the description given by Palgrave: “The Wahhabis, less generous, less quick to embrace the tough business, less and less gays francs that other Arabs are more persevering and wiser: they rarely express in words their secret feelings; but they are firm in their designs, in terrible vengeance, implacable enemies, questionable friends to anyone who is not their countryman; they could be said without offense and without prejudice, to be called the Scottish peninsula. The expression of their features reserved, hard, dark well, contrasts strangely with the benevolent North Arab faces. They do not obey the impression of the moment, they follow a route system in advance;if they have limited intelligence, their strong and persevering will enables them to powerfully organize their social status and their neighbors to become tyrannical masters; Finally, their unity must ensure their triumph over the enemies qu’affaiblissent incessant divisions; as the Wahabi empire he tends to absorb most of the peninsula and its ambitious dream may realize sooner than we think. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 34 Figure # 14 Muslim Nubia;after photographs of the author. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) “Their character is reflected in the smallest acts of domestic life. It is necessary, when you talk to them, watch over her tongue and measured gestures as you would with enemies. “Arabs of Syria. – As the Arabs of Arabia, those of Syria stand in nomadic and sedentary. The first dwell in the wilderness; the latter the cities.Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 78 Like all nomads, the Arabs of Syria did not have much to suffer various dominations that have battered the country. Today they live as they lived 3,000 years ago, the product of their herds and pillage. With the exception of the cities, the country belongs to them at: Beyond the Jordan, and at the gates of Damascus, they attack travelers and caravans paid no ransom to be escorted and cross their territory. They have, however, this dual character of greed and generosity that we have already reported. The host to which they granted hospitality is still sacred to them. Nothing has been able to give the Arabs of Syria nomadic life they live for centuries; they have always despised the concessions of land and refuse to any agricultural work. Outside the nomadic Bedouin desert or who profess the religion of Mohammed, there are tribes in Syria rather professing different religions and separated by their religious beliefs and blending between them, ended up acquiring particular characters to distinguish easily. The most important are the Métoualis the Ansarians, Maronites and Druze. The Métoualis are tribes of Arabs living very isolated mountain. They belong to the Mohammedan sect of the Shiites and are very intolerant. They never consent to dine with a stranger. It is assumed that these are former Kurdish tribes, but they have complex characters from both the Mongols, Arabs and Persians. The Ansarians also form distinct hill tribes. They profess a religion derived from Islam but which differs significantly; we are assured that they believe in metempsychosis, worship the sun and moon, etc. The Maronites, although approaching the Syrians, however, have a distinct personality. They are a vain and noisy Christian sect, which, in different circumstances, did not indicate a very great bravery. Druze approach the desert nomads. They are a proud and independent Mohammedan sect, which for centuries separated Arabs and Syrians. Braves and feared, they live in great enmity with the Maronites of Lebanon. As for the inhabitants of the towns and villages of Syria, they form a mixture which entered all peoples, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Jews, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, Circassians, Crusaders, Turks, etc., have more or less occupied the country. The traveler must expect to meet the most varied types. Syrian cities are usually quite intelligent, but flexible, cunning and treacherous. They were already somewhat popular time of the Romans, who called them race born for servitude. Resigned to all dominations for so many centu- ries have weighed down on them, they have retained power for religious quarrels. For everything that does not touch the question of religion, resignation is very large, and they profess absolute submission to what looks like an authority. This resignation and submission beyond this that a European could imagine. I will give the idea by relating a fact related to M. de Vogue by a European who was in Syria at the time of the crackdown that followed the massacres of 1861. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs : books I and II. 79 “A European training officer, Turkish Service, told us the following fact of which he was an eyewitness. One of the many executioners were operating at that time was in the process of completing the task of the day; but the highlight is found placed too high and too low chair to reach it; a Muslim old man passed by, riding on a donkey and carrying a quarter of mutton; the executor of the Hautes works beckoned him to stop; he obeys, down from his mount and Cranes with resignation, believing his last hour had come when the executioner, realizing his mistake, made him understand that he has no business with him, but his ass. He grabbed the beast, it places the patient, passes a halter and whipped the donkey, which starts leaving his improvised rider suspended. – Glad to get off so cheaply, the Muslim old picks up his quarter of mutton, back on his donkey and galloped off. “But, I repeat, this resignation exists only for what does not touch the religious issues. The deepest tranquility has prevailed in Damascus during the recent unrest in Egypt, and I have often admired the ease with which groups many people let themselves violently shake and even hit by a single soldier seeking to room for any character, which was often a simple traveler. But I have heard repeated many times, both in Damascus has Jerusalem that any success Arabi would have been the signal for a general massacre of the Christians of Syria. These are the remains of a pusillanimity which truly ashamed. In 1861, they left massacred like sheep without even trying to defend himself, and it would have been exactly the same in 1882 if the massacres that everyone expected would again. Arabs of Egypt. Current Arabs of Egypt are the product of the crossing of indigenous peoples with the Arabs who invaded Egypt in 640, under Amru. Arab language and religion, they are actually more blood. Under anthropological laws cited above, the conquering element was soon drowned out by the more element conquered the one hand, and better adapted on the other, the terrible climate of Egypt. The intermediate elements soon disappeared, and today, despite its religion and language, Egypt sedentary Arabic and in fact the son of the ancient Egyptians of the time of the pyramids, as well as reveal his broad shoulders, his face with full lips, high cheekbones, and especially its resemblance to the characters engraved on the ancient monuments. The sedentary Arabs from the Nile are not only the son of the ancient Egyptians by the physiognomy. They also inherited their character. They form a population of a gentle and extremely polite. Resigned long to all easements she fears all teachers, especially Europeans. At a time when we in Cairo represented Upper Egypt as being in full insurrection and where newspapers only spoke of massacres, I could circulate completely alone in the middle of the inhabitants of the main villages along the Nile without ever being molested. The needs of the fellah are almost nil. The bare enough for him, and if we let him roughly what is strictly necessary, it is perfectly happy. He lives without concern for the future and without any sense of time or distance. When asked for specific information on things it should have experience many secular times, his invariable answer is: I do not know. The time it takes to go from Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 80 his village to another, the distance between them, he does not know and really has no interest in knowing. We also find among the Arabs of Egypt fundamental distinction in sedentary and nomads, as we have seen in Arabia and Syria. In Egypt, this distinction is even deeper than in other regions because it involves not only a complete difference of existence, but a difference of race. If the Arab cities ended, in fact, after crossing, turn into Egyptian, it is not the same nomads, who, because of their living conditions, could mix with themselves and must represent quite well with their nose slightly aquiline, their thin lips, their figure of an elongated oval, their fiery eyes, the kind of Arab nomads in Mahomet time. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 37 Figure # 15 Moroccan Beggars; from a photograph. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) These are the only fearsome warriors of Egypt and the only ones with whom the English would have been effective in their recent campaign if, as we have said many of time in the country, neutrality had not been dearly bought. Nomadic Arabs of Egypt pitch their tents in the desert sands that lie along the Nile, not far from its borders. They fear little the authorities and hardly come into relationship with the fellahin farmers for whom they profess the rest a considerable antipathy. The existence of these nomads is that of all the Arabs of the desert. In all climates, the nomadic Arab remains similar to itself. Apart from the Arabs, the people of Egypt contains very diverse elements: Turks, Copts, Syrians, Negroes, Greeks and Europeans, etc. ; but crosses of these various elements with the fellah are very rare. Moreover, the climate of Egypt is so deadly for the stranger, which is rarely cites foreign nationality person, including Turks, ever been able to reproduce beyond the second generation. Arabic is the only foreign people who has managed to strain in Egypt. Among the people of Egypt that I have just mentioned, Copts deserve special mention because if one can indeed see them as unmixed descendants of the ancient Egyptians, is still among them, however, that we Rencontres Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 81 be the more individuals resembling the figures of ancient tombs. They profess the Christian religion and have never mixed with the Arabs. are found mostly in the Upper Egypt and particularly in certain towns or villages such as Syout. Their language is very similar to that of the ancient Egyptians and it is through his study that Champollion happened, as we know, to explain the hieroglyphs. It is asserted in several works that the Coptic language is spoken today. I have heard several times, however, the Copts speak them. She even as many quite different dialects. They now write their language with Greek characters. It is generally estimated at 200,000 at most the number of existing Copts in Egypt, but several of them have told me that their number would exceed 500,000. The sad picture that due to their nature do not seemed very valid. What is certain is that they are well above their current instruction Arabs and especially the Turks. Religion prevents them from arriving at important places, but they fill in government jobs requiring more labor and intelligence. As for the Turks, who replaced politically Arabs in Egypt, their ethnographic influence has always been zero. Among 20,000 just today, they form an aristocracy that does not mix with the locals. Arabs of Africa – Outside of Egypt, is usually connected with the East, all the north of Africa is occupied by populations of religion if not always of Arab blood that exceed certain points the equator. They are made by Berbers, Arabs and Negroes more or less mixed. It is especially in Morocco that the mixture of negro blood hit me. It increases as we descend towards the equator. The Berbers of Africa are a very different population of Arabs. Intending to study it in detail in the chapter on the history of the Arabs in Africa, we do not have to deal with it now. Like other Arabs we talked about so far, those of Africa are divided into nomadic and sedentary; but nomadic and sedentary especially today represent the product of many complex mixtures. In coastal cities, the people we call the Arabs are the product of the mixture of all peoples: Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Greeks, Berbers, Arabs, Turks, Europeans, Negroes, who for centuries have met on this coastline and in these regions. I found on the coast of northern Africa all types one might imagine from the Negro of the Sudan and the Apollo Belvedere. So should we give up linking the Arabs of Algeria to a single type or even a half-dozen types as recently made an anthropologist who examined them in a very superficial way. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 82 The Arab of Algeria is in reality a true mestizo 1, and we should expect to find in him all the lower grades of Métis. Sedentary dwellers are products of the mixture of all the peoples mentioned above, degenerates produced by all dominions which weighed on them. Less mixed, and therefore much less degenerated, nomadic approach the true nomadic Arabs and other countries like them are refractory to civilization. Sedentary and nomadic, these populations have a common feeling: a deep hatred, not always unfounded, Europeans who dominate. The native, described as lazy, contemplative, little industrious, living from day to day, humble or arrogant according to circumstances, will sacrifice everything he owns and jeopardize his life in every insurgency to try to get rid of the invaders . Perhaps we will come to methodically destroying the Arab of Algeria by means similar to those used by the Americans to exterminate the Indians; But what seems to me absolutely certain is that Europeans will never manage to assimilate. Two races as different can never live in peace on the same floor. This is an opinion that is usually avoids recorded in the books, but I heard profess in Algeria by all conscientious observers. I share myself fully. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 40 Figure # 16 Moroccan Water Seller of Tangier; from a photograph. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Arabs of Spain.- All Arabs that we have just mentioned are still alive and their current representatives, although qu’altérés by various influences, allow us to form a sufficiently accurate idea of what their ancestors were. It is not the same for the Arabs of Spain. They disappeared completely, leaving no descendants to perpetuate their image through ages. We do not know what exactly was their type; but despite the lack of specific documents, we can say that this was soon differ from that of the first Arabs who invaded the country. Frequent crosses with Christian captives yours, the mixture on a large scale with the Berbers of Africa who had invaded Spain soon alter the primitive Arab model. Repeated for eight centuries, these crossings last result, according to anthropological laws outlined at the beginning of this chapter, the formation of a new breed whose 1 Next MM. Carthez, about two million five hundred thousand Muslims from Algeria (Arabs, Turks, Berbers), there would be two hundred thousand pure Arabs. The most numerous race consists of Berbers or Kabyles, who number one million four hundred thousand. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 83 representatives were to differ materially primitive invaders. The products of Arab civilization of Spain show that this race shone by his high intelligence, and history proves that she also shone by his chivalrous character and bravery; but infighting that were the real cause of his end also show that certain fundamental characteristics of the Arab character had remained at home. Unable to judge the Arabs of Spain by their civilization and history, is the chapters on this civilization and this story I refer the reader. China Arabs. – As soon as the Arabian empire was formed, the Caliphs of the East and China’s rulers frequently sent ambassadors and as we shall see in another part of this work, trade relations with China Arabs s ‘established regular routes of land and sea. as in all countries where Arabs enter, Islamism soon made rapid progress in China and today there would count twenty million Muslims after the recent book Mr. Dabry of Thiersant on Mohammedanism in China. These Muslims are not, of course, exclusively Arab but simply mixtures of Arab blood. They would form, according to the author that I have just mentioned, a breed apart resulting from the mixture of the three bloods Arabic, Turkish and Chinese.According to him “the nucleus of the Mohammedans of the West located in China was a contingent of four miles Arab soldiers that the Caliph Abu Giafar sent in the year 755 to the aid of the emperor Su Tsung-threatened by the rebel An-Leshan and to reward them for their services allowed them to settle in the main cities of the empire. These soldiers, who married Chinese women, can be considered as the strain of Chinese Mohammedans. “After quoting Anderson said their opinion that honesty is above comment and provides examples of curious, the author adds his own observations:” They are driven generally by a large spirit of uprightness and honesty. Those in public office are loved and valued the people and those who engage in trading have an excellent reputation. They are charitable by religious principle, and seem to form one big family whose members protect themselves and support each other. “This proves above all their superiority is that despite their original sin, through the adroit concessions they were able to the requirements of their adopted country, thanks also to the religious brotherhood of bond between them all between them, they were able to grow and develop while other foreign religions that wanted to operate in China have so far only pass or vegetate. “The tolerance of Chinese Muslims, their liberal spirit, their care not to injure, as the missionaries of other religions, customs, laws and beliefs of the country where they received hospitality are they exactly enjoy the same privileges as the other Chinese. They can be mandarins, holding positions in the army and to near the emperor. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 84 I had to insist in this chapter on issues still much neglected by historians and who are the most worthy of meditation, because their single study can illuminate the chain of events in history. Among the various factors that contribute to determine the evolution of a people, the intellectual and moral abilities of his race will still be the most powerful. This set of unconscious feelings we call the character and who are the real reasons for the conduct, the man has when it comes to light. Formed by the succession of very forefathers who preceded him, they weigh on him a weight at which nothing can escape it. The dust in their entire people dead imperatively dictates his conduct. It is in times past that were elaborated the reasons for our actions and in the present time are preparing those generations who follow us. Slave to the past, this is the master of the future. The study of one will always be essential to the knowledge of the other. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 85 Gustave Le Bon, The civilization of the Arabs (1884) Book One: The middle and race Chapter III 1. The Arabs before Muhammad – Alleged barbaric Arabs before Muhammad Back to Table of Contents is generally accepted that the Arabs before Muhammad n ‘had no history. Compounds of wandering tribes without traditions or homes, they would have for centuries led a half-wild life, and nothing would have remained in their memory in the minds of men. Such opinion is professed today by spirits very distinguished. I find the proof in the following passage of the illustrious author of the history of Semitic languages “Until this extraordinary movement that shows us all the Arab race in conquering and creative shot, Saudi has no place in the political, intellectual, religious world. It has no antiquity. She is so young in history as the sixth century is the heroic age, and the first centuries of our era it belongs to the pre-historic darkness. “Even if we would know nothing of the history of Arabs, we could say in advance that the above opinion is erroneous. It is the civilization of a people as its language.The one and the other can appear suddenly in Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 86 history, but they were always the foundations of which the development was necessarily very slow. The development of individuals, peoples, institutions and beliefs is always gradual. A higher force may only be achieved when the whole series of intermediate forms were successively crossed. When people appeared in history with an advanced civilization, one can surely say that this civilization is the fruit of a long past. The past is often ignored us, but it still exists, and the investigations of science most often end up in the highlight. This is the civilization of the Arabs before Muhammad. Exactly today what was this civilization would be difficult, but the documents that we have enough to show that it existed and that it was not less perhaps these ancient civilizations of Assyria and Babylonia, ignored for so long, but modern archeology reconstitutes now. Current ideas about the barbarism of Arabs before Muhammad are not only the result of the half-silence of history, but the confusion is generally made between nomadic Arabs, desert dwellers, and sedentary Arabs, residents cities.Before and after Muhammad, nomads have remained half-wild populations, having possessed, like all savages, neither civilization nor history. But these nomadic Arabs are only one of the two branches of the Arab race: side of them are sedentary Arabs, knowing agriculture and living in cities. Now it is easy to prove that these Arab cities formerly possessed a civilization which we know the details, but we can sense the magnitude. The story did not remain silent as the ancient culture of the Arabs as it was to other civilizations that modern science sees the dust out with astonishment; but would she keep complete silence, we could ensure that Arab civilization was long before Muhammad. It would have been enough to remember, that at the time of the Prophet, the Arabs already had a literature and a highly developed language and were for more than 2000 years in trade relations with the most civilized nations of the world, and succeeded in less than a hundred years to create one of the most brilliant civilizations of which the centuries have kept the memory. However, a literature and language can not be improvised, and their existence is proof of a long past. The long-standing relations with the most civilized nations always end up driving to civilization the peoples who are likely; and Arabs have sufficiently proved that this was their case. To have finally managed to create in less than a century a vast empire and a new civilization, he had skills that are always the result of slow hereditary accumulations, and consequently a long previous crop. It is not with the Redskins or Australians that Muhammad’s successors had created these brilliant mentioned that for eight centuries were the only science centers, letters and the arts in Asia and Europe. Many other peoples that Arabs overthrew great empires, but they were not based civilization, and lack of sufficient previous crop, they have benefited as well later civilization of the peoples they had conquered. It took long centuries of efforts to barbarians who captured the Roman Empire for Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 87 will create a civilization with the remnants of the Latin civilization and out of the night of the Middle Ages. Before trying to find out, using the weak material we possé- gifts, what was the civilization of the Arabs before Muhammad, let’s quickly summarize what we know of their history. 2. – History of Arabic before Muhammad Back to Table of Contents The Arabs had, like all peoples, a prehistoric period. The study of the fragments of weapons, instruments, from Books I and II. 86 history, but they were always the foundations of which the development was necessarily very slow. The development of individuals, peoples, institutions and beliefs is always gradual. A higher force may only be achieved when the whole series of intermediate forms were successively crossed.When people appeared in history with an advanced civilization, one can surely say that this civilization is the fruit of a long past. The past is often ignored us, but it still exists, and the investigations of science most often end up in the highlight. This is the civilization of the Arabs before Muhammad. Exactly today what was this civilization would be difficult, but the documents that we have enough to show that it existed and that it was not less perhaps these ancient civilizations of Assyria and Babylonia, ignored for so long, but modern archeology reconstitutes now. Current ideas about the barbarism of Arabs before Muhammad are not only the result of the half-silence of history, but the confusion is generally made between nomadic Arabs, desert dwellers, and sedentary Arabs, residents cities. Before and after Muhammad, nomads have remained half-wild populations, having possessed, like all savages, neither civilization nor history. But these nomadic Arabs are only one of the two branches of the Arab race: side of them are sedentary Arabs, knowing agriculture and living in cities. Now it is easy to prove that these Arab cities formerly possessed a civilization which we know the details, but we can sense the magnitude. The story did not remain silent as the ancient culture of the Arabs as it was to other civilizations that modern science sees the dust out with astonishment; but would she keep complete silence, we could ensure that Arab civilization was long before Muhammad.It would have been enough to remember, that at the time of the Prophet, the Arabs already had a literature and a highly developed language and were for more than 2000 years in trade relations with the most civilized nations of the world, and succeeded in less than a hundred years to create one of the most brilliant civilizations of which the centuries have kept the memory. However, a literature and language can not be improvised, and their existence is proof of a long past. The long-standing relations with the most civilized nations always end up driving to civilization the peoples who are likely; and Arabs have sufficiently proved that this was their case. To have finally managed to create in less than a century a vast empire and a new civilization, he had skills that are always the result of slow hereditary accumulations, and consequently a long previous crop. It is not with the Redskins or Australians that Muhammad’s successors had created these brilliant mentioned that for eight centuries were the only science centers, letters and the arts in Asia and Europe. Many other peoples that Arabs overthrew great empires, but they were not based civilization, and lack of sufficient previous crop, they have benefited as well later civilization of the peoples they had conquered. It took long centuries of efforts to barbarians who captured the Roman Empire for Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 87 will create a civilization with the remnants of the Latin civilization and out of the night of the Middle Ages. Before trying to find out, using the weak material we possé- gifts, what was the civilization of the Arabs before Muhammad, let’s quickly summarize what we know of their history. 2. – History of Arabic before Muhammad Back to Table of Contents The Arabs had, like all peoples, a prehistoric period. The study of the fragments of weapons, instruments, from Books I and II. 86 history, but they were always the foundations of which the development was necessarily very slow. The development of individuals, peoples, institutions and beliefs is always gradual. A higher force may only be achieved when the whole series of intermediate forms were successively crossed. When people appeared in history with an advanced civilization, one can surely say that this civilization is the fruit of a long past. The past is often ignored us, but it still exists, and the investigations of science most often end up in the highlight. This is the civilization of the Arabs before Muhammad. Exactly today what was this civilization would be difficult, but the documents that we have enough to show that it existed and that it was not less perhaps these ancient civilizations of Assyria and Babylonia, ignored for so long, but modern archeology reconstitutes now. Current ideas about the barbarism of Arabs before Muhammad are not only the result of the half-silence of history, but the confusion is generally made between nomadic Arabs, desert dwellers, and sedentary Arabs, residents cities. Before and after Muhammad, nomads have remained half-wild populations, having possessed, like all savages, neither civilization nor history. But these nomadic Arabs are only one of the two branches of the Arab race: side of them are sedentary Arabs, knowing agriculture and living in cities. Now it is easy to prove that these Arab cities formerly possessed a civilization which we know the details, but we can sense the magnitude. The story did not remain silent as the ancient culture of the Arabs as it was to other civilizations that modern science sees the dust out with astonishment; but would she keep complete silence, we could ensure that Arab civilization was long before Muhammad. It would have been enough to remember, that at the time of the Prophet, the Arabs already had a literature and a highly developed language and were for more than 2000 years in trade relations with the most civilized nations of the world, and succeeded in less than a hundred years to create one of the most brilliant civilizations of which the centuries have kept the memory. However, a literature and language can not be improvised, and their existence is proof of a long past. The long-standing relations with the most civilized nations always end up driving to civilization the peoples who are likely; and Arabs have sufficiently proved that this was their case. To have finally managed to create in less than a century a vast empire and a new civilization, he had skills that are always the result of slow hereditary accumulations, and consequently a long previous crop. It is not with the Redskins or Australians that Muhammad’s successors had created these brilliant mentioned that for eight centuries were the only science centers, letters and the arts in Asia and Europe. Many other peoples that Arabs overthrew great empires, but they were not based civilization, and lack of sufficient previous crop, they have benefited as well later civilization of the peoples they had conquered. It took long centuries of efforts to barbarians who captured the Roman Empire for Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 87 will create a civilization with the remnants of the Latin civilization and out of the night of the Middle Ages. Before trying to find out, using the weak material we possé- gifts, what was the civilization of the Arabs before Muhammad, let’s quickly summarize what we know of their history. 2. – History of Arabic before Muhammad Back to Table of Contents The Arabs had, like all peoples, a prehistoric period. The study of the fragments of weapons, instruments, fromleft to die in geological strata of the globe by our primitive ancestors, proves that, many centuries before the short duration of time which handles the story and for a period which can not quantify that by millions of years, the man ignored metals, agriculture, the art of making pets, and had only fragments of flint for weapons.We gave this early period the name “the chipped stone age,” and wherever prehistoric archeology focused his research in Arabia and Europe and America, she found traces of that distant time. The remains found in geological layers of soil have shown that this Stone Age presents the greatest analogies of different peoples. With these elements, it was easy to reconstruct the lives and even the intellectual state of our earliest ancestors. It is work that we did in our previous book, on which it would be useless to come back here. The oldest traditions of the Arabs do not go back beyond Abraham, but the language proves that at a time much earlier, all these vast regions between the Caucasus and southern Arabia were inhabited by an otherwise same race, at least by people speaking the same language. The study of languages called Semitic indeed demonstrates that Hebrew, Phoenician, Syriac, Assyrian, Chaldean and Arabic have a close relationship and therefore a common origin. We do not know what were the influences of environments and living conditions which determined the differentiation of peoples from the primitive race of which we have spoken, and we can therefore than indicate their relationship with the Arabs, the only ones we will occupy us now. The sources of the history of the Arabs before Muhammad are the books of Hebrews, the traditions of the Arabs, the few documents left by some Greek and Latin historians and a small number of entries such as the Assyrian inscriptions or those discovered near Damascus in Safa. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. The 88 books of the Hebrews recognize their kinship with the Arabs, and consider these as older people themselves. Their infighting lasted a long time, and in the Bible, there is much talk of the Amalekites and Midianites in the Sinai Peninsula, and the Sabians of southern Arabia. Following the traditions of the Arabs, obviously borrowed from Jewish sources, or Kachtan Jectan, race of Shem, and Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar her Egyptian maid, would be the source of both races who originally populated the peninsula: sedentary to the south, the nomads to the north. Established in Yemen, the son of Jectan founded there the Sabean dynasty and dynasty hémyarique. The son of Ishmael settled the borders of Palestine to the Hejaz. They were the first masters of the territory of Mecca, who disputed a long time in Sana, Yemen’s main city, as the capital of Arabia. The Nabateans, the Edomites, Moabites, Amalekites, Ammonites, Midianites, many tribes, whose names recur frequently in the Bible, are the descendants of Ishmael. These are probably the Amalekites which, combined with Syrian nomads invaded Egypt 2000 BC and, as the pastors kings, there maintained their domination for centuries. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 45 Figure # 17 nomadic desert Arabs of Syria; from a photograph. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) The Amalekites, the Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites eventually concentrate in Saudi Arabia Petraea and deserted. Always at war with the Hebrews, they opposed for a long time as they enter the land of Canaan. They were finally submitted, and only for a short time, as David and Solomon.But the stories of the Bible do we not know that nomadic Arabs of the borders of Palestine, and they do not give us any information on sedentary Arabs from Yemen. They are limited indeed to talk about the visit of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon. The Assyrian inscriptions we often speak of the Arabs, but only the Arabs of the north, that is to say, those of Syria and the neighboring regions. Arabs Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II.89 are already mentioned in an earlier Shalmaneser II text nine centuries AD Eight centuries before AD Taglatphanassar II receives the homage of two Arab queens. Hassar Haddon puts on a throne high Arab princess in the court of Nineveh. Under Ashurbanipal, the revolt of a king’s brother is supported by Arab armies. Arab columnists are the only ones who speak with some details of the most southern parts of Arabia; but their stories are filled with darkness and exaggerations that make it difficult to have recourse. However, they can be used to confirm that the Greek and Latin authors tell us of the power of Yemen. Next Arab narratives, this province was the seat of the most powerful of all empires. Its kings have reigned for 3,000 years and sent ence conditions in India, China and Africa to the regions that now make Morocco. What we know of a sketchy history of Arabia, or at least small portions of Arabia by Greek and Latin authors do not back before Alexander, and can be summarized in a few lines. Known to the Greeks more than four centuries BC, the wealth of the Arabs had determined Alexander to attempt the conquest of Arabia and shipping Nearchus around the peninsula have been the harbinger of next execution a plan that death came interrupt. When sharing the empire of Alexander, the neighboring regions of the borders of Egypt and Palestine, inhabited by Arabs, fell into the hands of Ptolemy. The Nabateans sided with Ptolemy against Antigone. When he was master of Syria and Phoenicia, he sent against them one of his best generals, who, after seizing Petra by surprise, had his army of 4600 men completely destroyed. Antigonus then sent against them his son Demetrius. When the latter arrived in Petra, Arabs, according to Diodorus, he held this language: “King Demetrius, why we do you war, we who inhabit the desert where there is nothing of what is needed the peaceful life of the inhabitants of a city? This is because we are determined to escape slavery we sought refuge in the middle of a private land of all resources. Therefore agree to accept the gifts we offer you to withdraw your army, and be sure you now get in Nabatheans of true friends. What if you wanted to extend the seat, you soon would feel the privations of every kind, and you could never force us to lead a lifestyle different from what we’re used to our childhood. If, at most, you manage to make us some prisoners, you would find only in them as slaves discouraged, and unable to live in other institutions as ours. “Happy to end with peace war he foresaw full of difficulties, Demetrius received the present and retired. Until the Christian era, the desert tribes sided with the Egyptians sometimes, sometimes for Syrians in the many wars that devastated those countries. Their incursions and depredations provoked the wrath of the Roman emperors, whose empire extended to the Euphrates. They sent several expeditions against the inhabitants of Arabia Petraea, but no other result than paying tribute passengers or the temporary suspension of hostilities. These nomads were fighting then as they are today, harassing the enemy by unexpected attacks, and escaping into the desert as soon as they were pursued. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 90 Desiring to possess these riches that, for centuries, inflamed the imagination of the Greeks and Romans, Augustus sent an expedition in Yemen, but failed completely. It was only under Tiberius that the Romans managed to conquer for a while this little corner of Arabia, almost entirely inhabited by nomads, which forms the Sinai Peninsula. The ancient Arab city of Petra then became a beautiful Roman city whose ruins still exist today. The Arabs were mixed several times to the wars of the Romans with Persia; an Arab named Philip even became Roman Emperor in 244. They were seen threatening a moment Asia Minor, but the destruction of Palmyra by Aurelian (272) away from the region, and Syria became a Roman province governed in part by Arab rulers, said Ghassanids under the protection of the emperors. When the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople, the Arabs fought over the Persians and Greeks possession of the Euphrates.came the tribes of Yemen had already invaded that country for a long time, and based in the southern Babylonia, on the banks of the Euphrates (195 AD), with the modern Kufa, the famous city ‘Hira, whose rulers rivaled by their luxury with the monarchs of Persia and Constantinople: “its palaces were adorned with the most precious furniture, gardens of the rarest flowers. The Euphrates, crossed elegant boats, reflected during the night the thousand lights of the boats filled with rich lords and skilful musicians. The Arabs have used all the resources of their imagination to tell the wonders of the enchanted palaces, then became the most beautiful and safe homes of the East. “The kingdom of Hira lasted 400 years, which is a respectable time for an empire; but his story is little known; We know, however, that 605, it fell under the domination of the Sassanids and became a Persian satrapy. It was, however, not for long, because Muhammad was about to appear on the world stage, and the Persian empire was soon to be conquered by his successors. The foregoing summary shows that, except on its northern border, Saudi escaped all invasions. All great conquerors Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Persians, etc., that had ravaged the world have had nothing against it. The vast peninsula was still closed.But when Muhammad appeared, she was threatened with formidable invasions. The year 525 AD, the Yemen, which had hitherto obeyed that Arab rulers had been invaded by the Abyssinians, who tried to propagate Christianity and managed to convert several tribes. In 597, that is to say, very shortly before Muhammad, they were driven by the Persians, who established viceroys. The latter ruled over Yemen, Hadramaut and Oman until the arrival of the prophet. This very fleeting domination never understood the vast region from the rest of Nejd or the Hejaz, and we can say that in all civilized countries of the world, Saudi is perhaps the only one the biggest party ever known to foreign domination. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 3. 91 – Civilization of Arabia before Muhammad Back to Table of Contents The biblical writers we often speak of trade Arabs, towns they had, including Saba in Yemen; but that the information they give us reveal the existence of major cities to a very early period, they provide us any documents on them. About four hundred years BC, Herodotus speaks of Arabia Felix as the richest region of the globe. In Marib, the ancient Saba Bible, there were, according to him, rich palaces adorned with gilded porticos filled with gold and silver vessels and couches precious metal. Strabo gives us similar information. Speaking after Artémidor, he tells us that this city of Mareb was a wonderful city. The roof of the palace was adorned with gold, ivory and precious stones. Furniture and elaborately carved vases embellished the mansions. Next Eratosthenes, houses, according to how the structure was assembled, similar to those of the Egyptians. The old Arab chronicles are consistent with information provided by classical authors. All are unanimous in praising the wealth of Yemen: “It showed, Masoudi said about the country of Mareb, beautiful buildings, beautiful trees, channelising many, rivers that traversed it in every direction. Such was the state of that country, which had length and width extent that could go in a month’s time a good rider. A traveler, whether on foot or on horseback, could follow the whole route from one end to the other without feeling the heat of the sun; there was everywhere a dense shade that never left him;because trees whose culture was the wealth of this country, covered all this land and made him a continual shelter. The people enjoyed all the comforts of life they had in abundance every means of subsistence; fertile soil, clean air, clear skies, the many sources of water, a great power, a much strengthened rule an empire at the highest point of prosperity, all contributed to make their country a stay whose benefits were past proverb. They were also distinguished by the nobility of their conduct and by the eagerness with which they welcomed with all their power, and according to their faculties, all foreigners who come to their country and all travelers. This state of prosperity lasted as long as it has pleased God; no king resisted them that was not defeated; no tyrant marched against them with his army that was routed; all regions were submitted to them, all men recognize their laws; they were like the diadem on the forehead of the universe. “Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 92 The prosperity of this part of Yemen held, it seems, the famous dikes Mareb, built, according to the Arab authors, by a queen named Balkis, and they assume to have been the same one who visited Solomon. Placed at the entrance of a narrow valley formed by high mountains between which flowed a rapid torrent, they transformed the valley into a huge lake which was then used to irrigate the land. Their destruction, which took place around the first century of the Christian era, brought the depopulation of the country. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 48 board colors # 2 bronze inlaid table Sultan Mohammed Ben Kalaoum silver, XIII century (Arab Museum of Cairo) From a photograph and a watercolor of Dr. Gustave Le Bon downloaded from the website: the classics of social sciences, section classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): the civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) The foregoing documents are consistent enough with each other to prove that Yemen was also the seat of flourishing cities probably those of ancient Egypt, and possessing a civilization advanced. Their ruins now sleep in the dust, waiting, like those of Nineveh and Babylon have waited for a long time, an explorer. The luxury of the great cities of Yemen We still indicated by the length and extent of their trade relations. It would be difficult indeed to cite a people in history have had important trade and no civilization. But the relations of Arabs stretched to the limits of the known world and lasted for a very early period, since it is already in the Bible. Genuine commercial warehouses in the world for over 2000 years they have played the role of Venice in the days of its glory. This is indeed the Arabs that throughout classical antiquity, Europe was in touch with remote areas of Asia. Trade Arabs included not only objects of Arabia, but also those they received from Africa and India. He wore mostly on luxury items: ivory, spices, perfumes, precious stones, gold powder, slaves, etc. He was held for a long time through the Phoenicians, whose language was very similar to that of the Arabs. The products made by them had to concentrate in large Cities of Phoenicia, such as Tyre, from where they were then shipped outside. In their trade of products from India, the Arabs had no competitors to the Babylonians. These were relations with India through the land route or the Gulf. Babylon, the goods arrived by caravan in Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 93 Syria, where they were directed to the rest of the world. These caravans met in these long journeys major store cities of Heliopolis and Palmyra, the traveler today admire the imposing ruins lost in the desert, and finally the great city of Damascus. With such business, repeated for centuries, it is understandable that could be used to the big cities of Arabia, and especially those of Yemen. Enriched by a secular trade, they knew all the products of the most refined luxury, and it is clear that the Greek, Latin and Arab authors were unanimous in extolling the wonderful splendor of these large cities. It was not only elsewhere in Yemen that shone civilization of the Arabs before Muhammad. The details left by the ancient chronicles of the kingdoms of Hira and Ghassan prove how future followers of the Prophet were likely to civilization. We have already spoken of this city of Hira, so celebrated by the Arabs and that rivaled by its luxury with the capital of Persia and Constantinople. The kingdom of Ghassan, as important as that of Hira, was founded shortly AD by Arabs came from Yemen and lasted five hundred years. According to historians, it would have possessed sixty fortified cities. The discoveries of modern archeology have proven the greatness of its civilization by the importance of monuments and different covered Sabaean inscriptions of the Roman style, discovered to his old capital Bosra, on the borders of Syria. It also found the pipeline remains that prove the ability of its people to perform truly gigantic works. However, note that in the kingdoms of Hira and Ghassan, Arabs having been in contact with the Persians and the Romans their civilization had to be significantly influenced by this contact abroad. He could not be the case in Yemen whose development had to be strong predates that of the Romans. It is in this province it would be important to study the remains of the ancient Arab civilization. It is unfortunate that archeology has not yet penetrated into this region. Currently we are not better informed of the oldest cities in Yemen than we were a few years ago on those of Assyria then buried under the desert sands. More indication however allows us to ensure that the research we can do will be fertile. Mr Halevy, who traveled Yemen ago few years, but without being able to make excavations, speaks of gold and silver that Arabs often find in the ruins, and he himself found near Haram, near Sana, steles loaded with ancient inscriptions and the front door in sandstone slabs of a Sabaean temple covered with drawings of plants and animals. Mr. Schlumberger could, in turn, buy recently in Constantinople a collection of two hundred pieces of ancient kings of Yemen currencies a little earlier than AD, discovered by an Arab Sana. These pieces that were once extremely rare, since we knew only two or three in all the museums of Europe have very curious peculiarities. The type engraved on one of their faces is a royal personage in profile, his head covered with a tiara. The hair braided cords exactly remember the hairstyles of the Hyksos, kings or shepherds came from Arabia, who ruled Egypt for a long time and on which Mr. Mariette discovered statues contained in the Gizeh Museum today. On the other side of the coin shows an owl. The artist seems to have taken to model the widespread Greek coins then in all Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 94 Mediterranean peoples with whom the Arabs were frequent trade relations. Although strong enough, archaeological indications that completely foregoing tent useful information that we have learned of the ancient authors, and give us a glimpse into the past of Arabia a brilliant civilization, forgotten today, and still waiting his history. From what little we know, we can certainly conclude that we should not consider it as a horde of barbarians a people who, centuries before the Romans had appeared on the world stage was building great cities and was in relationship with the most important nations of the world. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 51 Figure # 18 Bedouin women in the desert of Syria; from a photograph.downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) 4. – The ancient religions of Arabia Back to Table of Contents Before Mohomet, the various Arab tribes had very different cults, among which the most common were those of the sun and major stars. They had borrowed from the peoples with whom they were in trade relations many of their deities. As their Pantheon was it as populous as Olympus Greco-Roman. Earlier Assyrian inscriptions from seven to eight centuries BC, and those of Safa prove that a much earlier period the Arabs were polytheists and raised statues to their gods.Here, for example, that says an Assyrian inscription recounting the return of Hassar-haddon an expedition in the desert Arabia. “The Arab king X. went with many gifts to Nineveh, city of my domination: he kissed my feet. He asked me to return his gods; I felt sorry for Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 95 him. I did repair the statues of the gods; I did register praise of Ashur, my lord, with my signature and I returned it. Tabua, Arabian princess who had been raised in my palace, I coated the Queen of dignity and I sent home with his gods. “The unit however germs exist among the varied faiths of Arabia, and it is by developing the Muhammad could do the work of unification he had undertaken. There was, in Arabia, a temple, called the Kaaba, founded, according to Arab tradition, Abraham, who was revered by all peoples of the peninsula where there was a place of very ancient pilgrimage. This was the real pantheon of gods of Arabia and when Muhammad appeared, it contained statues or images of three hundred sixty gods, among which, according to the testimony of several Arab authors, including Haraivi, included Jesus Christ and Virgin Mary. All the peoples of Arabia put their fame to adorn the Kaaba, and for Jews themselves it was a very revered place. The guard of the temple was entrusted to the Arab tribe of Koreishites, which for this reason had a religious authority recognized throughout Arabia. Many Arabs, even those outside enough of practicing Christianity or Judaism in the time of Muhammad, worshiped one god. Ceuxlà called themselves of Hanyfes, under which Muhammad loved to adorn themselves. Not only they admitted one God, which is a fundamental principle of the Qur’an, but they taught, which is also another fundamental principle of the same book, that man must submit a so absolutely to the will God when Abraham was about to sacrifice his son Isaac. It is not without reason that Muhammad was able to say in the Qur’an that there were Muslims before him. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 53 Figure # 19 cameleers of Arabia Petraea. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) This concentration of all the gods of Arabia to the Kaaba in Mecca made possible the fusion of all these religions into one. This merger was further facilitated by the fact that all these worshipers of various gods spoke the same language. When all the Arabs could be united in a belief even happened. This is what Muhammad understood, and that’s how he knew who did understand his strength. Far from thinking of founding a new religion, as is sometimes repeated, he merely preach that God was the only one of the same founder of the Kaaba, that all Arabia worshiped, that is to say, the God Abraham. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 96 When Muhammad appeared, a general trend towards political and religious unity manifested by the many signs. The same movement, which had once produced against the pagan deities to the time of the Roman emperors, also occurred in Arabia. The ancient beliefs lost their empire, and the idols of their prestige. They were too old; and the gods themselves are not old. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 54 Figure # 19a Agate.downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) End Book I: “The medium and race” Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 97 Gustave Le Bon, The civilization of the Arabs (1884) second book Origins of the power of the Arabs Back to the Table of Contents Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 98 Gustave Le Bon, The civilization of the Arabs (1884) Book II: Origins of the power of the Arabs Muhammad Chapter I – Birth of the Arab empire 1. – Mohammed Youth Back to Table of Contents August 27, the year 570 of the Christian era Muhammad was born in Mecca. Adballah his father died two months before his birth, was the son of one of the priests of the famous temple of the Kaaba; his mother, Amina, was the daughter of a tribal chief. The Arabs are pleased wonders accompany the birth of a great man. The world was moved, according to them, the appearance of the future prophet.The sacred fire was extinguished at the Magi; the evil geniuses were cast down from the stars.Fourteen towers of the palace of Chosroes the “king of kings” collapsed noisily, as if to announce the near destruction of the gigantic empire of the Persians. Muhammad was first nourished by his mother, and then, following a custom that still meets today sent a nomadic desert tribe. He remained there until the age of three years. Frightened, according to tradition, by the signs that accompanied his presence, his adoptive parents would no longer keep him.Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 99 He was barely out of infancy when his mother died, leaving him to the care of his grandfather Abd-el-Mottatib care that overwhelmed him. But the beneficent geniuses, who were driving so far Mohammed, seemed to want to build on his early years all the evils usually staggered over the course of life.His grandfather died two years after Amina. Raised by his uncle, always traveling merchant, Muhammad soon had no other protector than himself. Tradition says that during one of his trips to Syria, the uncle of the future prophet took it with him, and that Mohammed had knowledge in a Christian monastery in Bosra, a Nestorian monk who introduced him to the knowledge of Old Testament. Around the age of 20, Muhammad took part in a fight that took place between the Koreishites and another tribe. It ensures that there already revealed the military talents he had delayed. His reputation was excellent. His benevolence and sincerity had given it by Koreishites the nickname el Amin, that is to say the faithful. That reputation, combined probably also physical advantages he had, conquered him at the age of twenty-five years the benevolence of a wealthy widow named Khadija, who commissioned him to his business affairs. They provided him the opportunity to return to Syria, and to review the monk who had initiated the knowledge of the Old Testament. Upon his return, he married the wealthy widow, though she was forty, and it only twenty-five. This was his first wife, and not others took as she lived. The chronicle says nothing of the fifteen years following the first marriage of Muhammad. We assume, free enough from the rest, it was developing the dogmas of the future religion which he was to be the leader. However, he showed no reluctance to accept the national religion, and nothing indicates that he was considering the overthrow. 2. – Sermons Muhammad Back to Table of Contents It is only at the age of forty Muhammad spoke for the first time in his mission. Following an annual pension he was on Mount Harra three miles from Mecca, he went to his wife Khadija, Figure troubled, and held him, according to the Arab historians, this language: “This night I was wandering on the mountain when the voice of the angel Gabriel came knocking my ears: “in the name of thy lord, who created man and who just teach men what they ignore, Muhammad, you are the prophet of God and I am Gabriel! “These are the words of God, and that moment I felt in me the prophetic power. “Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 100 docile wife, Khadijah did not hesitate to believe in the prophetic mission of her husband, and went to inform a cousin named Waraka, who passed for a very learned man. Waraka said that if what he was told was true, Muhammad saw the angel appear that once went to Moses, and was intended to be the prophet and lawgiver Arabs. Satisfied with this support, Muhammad showed his joy by making seven times around the Kaaba, and then he went home, and since then, following Aboulfeda, revelations never stopped succeed. For three years, Muhammad was preaching that to his relatives, usually influential people by their age and position. When he was sure of their support, he publicly announced his mission and began to fight polytheism, whose focus was, as we have seen, the temple of the Kaaba, the sacred asylum of all the gods of Saudi. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 57 Figure # 20 View of Medina; from a photograph. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) The first attempts of the Prophet were not happy: they led to do ridicule. But in Koreishites, keepers of the Kaaba, the mockery soon turned into rage, and death threatened Mohammed and his followers. Muhammad was not to be put off by these early difficulties. Next Aboulfeda, when he declared that even his enemies “would place the sun on his right and the moon on his left,” he would not abandon his work. The Koreishites thought of for a long time to bring to the violence against the Prophet, but from the Arab manners, all members of a family to be protection, touch Mohammed had been incurring infallible retaliation from his many parents.Muhammad was thus able to continue his preaching for some time and make some new converts without being too worried. But these new converts, does not have the same protection as their master, were soon forced to migrate to Abyssinia. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 101 Arab historians assure that when the King of Abyssinia asked them about the new religion, Djafa, Muhammad’s cousin, replied: “We were in the darkness of ignorance; we worship idols. Delivered to all our passions, we knew that law of the strongest, when God raised up among us a man of our race illustrious by birth, long respected for his virtues. This apostle taught us to profess the unity of God, to reject the superstitions of our fathers, to despise gods of wood and stone. He ordered us to flee vice, to be sincere in our speech, true to our commitments, loving and beneficial to our parents and our neighbors. He defended us to attack the honor of women, to rob orphans. He recommended prayer, almsgiving and fasting. We believed in his mission; we accepted dogma and morality that brought us from God. “Muhammad bore all persecutions with great gentleness, and his eloquence attracted him every day new disciples. To ensure some peace, he retired to his uncle, Abu Taleb, very influential person. There were ten years that Muhammad preached his doctrine, and he had already reached the age of fifty, when he made two very serious losses for him: one, that of the uncle who protected him, the another, that of his wife Khadija, whose parents were also very influential. Unable to resist only to his enemies, the prophet left Mecca and went to Taif, a neighboring town, but when he stood before the people of this town to defend the truth of his mission, they refused to listen, and he had to withdraw. A special circumstance came to lean toward Muhammad fortune which had hitherto smiled weakly. He had taken advantage of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca to preach his doctrine to the tribes of Yemen, jealous of the inhabitants of that city, and which, according to their traditions, were expecting a prophet. Attracted by his word, they readily believed he was the expected prophet and spoke with enthusiasm the people of Yathrib, also very jealous of Mecca. Several of them went in deputation to him to hear the presentation of his doctrine. Nothing was simpler and clearer than this statement: believing in one God and in another life where the wicked are punished and the good rewarded. Absolutely obey the will of God, pray morning and evening, after purified by ablutions. Practice all the virtues. Recognize Muhammad as the messenger of the Lord and obey him. Seduced by this doctrine, sent adopted it, swore allegiance to the Prophet, and left for the spread. When Koreishites learned that Muhammad had found new affiliates, they were exasperated. These guardians of the sanctuary, evidently could not tolerate any new religion can harm their interests. They met and decided the death of the prophet.Muhammad learned that the plot when the conspirators surrounded his house. He could, however, to slip out of the darkness, and, having thwarted all prosecutions, successful, with his friend Abu Bakr, to reach Yathrib, which since that time, was named Medina. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 102 The flight of the prophet, or Hegira, the Arabs became for the date of counting the years. It’s the day of the leak (year 622 AD, and 1 of the Hegira) dates that their era. 3. – since Muhammad AH Back to Table of Contents The entrance of the Prophet in Medina was a triumph; his disciples overshadowed his palm branches head and the people rushed in crowds beneath his feet. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 59 Figure # 21 pilgrims camp on the outskirts of Medina; according to instant photography. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Upon his arrival in Medina, Muhammad began to organize the worship he founded. The Quran, which was still in draft form, would be gradually completed by the frequent revelations that Heaven sent the prophet in all difficult circumstances; but the basic principles of the new religion were already laid. He instituted succession practices of Islamism: the repeated prayer five times a day to calls made from the mosque by the voices of muezzins; Ramadan fasting is to say, complete abstinence from all food from sunrise to sunset for a month, and finally the tithe, so every Muslim contributes to the expenses of religion which had just been founded. Just arrived in Medina, the Prophet had to direct either personally or through his followers, several skirmishes. The first serious battle was that of Badr in the second year of the Hegira. The army of his opponents were two thousand, that of Mohammed three to one hundred and fourteen fighters, three riders only.The complete defeat of his enemies began the military reputation of the prophet. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 103 For several years, Muhammad had to sustain against its neighbors of struggles in which setbacks often succeeded the triumphs.He always showed resigned in defeat and in very moderate success. Was not seen as inflexible in a circumstance where he beheaded seven hundred prisoners from a Jewish tribe who had betrayed him. The influence of Muhammad continued to grow for several years but it became general, it was essential he possessed Mecca. Before coming to arms, he wanted to try the path of negotiations and stood before the holy city, followed fourteen hundred of his followers. He did not get the entrance to the city, but the messengers sent him Koreishites were very struck by the reverence of the companions of the prophet for their master: “I visited Caesar and Chosroes in their palaces, said one of them, but I never saw sovereign revered by his people as is Muhammad by his companions. “To comfort the disciples of this failure, Muhammad led them against Khaibar, an important city in five days northeast of Medina, inhabited by Jewish tribes, and that was the warehouse of their trade. While this city was heavily fortified, he managed to take it. It was after the siege of Khaibar Muhammad almost see his destiny interrupted by the hand of a woman. Jewish, named Zainab, was serving on his table meat poisoned sheep. Having found the first piece of a strange taste, Muhammad went no further and declared that the sheep had to warn him that she was poisoned. Brought before the prophet, the daughter of Israel made a subtle declaration that saved his life: “There is no prophet, she says, that has the révé- celestial populations; I wanted if you were an impostor, avenge the misfortunes of my country; and if you were truly sent by the Lord, I knew he would not let you sink under such pitfalls. “Despite the Lord’s protection, Muhammad was affected by poisoning the rest of his life, and columnists agree that this was a result of this accident he died three years later. Feeling his influence grow every day, Mohammed decided to make another attempt to seize Mecca. He gathered an army of ten thousand men, the most powerful he had previously had under him and stood before the walls of the city. His prestige had then become so great that it went in without a fight. The conduct of Mahomet against Koreishites, his bitter enemies for more than twenty years, was full of humanity. After being saved with difficulty from the fury of his companions, he confined himself to destroy the three hundred and sixty idols of Kaaba and consecrated this temple to the worship of Islamism. Since then, he has remained the focus. The capture of Mecca determined the submission of most neighboring tribes: some united to resist, but they were quickly defeated. Muhammad was then made came to power. He resolved to lead an expedition against the Greeks of Syria, who threatened, he believed its borders. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 104 It could muster thirty thousand, ten thousand horsemen. Arrived at Tabuk, located halfway between Medina and Damascus, he learned that the Greeks gave up their business. He stopped himself ; but his expedition was not useless, because it determined the submission of Arab chiefs of the peninsula bordering on Egypt and Syria. Even before he was master of Mecca, Muhammad had sought to increase its prestige by sending all sides, and even the most powerful rulers of messages in which he urged them to convert to the new faith. He even sent a small expedition – the only one in his lifetime took place outside Arabia – against the King of Ghassan, Arab chief vassal of the Greeks. His soldiers were completely beaten, but this expedition was no less successful because the Arabs charged with guarding the borders, and who had not received their pay Heraclius, hastened to join the prophet. Messages sent by Muhammad outside of Arabia were unsuccessful. History has preserved the memory of how it was received it to the king of the Persians. The envoy of the Prophet arrived just as ambassadors signed the peace between the emperor Heraclius and Chosroes. The letter delivered to Khosroes first bore the name of the signer, which, following the Eastern usage, involved a claim to superiority.Indignant at this address and the ruler who called himself King of Kings would not read more: he tore the letter and trampled exclaiming, “This is a slave who puts his name before mine.”When Muhammad heard his answer, he merely said,” God tore his kingdom as he tore my letter! “The successors of the prophet were soon to realize this wish. Khosrorès does not confine the rest to tear the letter of Mohammed. He sent the governor of Yemen order to seize this individual of the Hejaz who wanted to pretend to be a prophet; but the Persian king was killed by his son before the government had tried to execute this difficult mission. Ten years had passed since the memorable date of the Hegira, when Muhammad came to Mecca pilgrimage that was to be the last. Back in Medina, he soon fell seriously ill: “He was then told Aboulfeda, in the house of Zainab, daughter of Djahsch, for he was in turn a night with each of his wives. His condition has worsened day he found himself in the house of Maimouna, daughter of Harith, he had them all together, and asked them to be treated in one of them without escape. There they immediately consented, and carried him into the house of Ayesha.”Feeling lost, he decided to bid farewell to his people. Having met he thanked God for allowing him to accomplish his mission, and added: “O you who hear me, if I hit someone on the back, here is my back, it strikes; if I hurt someone’s reputation, he takes it out on my reputation; if I robbed someone of his property, here is my good, it pays, and for that he is not afraid to get my hatred: hatred is not in my character. A man with him then claimed payment of a debt of three dirhems, Muhammad gave them to her immediately, saying: “The shame in this world is easier to bear than the other. “He even prayed for those who had fought with him; then brought him back to his wife Ayesha. Three days before his death, he wanted to do even transport to the mosque p There they immediately consented, and carried him into the house of Ayesha.”Feeling lost, he decided to bid farewell to his people. Having met he thanked God for allowing him to accomplish his mission, and added: “O you who hear me, if I hit someone on the back, here is my back, it strikes; if I hurt someone’s reputation, he takes it out on my reputation; if I robbed someone of his property, here is my good, it pays, and for that he is not afraid to get my hatred: hatred is not in my character. A man with him then claimed payment of a debt of three dirhems, Muhammad gave them to her immediately, saying: “The shame in this world is easier to bear than the other. “He even prayed for those who had fought with him; then brought him back to his wife Ayesha. Three days before his death, he wanted to do even transport to the mosque p There they immediately consented, and carried him into the house of Ayesha.”Feeling lost, he decided to bid farewell to his people. Having met he thanked God for allowing him to accomplish his mission, and added: “O you who hear me, if I hit someone on the back, here is my back, it strikes; if I hurt someone’s reputation, he takes it out on my reputation; if I robbed someone of his property, here is my good, it pays, and for that he is not afraid to get my hatred: hatred is not in my character. A man with him then claimed payment of a debt of three dirhems, Muhammad gave them to her immediately, saying: “The shame in this world is easier to bear than the other. “He even prayed for those who had fought with him; then brought him back to his wife Ayesha. Three days before his death, he wanted to do even transport to the mosque pour make his prayer, but that could not support this transport, he delegated to prayer Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 105 Abu Bakr his place, and it was this designation which was later choose him for his successor. After a fortnight of illness, Muhammad ended his career in the eleventh year of the Hegira, at the age of sixty-three. When he died, almost all of Arabia to Oman had embraced Islam: Arabs, Jews, Christians had embraced the new faith. All the inhabitants of Arabia were one people. Enthused by their youth beliefs and led by able leaders, they would soon conquer the world. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 62 Figure # 22 Ablutions the sacred well of Zem Zem during the pilgrimage to Mecca; according to instant photography. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) 4. – character and private life of Muhammad Back to Table of Contents We are particularly busy in the above public life of Muhammad. Now we have to try to restore the character and private life of the prophet, according to the documents that the Arabs left us. The Arab historian Aboulfeda gives, according to contemporary descriptions, the following picture of Muhammad ‘Ali, his first disciple and son, we depicted the tradition as a man of medium height, his head was strong, his thick beard; his bone structure announced the force; his face was full and colorful; some white hair on the crown of the head, a few white hairs among his black beard barely showed traces of the years. As for his moral qualities, they outweighed those of other men. Addressing God frequent prayers, he was sober futile discourse, and taste led him to remain silent. His face Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 106 announced the benevolence; His mood was soft, his even temper; Parents or foreign, weak or powerful, found in him equal justice. He loved the humble and did not despise the poor because of his poverty, as he did not honor the rich because of his wealth. Always careful to conciliate the love of Headmen and attachment of his companions, he never discouraged, he listened with great patience the one who came to sit beside him. He never retired, the man to whom he gave hearing had retired the first; as if someone took her hand, he also gave him long as the person who had addressed not withdrawing his. It was the same if we remained standing with him to deal with any business; Always in this case it did not leave until the last. Often he visited his friends, asking them about what was happening between them. He handled himself milking the sheep, sat down, mended his clothes and his shoes, which he then wore while they were patched. Among his companions, he admitted poor people called Ahl al-Saffa, the men of the bench. – They were unfortunate Arabs, having neither asylum nor family, slept the night in the mosque of Medina and sheltered them on the day. The bench of the mosque as their home, they had taken the name. When the Prophet was supper, he was called a few to share his meal, and distributed them to other key to his companions that they pourvussent their food.AbouHoraïra, one of them, has left us the following tradition: The Prophet, he said, came out of this world without being once full of barley bread, and sometimes it happened that his entire family spent a month or two without, in any of the houses she’s residence, we had lit a fire to prepare food there. Dates and water, that’s what his food. I have sometimes seen the Prophet so pressed by hunger, only to feel less anxiety, he had to rely heavily on a stone belly and keep it there with his belt. In the above description can be added, according to other Arab chroniclers, Muhammad had great influence on itself; he was dreamy, silent and very tenacious in its resolutions. Its simplicity was remarkable. It was nevertheless very careful of his person. In all periods of his life, even when he became rich, he used himself. Its ability to withstand the fatigue was great; her patience and sweetness equaled his perseverance. One of his servants remained eighteen years with him, assured not to have been scolded once. He was a skilled warrior. No escape danger, it is not looking for him, and had too much reflection to have a good high dose adventurous courage of his countrymen. It is asserted that he was unlettered, and the thing is likely because a letter had brought a little more order in the composition of the Koran; but it is also likely that if Mohammed had been a scholar, he had not found a new religion. The only illiterate know well within the reach of the illiterate. Educated or not, he had a great sagacity, and resembling the books of the Jews attributed to Solomon. When he was very young, chance appointed the arbitrator in a dispute which had arisen between the leading families of Mecca, to see who would have the honor to establish the temple of the Kaaba, that then rebuilt, the famous black stone brought from Abraham to heaven by an angel. Faced with opponents on the point of coming to arms, Muhammad spread his cloak on the ground, placed the stone above, and begged the principal leaders of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 107 take the sides of the mantle to raise the level where it should be placed. When it was at this level, he put up his own hands, and the dispute was thus completed.The only weakness of Mohammed was his love for women, love late, however, as to the age of fifty years he remained faithful to his first wife. He was not hiding this passion: “The things I love most in the world, he said, it is women and perfumes; but what comforts me the soul is prayer.”He was very scrupulous about the age of the women he married: Ayesha was only ten years old when he took her to wife; but Maimouna was fifty-one. This passion was pushed so far with him, having seen by chance, undressed, the wife of his adopted son, he felt such a desire to possess, that he had to divorce her to give him. Muslims showed scandalized; but the angel Gabriel, with which the prophet was in daily reports, said regular operation; and approval having been entered in the Koran, the critics were silenced. In a single year, Muhammad married four women, but it was only fifteen in all, eleven only once. This figure may seem a little high to a European, but not extravagant for the Orientals, and the prophet could have married a much greater number of women, if he had authorized the example of more wise monarchs of the Bible, the great King Solomon. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 64 board colors # 3 MOSQUE OF OMAR IN JERUSALEM From a photograph and a watercolor by Dr. Gustave Le Bon [Burning of exceptional beauty!] [WTD] downloaded website: the classics of social sciences, section classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): the civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) It is not quite shown that Muhammad has obtained its women a well full fidelity, and it appears to have been a victim of these fairly frequent marital discomfort among Europeans they are rare in Orientals. Ayesha including many raised him trouble and gave serious taken to gossip, but the angel Gabriel, always caring, certified that his virtue and his certificate on this delicate point having been entered in the Koran, doubt was no longer possible. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 108 Muhammad ended, however, understood that it was not always advantageous to have too many women at once, because he forbade his disciples to have more than four simultaneously. There is no need to add that it is not he who establishes polygamy among Arabs; it existed before the prophet in all Asian peoples, whatever their religion, and still exists.Despite his weakness for women, Mohammed has shown little indulgent to them. Although less severe for them that the authors of the Bible, though he describes in the Qur’an “beings who grow up in ornaments and trimmings and are still arguing for no reason. “” I do not know, he said, failure that is more powerful than you, women, to remove the moral sense of man, even the most conservative and the most reasonable. “In the words of Aboulfeda Mohammed assured that there are a number of men made, but among women it does include four: Aseïa, Pharaoh’s wife; Mary, Jesus’ mother; Khadija, the Prophet’s wife, and Fatima, his daughter.Muhammad had no children of his first wife Khadija – the third of four perfect women of creation. – Of these children, seven in number, three son died, and he finally stood him four fine, the best known is Fatime, who married his adopted son Ali. Muhammad left nine widows.Inconsolable or not, they could not remarry, in order to respect the defense of the prophet.Although it is believed the messenger of God, Muhammad did not claim to perform miracles. As is tradition, however, that religion founder must do sometimes, his disciples have assigned a number. Here is a summary, which I borrow from Mr. Kasimirski “Once, he split the moon into two in view of everyone. At his request, God did turn back to the sun, so Ali could fulfill the prayer of the afternoon, he had missed, because the Prophet had fallen asleep on her lap, and that Ali did not want to wake him. Whenever the Prophet was walking next to some other person, though of medium height, he always seemed to exceed the whole head. His face was always radiant with light, and when he held his fingers in front of his face, they shone like torches of light borrowed from his face. We have often heard the stones, the trees and plants greet Mohammed and bow before him; animals, such as gazelles, wolves, lizards, talking with him, and the goat, roasted whole, also spoke to her. He had absolute power over demons, who feared him and believed in his mission. He restored sight to the blind, he healed the sick and even raised the dead; he made a day down a table all set for Ali and his family, who were hungry; he predicted that his posterity outcome of Fatima would be the victim of injustice and persecution, and that Ommiades reign one thousand months, and that is what has made, etc.”It is further demonstrated for all good Muslims that Muhammad was transported overnight to heaven on a fantastic animal called Borak, to be winged female figure, horse body and peacock tail. after passing through the seven heavens, he came to the throne of God. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 109 We were assured that Mohammed was epileptic, but I have found nothing in Arab chronicles that allows to decide with certainty on this point. All we know from the testimony of his contemporaries, including his wife Ayesha was that during his celestial inspirations, he fell in a particular condition characterized by facial congestion, groans and finally fainting. Apart from his hallucinations, Mohammed, like many lunatics, had a very sound judgment. Scientific point of view, obviously we must classify Muhammad, as most of the founders of religions, in the great family of the insane. But the thing does not matter. Not cold thinkers who base of new cults and lead men: hallucinated alone can fulfill this role. When we examine the action of fools in the world, we recognize that it was immense. They founded religions, destroying empires and raise the masses to their voice. Their powerful hand has led humanity to date and the course of history would have been different if the reason, not madness reigned in the world. As for claiming that Muhammad was an impostor, it seems obvious that such a statement can not support a moment. Only in his hallucinations he could find encouragement to overcome all resistance that surrounded his first steps. We must first believe in yourself to succeed in imposing its beliefs on others. Muhammad believed supported by God, and, most of such support, it could not shrink from any obstacle. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 66 Figure # 23 Tomb of Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, the largest cemetery in Damascus; from a photograph. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) When Mohammed died, he got this huge income together into one nation, obedient to a single faith, and capable as a result of obeying one master, all the peoples of Arabia. It is unnecessary to determine whether the result achieved was the one that proposed the prophet. We know so little of the real causes of the series of events that we must be content to accept, as historians usually do, that the results obtained by the influence of great men are really those they were seeking. We easily demonstrate the value of this rule is debatable, but it would be out of my framework to do it here. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 110 Anyway, it is certain that Mohammed won in Saudi a result that all religions come before him, including Christianity and Judaism, had not been able to get. So he went to the Arabs a great service. The reply sent by Omar to the Persian king, who asked about the role of the prophet, clearly indicates the scope of this service: “We were so miserable that we saw people among us reduce hunger in devouring insects and snakes; others were dying their daughters to not have to share their food with them. In the darkness of superstition and idolatry, without laws and without brake, always enemies of each other, we were not busy that we loot and destroy each other. That’s what we were. But we now have a new people. God raised up among us a man most distinguished Arabs by the nobility of his birth, by his virtues, his genius, and he has chosen to be his messenger and prophet. By the body of this man, God said: “I am the one God, eternal, creator of the universe. My goodness sends you a guide to direct you. The way that you watch you will save trouble I reserve in another life to the wicked and criminal, and it will lead you to me in the living room of bliss. “Persuasion has crept gradually into our hearts; we believed in the mission of the prophet; we recognized that his words were the words of God, his orders, the orders of God and religion that we announced is the only true religion. He enlightens our minds, he put out our hates, he has brought us into a society of brothers under the laws dictated by divine wisdom. “If we judge the value of men by the size of the works they have founded, we can say that Mohammed was one of the greatest men ever known in history.Religious prejudices have prevented many historians to recognize the importance of his work;but Christian writers themselves are now starting to do it justice. Here is how is expressed towards him one of the most distinguished of them, M. Barthélemy Saint-Hilaire: “Muhammad was the most intelligent, the most religious, most merciful Arabs of his time. He has had his empire to his superiority. The religion preached by him was a huge benefit to the races that have adopted it. “What was this religion which was to submit so many millions of men to his law? What new truths she taught the world? We will now examine. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 111 Gustave Le Bon, The civilization of the Arabs (1884) Book II: Origins of the power of the Arabs Chapter II 1. The Qur’an – Koran Summary Return to Table of Contents The Koran, the sacred book of the Mohammedans, is the religious code, civil and political rule their conduct. Although revealed by God to Muhammad, the holy book is quite inconsistent. The style is sometimes remarkable, but the order and logic there is often lacking. It is easily explained when we know how the book was written. It was written in fact daily, according to the necessities of the moment. With Muhammad’s relations with the angel Gabriel, a new revelation came to get the embarrassment whenever a difficulty arose, and the revelation was immediately recorded in the Koran. The final version of the Koran is after Muhammad. In his lifetime, he accepted himself several versions of the same passage. It was only several years after his death that his fourth successor did adopt a final version, comparing together all those collected by the disciples of the Master. The Qur’an consists of one hundred fourteen chapters or suras divided into verses; Muhammad always speak for God. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 112 The Arabs regard the Quran as the work most remarkable ever produced. This opinion is obviously footprint of any Oriental exaggeration, but it must be recognized however that certain passages actually have on the appearance of a majestic poetry book has no religious surpassed. The philosophical conception of the universe in the Quran, is nearly that of the two great Semitic religions that had preceded it: Judaism and Christianity. It was claimed that the Aryan traditions of Persia and India had a clear role in Christianity and Islam; but in the latter, the Aryan influence is really low.Muhammad was not a great philosopher, one of those deep thinkers comparable to the founding of Brahmanism and Buddhism. It is not he who had said with the Buddhist there is no one cause in the world, the universe is a chain of necessities, decomposition and recomposition endless. He had not even been to the half-skepticism of the authors of the sacred books of Brahmanism, and had not inserted in the Koran as the following reflections, we find in the Vedas! “Whence comes this creation? Is it the work of a creator or not? The beholder upper firmament, that one knows. Perhaps itself does not he know 1. “But these are abstractions for use by philosophers; and Muhammad did not claim to write for them. He wanted a very simple religion, accessible to his people, and he knew succeed in extracting then existing religions which suited them. Far from thinking to create a new cult, he announced will only continue the biblical prophets, which he admitted the revelations as perfectly authentic from Abraham to Jesus. In fact, Judaism, Christianity and Islam are the three branches of the same trunk, and have a close relationship. The religion preached by the Prophet is of great simplicity. In an interview with the angel Gabriel dressed in Arab, Muhammad completely defined in a few lines: “What is Islam? asked the angel. To profess, Muhammad responds that there is only one God and that I am His prophet, strictly observe the hours of prayer, almsgiving, fasting the month of Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to Mecca. “The angel Gabriel declared himself satisfied with the definition, it is clear that it is perfect. Mohammedan summarizes Islamism in this profession of faith which we can not ignore the severe brevity: “There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his prophet. “To give an idea of the Koran, I reproduce here some of its most important passages on various fundamental points of doctrine. The structure somewhat resembling a book with all the pages have been mixed at random, I 1 I refer the reader to respect the philosophy of Buddha and the history of the evolution of religions, the second volume my book Man and societies. He will see a religion which alone has so many followers that all other assembled based on the complete denial of any god. This religion teaches yet strong moral pure, as recognized religious orthodox writer, the famous Max Müller. “The highest morality that has been taught to humanity before the advent of Christianity, he said, was taught by men whose eyes the gods were empty shadows, by men who stood point altars, which do not rise even to the unknown God. “Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II.113 tried to make them clearer quotes, reuniting after one of the other verses on the same subject, which are scattered randomly in the Qur’an. First is how Muhammad establishes the origin of the Qur’an and its relationship with the sacred books that preceded 1: Each time his holy book. (. XIII) is the book on which there is no doubt; this is the direction of those who follow the Lord. … It is Gabriel who, by God’s permission, filed on thy heart, O Muhammad! the book to confirm the sacred books came before him for use as the direction and announce glad tidings to the believers. … The Quran is a warning (LXXX) Whoever wishes, retain in his memory; It is written on honored pages, Sublime, pure; Traced by the hands of the righteous and honored writers. I will not swear by the retrograde stars (LXXXI.) Quick-run and steal. I swear by the night when it occurs, by the dawn when it blossoms, That the Qur’an is the word of the illustrious sent. Before the Quran, there was the Book of Moses, given to be the guide of men and evidence of God’s goodness; or it (the Quran) confirms the other in Arabic, so let the wicked be warned, and so the virtuous learn glad tidings. God has prepared for you a religion he recommended to Noah; it is that which is revealed to you, O Muhammad! this is the one we recommended to Abraham, Moses and Jesus, saying: 0bservez that religion does not divide you in sects. (LXII.) The God of Mohammed is alone in the sky. Here following the prophet’s definition: Unique in the heavens and on the earth, once it has solved something, he said, Be, and it is. (LXIV). God is the only God, there is no other God but him, the living, the immutable.God himself is witness that there is none other God but him; angels and talented scientists and righteousness repeat: There is no God but him, the mighty, the wise. (III.) Certainly the creation of the heavens and the earth; in alternative succession of days and nights in the ships that sail through the sea to bring men of useful things in this water that God sends down from the sky and with which it makes life on earth once dead, and where he scattered animals of all kinds, in variations of the winds and the clouds compelled to serve between heaven and earth, in all this there are certainly warnings for those who have understanding. (It.) 1 All figures in parentheses indicate what Sura was extracted the passage quoted. As long as the number does not change is that the quoted passages are taken from the same chapter. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 114 This one God, although not as severe as that of the Bible, however, has a dark and somewhat vindictive. It is a kind of absolute sovereign, irresponsible, having only his caprice for law … Surely God is forgiving to men, despite their iniquity But it is also severe in punishment. (XIII.) I swear by the daybreak and the ten nights (LXXXIX.) For which is double what is simple, By the night when it continues its course, Is not this a oath befitting a sane man? Do not you see what God has reduced the people of Ad, Who lived Irem, large columns, City he was no parallel in this country? What it has reduced Theinoudites who hewed their homes in rock in the valley, Pharaoh inventor of the torture stakes? All they oppressed the earth, and there were spreading evil, God sentenced them all the scourge of punishment. Those who will not believe the signs of God, will experience a terrible punishment.God is mighty, avenger. (III.) In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 71 Figure # 24 Ornaments excerpts of an ancient Koran Cairo (Ebers). downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) When God takes cited criminal, so he takes it. He takes it and terribly violent. (XI.) It is he who makes lightnings with your looks to inspire fear and hope. It is he who causes the clouds heavy with rain. (XIII.) The thunder celebrates His praise, angels glorify imbued with fear. He shoots lightning, and reaches those it wants while they argue about God, for it is vast in its power.Creating the world in six days, Adam, the earthly paradise, the fall of the first man are borrowed from the Bible. It is the same theory of punishments and rewards after life. Here after Muhammad’s description of Judgment: When the deafening sound of the trumpet will sound, (LXXX.) The day when man will flee his brother, Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II . 115 His father and mother, his wife and children, when the sky is rent asunder, (LXXXII.) The stars will be scattered, That the seas confound their waters, That the graves will be upside down, The soul will see its old and new shares. I swear by heaven and clarity (XCI) By the moon when she follows him closely, By the day when it leaves the view in all its glory, By the night when the veil By heaven and by whoever built, by land and by him who has extended, by the soul and the one who formed it, and which inspired his wickedness and piety whoever keeps the pure one is happy that corrupts be lost. The day will come when the earth and the heavens will be changed; men stand before God, the one, the victorious. (XIV.) Then you will see the criminals, hands and feet in chains. And it will sound the trumpet; and all that is in the heavens and on earth will expire, except those that God will let live; then sound again, and that all beings will stand and wait. (XXXIX.) And the earth will shine with the light of his lord, and now the book is deposited, and the prophets and the witnesses are summoned and the sentence will be pronounced with justice, and no one will be injured. And every soul will be paid for his work. But God knows best what men do. The infidels will be pushed by troops toward Gehenna. believers We will walk by troops to Paradise. Hell includes following Muhammad, various varied punishments Here are some samples: … The condemned to fire the stay will be given to drink of boiling water which will rip his guts. (XLVII.) The men of the left (oh men of the left!) (LXVI.) Will the midst of a pestilential winds and boiling water, in the shade of black smoke. Yes, and I swear by the moon, (LXXIV.) And by the night when it withdraws, And by the morning when it turns, What the hell is one of the most serious things. As for heaven, it contains enough to satisfy the most demanding minds. Here is the picture of paradise that was promised to the righteous men brooks whose water never spoils, streams of milk of which the taste never alter, wine streams delight those who drink. (XLVII). If approaching each other, the blessed will reciprocally questions. (LII.) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 116 We were once, they say, full of solicitude for our family. God has been gracious to us; he preserved us from the pestilential torment. We used to invoke; it is good and merciful. The righteous will dwell among gardens and rivers. (LIV). They will rest their elbows on carpets whose lining is brocade. The fruits of the two gardens will be accessible to whoever wants to pick them. (LV.) There will be young virgins to the modest look that has never affected neither man nor genius. They look like hyacinth and coral. Besides these two gardens, two others still are therein, Two gardens filled with greenery, Where gush forth two sources. Here there will be fruits, palm trees and pomegranates. Where there will be good, beautiful women.The men of the right (they will be happy the men of the Right!) Staying among lotus trees without thorns, and banana trees laden with fruit from top to bottom, Under shading that will extend far near a running water, in the midst of abundant fruit, Let no cut, which nobody will ban the approach and they shall rest on elevated beds. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 73 Figure # 25 Muhammad digit; after an ancient inscription of the mosque of Tulun raised by Marcel. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Muhammad is very tolerant to Jews and Christians, but it is not for the idolaters and recommends their war. It is not kind either to unbelievers. Here is how he expresses to them: The worst beasts of the earth before God are those who are ungrateful, who do not believe; (VIII). Those who hope not to see us, who are content to the life of this world and entrust them with security; those who pay no attention to our signs; (X.) Those will have the fire to remain as the price of their works. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 117 As to the Jews, and especially Christians, Muhammad, unlike a very general belief, proved full of tolerance and benevolence. The following verses are proof: no compulsion in religion. The real road is different enough from error. (II.) In the footsteps of other prophets we sent Jesus, son of Mary, confirming the Pentateuch; we gave him the Gospel, which contains the direction and light, it confirms the Pentateuch; Gospel also contains the direction and warning to those who fear God. (V.) The people of the Gospel shall swear by the Gospel. Those who do not swear by a book of God are unfaithful. (LXXIII.) Supports patiently speeches infidels, and separate yourself from them in a proper manner. (LXXIII). We have established for each nation sacred rites it follows. Let them continue to argue with you on this matter. Call them to the Lord, for you are in the right path. (XII.) Surely those who believe and those who follow the Jewish faith, and the Christians and the Sabians, in a word whoever believes in God and the Last Day, and who has done well: all of them will receive a reward their Lord; fear not go down on them, nor will they grieve. (II.) Among the Jews and the Christians there who believe in God and books sent to you and to them, that humble themselves before God and his teachings do not sell for a low price. They will find their reward with God, who is quick to settle accounts. Only engage controversy with men of Scripture that in the most honest way; unless it be wicked, say: We believe in the books that were sent to us and to those who were sent to you. Our God and yours are one, and we resign ourselves wholly to his will. (XXIX.) As to the alleged fatalism as a reproach to the Orientals, and we could also blame many modern scholars, I have not found in the Koran that allows to consider Muhammad’s teaching as more fatalistic than the Bible. Here moreover that I could find essential about this: You can want only what God wants, the sovereign of the universe. (LXXXI.) Any business depends on God … When you’d stayed in your homes (which you regret having fought), those whose death was written above would have come to succumb to the same place. (III.) It is God who created you from clay, and set an end to your life. The term is marked advance in its power, and yet you still doubt. (VI). Each nation has its term. When their time came, men can neither advance nor retreat of the. (VII.) We do not move forward or backward to the set time in the existence of every people. (. XXIII) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 118 … There in heaven and on earth anything, it is smaller or larger than an atom, which is recorded in the clear Book. (. XXXIV) The female carries and puts nothing in the world that God has knowledge; nothing is added to the age of one who lives long and nothing is cut off, which is recorded in the Book. (XXXV.) … When the term set by God comes, no one else can not delay it.(LXXI.) No calamity befalls man without God’s permission. God will direct the heart of the one who believes in him. (LXVI.) Who professes a religion more beautiful than that which is left entirely to God, does good, and follows the creed of Abraham? (IV.) 2. – Philosophy of the Koran, its distribution in the world Return to Table of Contents When we reduced the Koran to its main tenets, we see that Islamism can be considered a simplified form of Christianity. It differs, however, in many ways, including on a fundamental point: the absolute monotheism. Its unique flat God on top of things, without any entourage of angels, saints, or any characters whose veneration is essential. Islamism can claim the honor of being the first religion which has introduced pure monotheism in the world. From this derives the pure monotheism that very simplicity of Islam and it is in this simplicity to look for the secret of his strength. Easy to understand, it offers its adherents any of these mysteries and contradictions of these so common in other religions, and who too often face the right direction. An absolutely unique God to worship; all men equal before him; a small number of precepts to observe, paradise as a reward, if these precepts are observed, hell as punishment, if not observed. Nothing could be clearer or less amenable to equivocal. The first Mohammedan come to whatever class he belongs, knows exactly what he must believe and can easily expose the dogmas of religion in a few words. For a Christian can venture to speak of the Trinity, transubstantiation, or other similar mystery, it must be coupled with a theologian versed in the subtleties of dialectics. This extreme clarity of Islamism, attached to the sense of charity and justice which it is marked, certainly contributed much to its spread worldwide. Such qualities explain how populations were Christian long time, as the Egyptians at the time of the domination of the emperors of Constantinople, have adopted the dogmas of the Prophet as soon as they knew them, while Gustave Le Bon (1884) the civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 119 that we cite no Mohammedan people who, victor or vanquished, ever become a Christian. To judge the usefulness of any religious book, it is not the value of its philosophical, usually very low, to take to guide, but the influence exerted its dogmas. Viewed with this view, Islamism can be considered one of the major religions that have reign over souls. It certainly teaches his disciples that what most of them also teach: charity, justice, prayer, etc., but he taught with such simplicity that it is understood by all. He knows more passing in the soul a lively faith, that doubt never comes in touch. Political and civilizing influence was truly immense. Before Mohammed, Saudi consisted of independent provinces and tribes still at war; A century after its appearance, the Arabian empire stretched from India to Spain, and in all the cities where floated the banner of the Prophet, civilization shone with astonishing brilliance. The fact is that Islam is one of the most religions compatible with the discoveries of science, and one of the fittest at the same time to soften the manners and to practice charity, justice and tolerance. The design of Buddhism is the philosophical point of view, certainly much higher than that of all the Semitic religions; but to put it within reach of the crowds, he had to turn completely, and in this modified form, it is obviously less than Islamism. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 76 Figure # 26 Last page of an old Quran from the Library of El Escorial. (Spanish Museum).downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) The civilization created by the followers of Mohammed was the fate of all those who lived in the globe: birth, growth, decay and die. She joined in the dust those that preceded it; but time has spared the dogmas of the prophet, and today their influence is as alive as she ever was. While the oldest religions lose every day of their empire over souls, Muhammad’s law retains all its power. Islamism now has over one hundred million followers worldwide. It is professed in Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, in much of India, Russia and China, and finally in most of Africa to below the equator. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 120 These various peoples who have the Koran law, are attached together by the language of the community and the relations established between the pilgrims every year to Mecca from all parts of the Mohammedan world. All followers of Mahomet must, indeed, to read more or less the Koran in Arabic, too, can we say that this language is perhaps the most widespread on the surface of the globe. Although the Mohammedan peoples belong to very different races, so there between them so deep links it would be easy to bring together at one time under the same banner. The prodigious rapidity with which the Koran spread has always amazed historians hostile to religion he teaches, and they thought they could explain it by saying that this spread was the result of lax morality of Mohammed and the use of force; but it is easy to show that these explanations do not have the slightest foundation. Just read the Koran to be convinced that moral is just as severe as those of other religions. Polygamy is accepted without doubt; but as it was already in use among all Eastern peoples long before Mohammed; those who adopted the Koran could not find in this view no new advantage. The argument from the lower state of morality of Muhammad was refuted long time, especially by the learned philosopher Bayle. after seeing that the rules of the prophet about fasting, deprivation of wine, to the precepts of morality, are much harsher than those of Christians, Bayle adds: “So be illusion to claim that the law of Muhammad stood so promptly and so extensive that because it deprived the man the yoke of good works and painful observances, and she allowed her immorality. Hottinger gives us a long list of moral aphorisms or sayings of the Mohammedans. We can say without boasting that religion as the most excellent precepts that can be given to man to the practice of virtue and the flight of vice are contained in these sayings. “The author then points out that the pleasures promised by Muhammad in paradise has its followers are not above those of the Christian paradise, because the Gospel speaks” as a state whose delights surpass anything the eyes have seen. “When we study the conquests of the Arabs, and will try to highlight the causes that determine their success, we see that the force was to do with the spread of the Koran for the Arabs always left free defeated to retain their religion 1. If the Christian peoples were converted to the religion of their 1 on the tolerance of Mohammedans for Jews and Christians. We have seen from the passages of the Quran quoted above that Muhammad shows excessive and rare tolerance among the founders of religion for religion that preceded his, Judaism and Christianity in particular and we will see later how its requirements in this regard were observed by his successors. This tolerance has been recognized by the few skeptics or believers writers, who have had occasion to seriously study closely the history of the Arabs. The following quotes which I borrow from several of them show that the opinion we profess on this point we is not personal. Muslims are the only enthusiasts who have joined the spirit of tolerance with the zeal of proselytizing, and that, by taking up arms, to spread the doctrine of their prophet, have allowed Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: books I and II. 121 winners and eventually adopt their language, it was mainly because these new conquerors proved more equitable for them than had been their former masters, and because their religion was of greater simplicity than that had taught them before. If it is well proved by history, is that religion is never imposed by force. When the Arabs of Spain were defeated by the Christians, they preferred to be killed and expelled to the last rather than changing worship. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 77 Figure # 27 Last page of an old Quran from the Library of El Escorial. (Spanish Museum). downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) so FarHave been imposed by force, the Koran has spread only by persuasion. It is obvious also that the only persuasion could bring the peoples who later defeated the Arabs, as the Turks and the Mongols, to adopt it. In India, where the Arabs have actually done and gone, the Qur’an is so widespread that it now has over fifty million followers. Their number rises every day; and although the English are the rulers of the country today, although they will maintain an army of missionaries for converting to Christianity Mohammedans, we do not know a single authentic example of conversion have crowned their efforts. The dissemination of the Koran in China was no less significant. We will see in another chapter how the propaganda of Islam there has been rapid. Although the Arabs had ever conquered every inch of the Celestial Empire Mohammedans there today form a population of over twenty million people. to those who would not receive it to stay committed to the principles of their religion. (Robertson, History of Charles V.). The Qur’an, which commands fighting religion with the sword, is tolerant of religious. He exempt from taxation the patriarchs, monks and their servants. Muhammad specifically forbade his lieutenants to kill the monks, because they are men of prayer. When Omar took Jerusalem, he made no May Christians.When the Crusaders made themselves masters of the holy city, they massacred mercilessly burned Muslims and Jews. (Michaud, History of the Crusades.) It’s sad for the Christian nations that religious tolerance, which is the great people of charity law to the people, they had been taught by Muslims. It is an act of religion to respect other people’s beliefs and not to use violence to impose a belief. (Father Michou, Religious Journey to the East.) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 122 The charge of fatalism is the religion of the prophet is not more serious than those to which we responded. There is nothing in the citations fatalism that I extracted from the Koran, not found in other religious books, the Bible, for example. Theologians, philosophers, including Luther, recognize that the tide is invariable.”Against free will argue all the evidence of the Write writes the powerful founder of the reform.These testimonies are innumerable; nay, they are the whole of Scripture. “Fate fills the religious books of all peoples. The ancients called fate and had place at the top of things as an absolute power which had to obey the gods and men. The events outlined by him were always fulfilled.(Oedipus tries in vain to avert the oracle who told him that he would kill his father and marry his mother. He can not escape the inexorable. Mohammed fatality so do not show more fatalistic than the founders of cults had preceded him. I add that has not been more fatalistic than modern scholars who admit with Laplace, following an idea already issued by Leibnitz, “an intelligence that, for a given instant knew all the forces by which nature is animated and the respective situation of the beings who compose it, if indeed it were vast enough to submit these data to analysis, embrace in the same formula the movements of the greatest bodies of the universe and those of the lightest atom. Nothing would be uncertain for it, and the future as the past, would be present in his eyes. “the Oriental fatalism, which forms the basis of the philosophy of the Arabs and many modern thinkers who a little studied upside of things, is a kind of quiet resignation that teaches man to suffer without vain recriminations laws of fate. It is much more the result of the character of beliefs. Long before Muhammad, the Arabs were fatalistic and this understanding was as foreign to their size she was in their decadence.Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 123 Gustave Le Bon, The civilization of the Arabs (1884) Book II: Origins of the power of the Arabs Chapter III The Arab conquests 1. – The world at the time of Muhammad Back to Table of Contents When Mohammed died, two large powers divided the known world: the first was the Eastern Roman empire, which, in Constantinople, dominated the south of Europe, western Asia and northern Africa from Egypt to the ocean Atlantic; the second was the Persian empire, whose work stretched very far in Asia. As for Europe, north and west were the prey of barbarians living in anarchy in disputing the remains of the Romans. Exhausted by his struggles with the Persians and the many causes of dissolution within him, the Eastern Empire was in full decline. It was still a colossus, but a colossus undermined from all sides, and a breath was over. Also exhausted by its centuries-old struggle with the Eastern empire, the Persian empire also showed signs of deep decline. Egypt and Africa supported with heavy domination weariness that weighed on them. Constantinople continued to exploit the people, but not long Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 124 ruled the most. Religious strife and perpetual exactions of the government had completely ruined the country. In Europe, the situation was no better. Spain, which, under Arab rule, was to be the seat of an empire so brilliant, belonged to the Christian Visigoths. Able to conquer, they had shown themselves powerless to civilize.Their religious strife had forced them to implore the support of the Emperor of the East; but allies of one day were soon become enemies that had to fight. In Italy, Rome had lost its former prestige, and the Roman name was despised everywhere: the Eternal City obeyed all the barbarians who invaded in turn. It is especially in Syria, the first of the countries where the Arab conquerors carried their weapons, that anarchy was profound. The cities that escaped the devastation resulting from perpetual wars between the Persians and the Romans still prospered, but they were more interested than commercial speculations and religious controversies. The world ended for them the gates of the city. The campaigns were deserted.The population did not even have any idea of patriotism and obeyed the first master who came willing to feed. Debased by crosses with all Asian peoples conquered by it, the old aristocracy of the conquerors had lost all value and influence. When we had to consider in our previous work the action of various factors governing the evolution of societies, we have ranked among the most important influence of an ideal. Cult of the country, religious belief, love of independence, glory, or the people of the city, etc., can be considered the philosophical point of view as illusions; but these are illusions that have always led men, and it was under their auspices that have high political and social buildings that have housed mankind so far. The greatness of the Romans was based mainly on the cult of Rome, and Rome remained master of the world as a Roman did not hesitate to sacrifice his life to increase its power. One could characterize a word the state of Greco-Roman and Asian people when Muhammad appeared, saying that everything was dead perfect home for a long time. The love of country, the worship of the ancient gods had more prestige on the souls. The dominant feeling was selfish love of self. With a similar mobile, little resistant to peoples ready to sacrifice their lives for their beliefs. Muhammad knew create a powerful ideal for people who did not; and it is here especially that is his greatness.This new ideal was probably, like all those who preceded him, a vain phantom, but there is no reality as powerful as these ghosts. Never the followers of the prophet were reluctant to sacrifice their lives for their new belief, because no earthly good they seemed superior to the life to that belief gave them hope. Islamism was soon to all the peoples under its law, what had once been the Romans the greatness of Rome. He gave common interests and common rancid hoped to populations previously separated by very different interests, and thus managed to direct all their efforts towards the same goal. But if the community of interests and beliefs can be enough to bring the homogeneity of a people, it is not enough to give him the means to conquer a Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 125 world, even as this world would be in the state of decadence which had arrived the Greco-Roman Empire and the Persians at the time of Mohammed. Although the Colossus was not a shadow, the shadow was still formidable. To fight against it successfully, you had to join the beliefs, who led the efforts in the same direction, very great fighting qualities. The courage and love fights not wanting to Arabs, because these qualities were hereditary among them for centuries; contempt of death was taught by the new belief that promised endless enjoyment in another world; but the art of war they were entirely unknown, and valor does not replace it. The fighting Arabs them were only genuine struggles of barbarians, where the whole tactic was to rush in crowds against each other and fight every man for himself. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 80 figures # 28-30 coins of the first caliphs. (These currencies and the following are from the collection of Mr. Marcel.) Figure # 31 Mint ommiade Caliph of Damascus, ECHAM, 107 AH (725 AD). Figure # 32 Mint Caliph el Mahady, 162 AH (779 AD). Figure # 33 Mint of Caliph Mamoun el, 218 AH (833 AD). downloadable on the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) This art of war, the Persians and the Romans still had it at a very high level, and their first encounters with the Arabs made him see. The defeats of the Arabs in Syria soon showed to them what they lacked, and they instructed him quickly to the school of their conquerors. The many defectors attracted by the new faith, served as instructors and disciples of the prophet taught them tactics, discipline and the means of attack that they were unaware. In a few years they were fully formed, and the headquarters of Damascus, opponents saw the amazement use as perfect machines and handled as well as those of the Greeks. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 2. 126 – Arab conquests of Character Back to Table of Contents The statecraft that deployed the first successors of Muhammad was worthy warriors talents they soon were able to acquire. From their first fights, they found themselves in the presence of populations of various masters mercilessly tyrannized for centuries, and could only welcome with joy the conquerors that would make them easier life. What to do was clearly indicated, and the caliphs were able to sacrifice the interests of their policy any idea of violent conversion. Far from seeking to impose by force their beliefs on the subject peoples, as we always repeat, they declared all to respect their faith, their uses and customs. In exchange for peace they provided them, they imposed them a very small tribute, and still lower than the taxes levied on them their former masters.Before embarking on the conquest of a country, the Arabs are always sent ambassadors responsible for conciliation proposals. These proposals were almost everywhere identical to that according to the Arab historian Al-Macyn, Amru made to the year 17 AH the people of Gaza city, besieged by him, and which were also made to the Egyptians and the Persians. They are: “Our teacher tells us to fight against you if you do not receive his law. Join us, become our brothers, adopt our interests and feelings, and we will do you no harm. If you do not want to, pay us an annual tribute accurately as you live, and we will fight for you against those who would harm you and who your enemies in any way whatsoever, and we will keep you faithful alliance. If you still refuse, there will be more between us than the sword, and we will fight against you until we have accomplished what God commands us. “Caliph Omar of Conduct in Jerusalem shows how smooth the Arab conquerors treat the vanquished, and in stark contrast to the processes of the Crusaders, in the same city, a few centuries later. Omar would not enter the holy city with a small number of his companions. He asked the Patriarch Sophronius to accompany him on the visit he wished to make in all the places consecrated by religious tradition, and then told the residents that they were safe, their property and their churches would be respected, and that Mohammedans could not do their prayers in Christian churches.Driving Amr in Egypt was no less benevolent. He offered to residents complete religious freedom, impartial justice for all, the inviolability of property, and the replacement of arbitrary and excessive taxation of Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II.127 Greek emperors by an annual tribute fixed at 15 francs per head. The people of the provinces showed themselves so satisfied with the proposals they hastened to join the treaty, and paid in advance tribute. The Arabs respected religiously accepted conventions, and went so pleasant to people once submitted to the vexations of Christians agents of the Emperor of Constantinople, that all Egypt eagerly adopted their religion and language. This, I repeat, one of these results we never get by force. None of the people who had dominated in Egypt before the Arabs had obtained. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 81 Figure # 34 Mint Tulun, 157 AH (870 AD). Figure # 35 Mint Caliph Raddy, 328 AH (933 AD). Figures # 36-37 gold coins of Fatimid caliph Mostanser, 442 and 465 of the Hegira (1050 and 1072 BC). Figure # 38 Sultan Saladin coins minted in Damascus in the year 583 AH (1187 AD). It focuses on his lapel name Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad. downloadable on the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) The Arab conquests of particular character that distinguishes them from all those completed by the conquerors who succeeded them.Other people, such as barbarians who invaded the Roman world, Turks, etc. have been found of great empires, but they never based civilization, and their highest effort was enjoying painfully one had their vanquished. The Arabs, however, have created very quickly a new civilization very different from those that preceded it, and brought a crowd of people to adopt this new civilization, religion and language. In contact with Arabs, as ancient nations as those of Egypt and India have adopted their beliefs, customs, manners, even their architecture. Many nations, from that time, dominated the areas occupied by the Arabs, but the influence of the disciples of the prophet remained steadfast. In all the countries of Africa and Asia where they entered, from Morocco to India, this influence appears to have established forever. The new conquerors have replaced the Arabs: none could Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 128 destroy their religion and language. One people, the Spaniards managed to get rid of Arab civilization, but we will see that he has done at the cost of more irremediable decadence.3. – The first successors of Muhammad Back to Table of Contents When Mohammed died in the year 632 of the Christian era, his work was sketched and dangers of all kinds threaten to make it disappear forever. The political unity of Arabia he had founded was the consequence of his religious unity and religious unity could end its founder. The Arabs had well have recognized the authority of a messenger of God, but the mission of the envoy being accomplished, nothing indicated that he had to have a successor. Many tribes had agreed to sacrifice their love of independence and hatred of all authority to a prophet of God, felt not willing to submit to the law of that prophet whose successors had never spoken and who could claim to exercise the same mission. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 82 Figure # 39 Other currency Saladin. Figure # 40 coins Caliph el Melek-el-Kamil the beginning of the thirteenth century. They carry on the back the name of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad. Figure # 41 Mint Beybars sultan.downloadable on the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Other more danger threatening to smother the germ the work of the prophet. Several hallucinated excited by the success of Muhammad had sought, too, to impersonate prophets. One of them was even half converted Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 129 Yemen and, without the dedication of some of the faithful who went to the murder, a schism had taken to Islamism the finest of its provinces.Another exalted had merely add a few chapters in the Koran, and his influence was so extensive that rocked awhile that of the first successors of the master. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 83 figures # 42-50 coins Arabs of Spain. (Spanish Museum of Antiquities.) Downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) The emerging work therefore had before it many obstacles. They were only overcome thanks to the remarkable political genius of the companions of Muhammad. They chose to succeed the prophet men who did not at first had no other mission than to enforce the law written in the Koran, so it was not these leaders elected by the Arabs obeyed appearance, but a code having an undisputed divine origin. The first successors of the Prophet, Abu Bakr (632-634), Umar (634-644), Uthman (644-655) and Ali (655-660), had all been companions of Muhammad. They retained his simple manners and austere life: nothing in them indicated the sovereign. Abu Bakr did not let his death that the coat he wore, he rode the camel and the slave who served. During his life, he had allowed only five drachmas a day taken from the public treasury for their livelihood. Omar, although divided among his soldiers rich spoils, wore a patched robe and slept on the steps of temples among the needy. It was only by imperceptible transitions that Arabs passed the democratic regime the monarchy. Under the first successors of the Prophet, equality was complete: the law was the same for all. The fourth caliph, Ali, appeared in person before a court as accusing an individual he believed having stolen armor.When the Christian king Ghassanid converted with tribes to Islam, came to Mecca find Omar after his conversion, he struck an Arab who was hit by mistake. On the complaint of the Arab, Omar was obliged to apply the law and order that the prince would suffer the law of retaliation: “What! Commander of the Faithful, said the king, a man of the people would hand over the head of so many tribes! – This is the law of Islam, said the caliph; there before she nor privileges, nor castes. All Muslims were equal in the eyes of the prophet as they are to those of his successors. “Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 130 The fair customs did not continue long, and the caliphs finally become absolute rulers; but equality of all Arabs before the Qur’an persisted until today. The first successor to the Prophet was Abu Bakr.Muhammad had designated him once to say prayer has its place, and why was that which made him elected. The election gave rise to dissensions which were repeated in the appointment of his successors. When he received the oath of fidelity to his companions, Abu Bakr held them, according to the Arab historians, the following speech: “Here I am charged with the care of governing you; if I do well, help me; if I’m wrong, straighten me; tell the truth to the depositary of power is an act of zeal and devotion; hide him is treason; before me the low man and the powerful man are equal; I want to get to all impartial justice; if I ever departs from the laws of God and his prophet, I will cease to be entitled to obedience. “In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 85 Figure # 51 Teach Arab Almohad. (Spanish antique museum.) Downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Abu Bakr first had to struggle against rival that sought the role of caliph, and against the leaders who wanted to avoid paying the tribute imposed by the Koran. He understood very quickly indeed the best way to calm the strife was to give the Arabs the opportunity to exercise outside their quarrelsome and warlike habits. This clever policy was also that of his successors. So she could be applied, Islam ceased to expand. The day the Arabs had nothing to conquer the world, they turned their weapons against themselves. The era of disunity began and with it also began the era of their decay. Their power was to be destroyed rather by their own weapons than those of the peoples they had conquered. It was only in the second successor of Mohammed, Omar, that began the great conquests of the Arabs. They had obtained under Abu Bakr, several successes in Syria; but we have said that if their courage was great, their military skill was low.Their successes were mixed setbacks until they were as educated as their opponents in the profession of arms. Omar was as clever as general and as administrator. He was also an exemplary fairness. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 131 Arab historians put in his mouth these words when he went up, as the successor of the Prophet, in the pulpit in Medina: “O you who hear me, know that there will never a man more powerful to me than the lowest of you, when will it justice; and that no man ever appear weaker to me that the most powerful among you, if he raises unjust claims. “In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 86 Figure # 52 Clefs Arab towns and castles. (Spanish antique museum.) Downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 87 Figure # 53 puzzle of an Arab prince of Egypt. The weapon and the following four were drawn by Prisse Avesnes. They are of Persian-Arabic style. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) It is with Omar that actually starts the empire of the Arabs. Forced to leave Syria and take refuge in Constantinople, the capital, the emperor Heraclius realized that the world was going to have new masters. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 4. 132 – Arabs of history Summary Return to Table of Contents We will summarize in this paragraph and in chronological order the main events of the war history of the Arabs during the eight centuries that their civilization lasted. First century AH. – The first successors of Mahomet conquests were made in ancient Babylonia, which ruled Persia and Syria, where reigned the emperor of Constantinople, Heraclius. Started under the first successor of the prophet, who soon died, they were continued by Omar, who came in person to Jerusalem. Syria occupied for seven centuries by the Romans, was taken from them in seven years. Mesopotamia and Persia were soon subjected the soldiers to Omar two months sufficed to overthrow the throne of the last Sassanian and seize the empire so often honored the King of Kings. In the West, the troops sent by Omar, led by Amru, poet and warrior, obtained from such rapid success. Egypt and Nubia were soon conquered, and when Omar died in 644, the Arab empire, born twenty years ago, was already very wide. Othman, the successor of Omar, was more than eighty. He continued the series of conquests. His lieutenants completed the capture of Persia, carried their weapons to the Caucasus and began to explore India. The successor of Othman, Ali (655), son of the prophet, was exposed to com- petitions which compromised a while the Arab empire. After five years of rule, he was murdered. With him disappeared the first series of these caliphs, former companions of Muhammad, considered the fathers of Islamism. His successor, Maowiah (660), opened the series of so-called caliphs Ommiades. These transfer the seat of the caliphate in Damascus, and begin to take the habits of Asian sovereigns. The new caliph sent troops across the north of Africa, which he formed a separate government, and did not stop at the edges of the ocean. A fleet of twelve hundred boats traversed the Mediterranean, which she conquered the islands, and invaded Sicily. Constantinople was besieged for seven years, but in vain. The Oxus was crossed, and the lieutenant of the Caliph carried his banner to Samarkand. Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. Maowiah 133 died (680) after twenty years of reign. The dynasty founded by him was to last a century. The Ommiades continued conquests. They were extended in Asia to the borders of China and the West to the Atlantic. In 712, the Arabs crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, entering Spain, managed to remove that country to the Christian monarchy of the Goths and make a great kingdom subject for nearly eight centuries the power of the Arabs. At the end of the first century of the Hegira, the banner of the Prophet of India floated the Atlantic, from the Caucasus to the Persian Gulf, and one of the largest Christian kingdoms of Europe, Spain had to endure the law of Mahomet. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 88 Figure # 54 dagger of an Arab prince of Egypt. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Second century AH. – The second century of the Hegira sees Arabs still extend a little conquests;but they mainly involved organizing their gigantic empire. They penetrate into Gaul to the Loire, but repelled by Charlesmartel, they remain in the south of France, where they were definitively expelled by Charlemagne. The second century AH witnessed the transfer of the capital of the empire from Damascus to Baghdad, a city founded in 762 by Almanzor, and replacing the dynasty Ommiades by the Abbasids (752), descendants of Abbas , uncle of the prophet. All Ommiades were killed except one offspring, who escaped by chance and managed to create, in 756, an independent caliphate in Spain. From the beginning of the second century of the Hegira, the Arab empire had reached the limits he must not cross. It stretched from the Pyrenees and the Pillars of Hercules to India, the shores of the Mediterranean to the desert sands. Much of Asia obeyed the caliphs, Arabia Petraea Turkestan, the Kaschmir Valley of Taurus. Persia was enslaved. The king of Kabul and other leaders of the Indus Valley were paying tribute. In Europe they Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 134 had Spain and the Mediterranean islands. In Africa, Egypt and across northern Africa recognized their laws. The era of conquest is over, that of the organization will begin. The activity of the conquerors turned to the works of civilization and the reign of the first Abbasids is the time of the splendor of the Arab Orient. They resume the Greek culture and soon created a brilliant civilization where the letters, sciences and arts radiate the brightest luster. With Haroun al Rashid (786-809), the arts, science, industry, commerce are growing rapidly. Poets, scientists, artists are the world confines of Fame famous hero of the Arabian Nights.Constantinople pay him tribute, and Charlemagne, Emperor of the West, sent an embassy. The same continued prosperity in El Mamoun, the successor to Haroun. But the ties that united in one hand races so diverse component that gigantic empire were too fragile to hold long united, and we will see separate into fragments that each live their own lives, and where civilization will continue to shine for a long time. By the end of the second century of the Hegira, the struggles that were to bring the separation is already showing. In the third century, the branches will start. Third century AH. – The dismemberment of the Arab empire, already at one of its ends by the formation of the Caliphate of Cordoba, is continued to the other through training, Persia and India, the East Baghdad , several principalities. This capital will thus soon found himself surrounded by pending independent sovereigns. In Egypt, Tulun buys its political independence and founded a dynasty. Africa is abandoned to itself. Spain is governed by entirely independent caliphs. Fourth century AH. – The movement of dislocation of the Arab empire with foundation of independent local dynasties continues. Baghdad lost its role as capital and real seat of Islam in Cairo, Egypt. The former capital of the Caliphs still shines brightly, but the most brilliant Arab civilization home is now in Spain. The major Arab universities of Toledo, Granada, Cordoba, attracting followers from all parts of the world, including Christian Europe. Fifth century AH. – The fifth century AH witnessed two important events: the First Crusade, and the appearance in the Arab world, the Seljuk Turks. originally brought from Turkestan, as prisoners of war, those barbarians, having initially formed the praetorian guard of the Baghdad caliphs, eventually absorb gradually the real power and leave the latter an apparent power. having managed to seize the government of all the countries bordering Baghdad, they will lay siege to Constantinople, Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 135 seized Syria and substitute their bigotry to tolerance Arabs. Christian worship is banned, persecuted pilgrims. Europe, qu’effrayaient long progress of Mohammedans, eventually moved. The exhortations of Peter the Hermit, the call of Pope Urban II cause the formation of the First Crusade (1095). A whole generation of Christians rushes on Palestine and seizes. Godefroy de Bouillon founded the ephemeral Christian kingdom of Jerusalem. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 89 Figure # 55 Lance of an Arab prince of Egypt. downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) The same century also saw the Saracens expelled from Sicily and some triumphs of Christians in Spain. The capture of Toledo by Alfonso of Castile is the beginning of the conquest that was only possible after four centuries of effort. Sixth century AH. – The first successes of Christians in the East had stimulated their courage, and a second Crusade (1147) had been preached against Islam. Like all those that will follow, it ended in disaster. The famous Sultan of Egypt, Saladin invaded Palestine, expelled entirely Christian, and despite a Third Crusade (1189), directed by Frederick Barbarossa, Philip Augustus and Richard the Lion Heart, it remains in control of the holy city. Seventh century AH. – The seventh century still lives several crusades directed against Islam, but all turned to confusion whole of Europe. In the fourth (1202), instead of attacking the Mohammedans, the Crusaders plundered Constantinople, which belonged to Christians, and there founded a Latin Empire of the East, who had even less life than Jerusalem.The last four crusades are not happier. Taken prisoner in the seventh, St. Louis had to pay a high ransom; in the eighth, he died of the plague in the walls of Tunis which he imagined convert the governor. This was the last crusade eighth: the Christian world realized that he was not yet powerful enough to repress the mahométants and renounced conquer Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 136 Palestine. The symbol of Islam continued to dominate the holy places and still dominates. While the Arabs argued against the Christians of the West struggles they went out completely victorious, a more formidable enemy than the Crusaders rose in the Far East. Trays of Tartary, streams of Mongols, led by Genghis Khan rushed to Asia, and after successively invaded China, Persia and India, in 1258 seized Baghdad and put an end this Abbasid dynasty that had lasted for five hundred years. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 90 figures # 56-57 Axes of an Arab prince of Egypt. downloadable on the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) As barbaric as the Turks, the Mongols differed from them, however, in that they were able to receive some degree of culture. They could not, like the Arabs, found a new civilization, but they knew that their adoption defeated. The East ceased to be governed by Arab dynasties, but their civilization continued to rule there. Repressed by these conquerors, power concentrated in Egypt and Spain. In the 1980 paper edition appears on page 91 Figure # 58 Helmet of an Arab prince of Egypt (Persian-Arabic style). downloaded from the website: The Classics of Social Sciences, section Classic authors: Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931): The civilization of the Arabs (1884). Back to the table of figures (numerical order on the website) Gustave Le Bon (1884), The civilization of the Arabs: Books I and II. 137 Eighth century AH. – The eighth century AH is filled by the struggle of Turks and Mongols, who dispute the former possessions of the Arabs in the East. For them, the time of decadence rang. Ninth century AH. – The ninth century AH witnessed the complete collapse of the power and civilization of the Arabs in Spain, where they ruled for nearly eight hundred years. In 1492, Ferdinand took possession of Granada, their last capital, and began expulsions and mass murder that continued his successors. Three million Arabs were soon killed or driven out, and their brilliant civilization, which shone for eight centuries in Europe, was extinguished forever. The ninth century AH marks the end of the empire of the Arabs as a political power. It was only by religion, culture and language they continued to play a big role in the East. The people who had conquered the Arabs as barbarians once defeated the Romans attempted to continue their work, and in the name of the Koran as the increasing replaced the Greek cross to Constantinople, and shook the Christian world. But if the Turks were skilled warriors, they did not have the qualities that allow a people to rise to civilization. Far from advancing the work of their defeat, they could not even enjoy the legacy that was bequeathed to them. “The grass no longer grows on the ground that the Turkish trampled,” say the Arabs. She gave no more, in fact, and we’ll see in another chapter in what decadence quickly fell the ancient empire of the Arabs in the hands of its new masters.end of the second book, “The Origins of Arab civilization”