The False Interpretations of the RidaKhanis

The False Interpretations of the RidaKhanis of the Aforementioned Verses

From the fifteen verses that have been recorded till now, the first thirteen describe only knowledge of the time of the Resurrection as being specific to Allah Almighty, and the final two negate all keys of the ghayb, meaning the time of Resurrection, the descent of rain, what is in the wombs, future events and the place of each person’s death, from other than Allah. Although I have verified the explanation and commentary of those verses in light of prophetic hadiths, statements of Sahabah and Tabi‘in and quotations from the imams of Tafsir, and [I have verified] the evidence deduced from them in full detail, and for a fair person after having read this no room for doubt and confusion will remain, nonetheless, in order to accomplish the proof, I wish to reveal the reality of the false interpretations which Fadil Barelwi Ahmad Rida Khan and his followers till today present in regards to those verses.

In principle, their interpretations are only three:

  1. Such verses negate only intrinsic (non-granted) knowledge (‘ilm dhati) from other than Allah, in general, or the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), specifically; not granted knowledge (‘ilm ‘ata’i)
  2. After the revelation of these verses, the Messenger of Allah (Allah belss him and grant him peace) was granted those sciences, so it is as though these verses are effectively abrogated
  3. The verses which refer knowledge of the Hour etc. to Allah Almighty do not prove that others do not have this knowledge, rather, it is only established from them that Allah Almighty has this knowledge, and those verses are silent on whether others have this knowledge or not.

Mawlawi Ahmad Rida Khan Sahib Barelwi wrote on these three interpretations in his treatises on ‘ilm al-ghayb, particularly, al-Fuyud al-Malakiyyah ‘ala al-Dawlat al-Makkiyyah, with some detail. Then in imitation of him, Mawlawi Na‘im al-Din Muradabadi also offered these interpretations in al-Kalimat al-‘Ulya. Also, other RidaKhani authors and debaters do the same. But in reality these interpretations are so weak and idiotic that to present them on behalf of a learned person is the greatest insult on his scholarly condition. Readers should take another look at the verses above, along with the noble hadiths, statements of Sahabah, Tabi‘in and mufassirinwhich were mentioned in the commentary of those verses; and then ponder if there is even the smallest room for any of these interpretations.

For example, the verse, “indeed, the Hour is coming, I almost conceal it [from Myself],” (Qur’an 20:15) which means according to the clear statements of the Sahabah, Tabi‘in and mufassirin: Allah Almighty wishes to keep the time of Resurrection very secret, and He does not intend to reveal it to any besides Him. It is obvious that there is no room for these three interpretations in this verse:

Neither will the distinction between intirinsic and granted be of use here.

Nor is there a possibility here that after the revelation of the verse, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was granted the knowledge of the time of Resurrection because this verse expresses Divine Intent that He does not wish to reveal its knowledge to anyone and He wishes to keep it hidden from all besides Him, thus if it was said that after the revelation of this verse, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was given the knowledge of the time of Resurrection, it would imply (Allah forbid!) that Allah’s will changed, and that which He announced in His Mighty Book that “I will keep it hidden,” He opposed this announcement and revealed its knowledge to the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) – greatly is Allah exalted beyond that! Anyhow, this is the condition of the first and second interpretations for this verse.

And the fact that the third interpretation cannot apply is absolutely clear because that [interpretation] is only with respect to those verses in which the knowledge of the Hour etc. were [only] referred to Allah Almighty. Thus there is no room for any of these three interpretations in this verse, which was our original claim.

Similarly, in the second verse, the words “None will not reveal it at its time besides Him,” (Qur’an 7:187) undermines all three interpretations because according to the clear statements of the mufsassirin it means that Allah Almighty Himself will reveal the Resurrection at its time, and no one before that [time] can have awareness of it (see the statements of Qadi Baydawi, ‘Allamah Mu’in ibn Safi and ‘Allamah Abu Su‘ud under the second verse).

Furthermore, this verse (7:187), rather most of the verses which negate knowledge of Resurrection from other than Allah, were revealed in response to the disbelievers’ question. They would say repeatedly to the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace): “If you are Allah’s Messenger and Prophet tell us when is the Resurrection?” in response to this misplaced question, those verses state in different styles that its knowledge is only with Allah. Thus, to explain their meaning as “I do not have intrinsic knowledge of the time of the Resurrection but Allah has it,” would be distortion [of the meaning] of these verses because the question of the disbelievers was not regarding intrinsic knowledge but they were asking about knowledge itself [irrespective of whether intrinsic or granted]. Hence, saying in response to them, “I do not have intrinsic knowledge of the time of the Resurrection but Allah has it” would (Allah forbid!) be representative of “a question from the sky and a reply from strings” [i.e. the answer being completely unrelated to the question] and our belief is that the Wise Qur’an and the Noble Messenger (upon him greetings and salutations) are pure and free from this.

Even with the mistaken assumption that this was the meaning of the verse, it would be necessary that those who asked the question, the Arab disbelievers (whose native language it was and who were the original addressees of those verses) would have also understood this, and in this situation they would certainly have asked, “We were not asking about intrinsic and bestowed knowledge, we only wanted to know when is the time of the Resurrection, so if you have any awareness of that, tell us.” However, this was not asked on their behalf, from which is gathered that the native speakers did not understand these verses as negation of intrinsic knowledge, rather even they understood the meaning that none besides Allah Almighty has knowledge of the time of Resurrection in an absolute sense, and its knowledge is only with Allah. He has not disclosed the knowledge to anyone. And this is the meaning that the revered Sahabah, Tabi‘in and imams from the mufassirinunderstood. Thus, they said in their exegetical statements: “Allah took exclusive possession of its knowledge” (ista’thara Allahu bi ‘ilmiha), “He did not disclose it to me,” (lam yutli‘ni ‘alayhi), “He did not teach its knowledge to me” (lam yu‘allimni ‘ilmahu), “He did not disclose it to an angel or a messenger” (lam yutli‘ ‘alayha malakan wa la rasulan), “He did not disclose it to any of His creation,” (lam yutli‘ ‘alayhi ahadan min khalqih), “He did not disclose it to other than Him,” (lam yutli‘ ‘alayhi ghayrahu), and similar words to these which without ambiguity negate granted knowledge.

Respected readers have seen in earlier quoted passages that which completely dismantles the false assumption that these verses only negate intrinsic knowledge from other than Allah, and not granted knowledge. Similarly, to say with respect to those verses that after their revelation, the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was given the knowledge, is completely without proof; and in knowledge of Shari‘ah, particularly in creed, such interpretations that arise without evidence are false and rejected, especially when evidence has been substantiated against them, like the texts “Verily the Hour is coming – I almost conceal it [from Myself]” (20:15) and “None will reveal it at its time besides Him,” (7:187) which explicitly state that before the actual time of its occurrence no one will gain access to its knowledge.

Furthermore, the wisdom for concealing it which was indicated in this noble verse, “it is burdensome in the heavens and the earth, it will not come to you but suddenly” and which was explained in detail by the honourable exegetes, Imam al-Razi (Allah have mercy on him), Qadi Baydawi (Allah have mercy on him), ‘Allamah Khazin (Allah have mercy on him), Imam al-Nasafi (Allah have mercy on him) and others, a consequence of it is that before its occurrence those who are subjected to divine commands (mukallafin) are not given this knowledge.

Moreover, the thirteenth verse which says: “In what [capacity] are you to remember it, to your Lord is its endpoint,” reveals with complete clarity that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) having knowledge of the time of Resurrection does not befit Divine Wisdom. Thus to say that after the revelation of those verses the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was granted this knowledge, is completely false and contrary to explicit texts.

Furthermore, here it is worth pondering for those endowed with insight, that in these verses the knowledge of Resurrection has been described as being exclusive to Allah Almighty, and in nearly every place a rhetorical device is used for exclusivity and restriction, either by using the instrument of restriction “innama (only) or a combination of negation and exception (nafy wa istithna) or by placing the adverb earlier and thus conferring this meaning. Anyhow, the import of all these expressions and forms is that the knowledge of the time of Resurrection is restricted to Allah Almighty, and this restriction was described by the exegetes as istithar(taking exclusive possession) and tafarrud (exclusivity), and the requirement of this [restriction] is that at any time before the Resurrection no one besides Allah Almighty is given this knowledge for otherwise the exclusivity will not remain; and after Resurrection the awareness that the general creation will have of it will not negate this exclusivity. So, ponder for this is subtle.

Anyhow, due to the aforementioned reasons, the idea that after the revelation of these verses, the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was given knowledge of the specific time of the Resurrection, is completely false. An idea more false than this is that in those verses the knowledge of Resurrection was only referred to Allah Almighty and was not negated from others so those verses are silent about others; whereas all the verses in which knowledge of the Hour is referred to Allah Almighty are set in the form of restriction, mostly with the word “innama.” The reality of restriction (hasr) is that it is affirmed for one and negated from all besides that one, which is why the exegetes explained this in the tafsir of those verses which the respected readers have already seen from their [quoted] passages. Thus to say that “in those verses the knowledge of Resurrection was only referred to Allah Almighty and was not negated from others, thus those verses are silent about others” is shameless ignorance and unfortunate misguidance.

Thus far, a brief but, with praise to Allah, sufficient and satisfactory insight has been shed on the abovementioned interpretations of these verses which limit knowledge of Resurrection to Allah Almighty.

However there are some verses in this list in which the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) himself announced I have no knowledge of the specific time of Resurrection. Thus, this is the import of verses number 567 and 8, in which only the first two interpretations are given on behalf of the RidaKhanis, that is, only the negation of intrinsic knowledge is intended, and this negation was for the specific time of revelation and in truth he had no knowledge of the time of Resurrection at this time but was later granted it. In respect to these two intrepetations that which I have just presented is more than enough, and I hope that after keeping that in mind no person of understanding can succumb to this deception.

Anyhow, for our view that the knowledge of Resurrection is restricted to Allah Almighty,  the thirteen verses I presented are clear proof, in which there is no room for interpretation and explanation, and from which is as clear as daylight that Allah took exclusive possession of the knowledge of the time of Resurrection and He will not disclose it to any creation of His, even a close angel or esteemed messenger, and He will not reveal it to anyone before its occurrence.

Thus far, some insight has been given to the first thirteen verses. Thefourteenth and fifteenth verses remain. The same interpretations are also offered for them on behalf of the proponents of ‘ilm al-ghayb, but with greater enthusiasm they make the distinction between intrinsic and granted.

Thus, Mawlawi Ahmad Rida Khan Sahib in his treatises on ‘ilm al-ghayb and Mawlawi Na‘im al-Din Muradabadi Sahib in al-Kalimat al-‘Ulya claimed this very passionately, and they claimed that in these two verses only intrinsic knowledge is negated from other than Allah. But in falsification of this claim mere those hadiths and narrations are sufficient which I quoted previously under those verses, specifically the marfu‘ hadiths of Hazrat Rab‘i ibn Harrash and Hazrat ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them), and the exegetical statements of Amir al-Mu’minin Hazrat ‘Ali and Hazrat ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud (Allah be pleased with them), from which is completely clear that the knowledge of these five things were not given to the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace). After viewing those hadiths and narrations, if any person makes the claim that in the verses under scrutiny only intrinsic knowledge was negated from other than Allah, not granted knowledge, it is as though he is claiming that he understands the Qur’an better than Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and his prominent noble Sahabah (Allah be pleased with them); refuge is from Allah, Lord of the Worlds!

Similarly, at this place, the claim of some claimants to ‘ilm al-ghayb that after the revelation of these verses, the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was granted knowledge of these five things is completely baseless and utterly false.

The conversation between the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and Jibril (upon him peace) which I cited in the previous pages, and in which the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said in response to the question about the time of the Resurrection:

ما المسئول عنها باعلم من السائل في خمس لا يعلمهن الا الله ان الله عنده علم الساعة الآية

“The one asked about it knows no more than the questioner; from five which none knows besides Allah; ‘verily, Allah, with Him is knowledge of the Hour,’ [to the end] of the verse.”

In some authentic routes of this narration there is also explicit mention that this conversation between the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and Jibril (upon him peace) was in the last portion of the blessed life of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace). Thus, Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani (Allah have mercy on him) wrote in Fath al-Bari, a commentary of Bukhari Sharif, under the hadith of Jibril:

ورواه ابن منده في كتاب الايمان باسناده الذي على شرط مسلم من طريق سليمان التيمي في حديث عمر اوله ان رجلا في آخر عمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم جاء الى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فذكر الحديث بطوله

“And Ibn Mandah narrated it in Kitab al-Iman with his chain [that is authentic] according to the criterion of Muslim, through the route of Sulayman al-Taymi in the hadith of ‘Umar, the first part of which is that a man at the end of the life of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), then he mentioned the hadith in its length.”

From this hadith it is clearly known that till the last part of the blessed life of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) he was not granted these five sciences. Then it is not known from where fourteenth century claimants to ‘ilm al ghayb came to know that after the revelation of these verses the holy Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was granted full knowledge of these five things?!

[poem]

In reality, the basic foundation of this misunderstanding of the proponents of ‘ilm al-ghayb is that it is known from some narrations that the knowledge of some particulars of those five matters were acquired by the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) through the means of revelation and inspiration, and he even disclosed this to others. Thus, it occurs in one hadith that the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said when describing the events near the time of Resurrection:

ثم يرسل الله مطرا لا يكن منه بيت مدر ولا وبر

“Then Allah will send down rain from which a settlement in a city or in a village will not be safe.” (narrated by al-Tirmidhi)

From this narration is known that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) had awareness of the rain that will fall before the Resurrection many centuries earlier.

When Sayyiduna Hazrat Husayn (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was conceived, Hazrat Umm al-Fadl bint al-Harith (Allah be pleased with them) saw a dream that a part of the blessed flesh of the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was removed and placed in her lap; she became very frightened by this dream and she came in the presence of the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and told him what happened, and the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said:

رايت خيرا تلد فاطمة ان شاء الله غلاما يكون في حجرك

“You saw an excellent [dream], Fatimah will if Allah wills give birth to a boy who will be under your care.” (Mishkat)

It is known from this hadith that before the birth of Sayyiduna Hazrat Husayn (Allah be pleased with him), the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) knew that a boy was in the womb of Sayyidah Fatimah (Allah be pleased with her).

At the Battle of Khaybar, the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said:

لاعطين هذه الراية غدا رجلا يفتح الله على يديه يحب الله ورسوله ويحبه الله ورسوله

“I will certainly give this flag tomorrow to a man, on whose hands Allah will give victory, he loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger love him.”

It is known from this hadith that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) had knowledge of what will happen tomorrow. Furthermore, the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) issued many prophecies related to the future which are mentioned in the books of hadith from which is also known that the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) had knowledge of future events.

Before the Battle of Badr, the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) foretold the places where the leaders of the disbelievers will be killed, and he said:

هذا مصرع فلان غدا ان شاء الله وهذا مصرع فلان غدا ان شاء الله او كما قال

“This is the place where so-and-so will fall tomorrow if Allah wills, and this is the place where so-and-so will fall tomorrow if Allah wills.”

It is known from this narration that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) even had knowledge of the place of death of some people, and from some hadiths it is known that the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) had prior knowledge of his place of death and his burial place.

Thus, it is known from these narrations that the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) had knowledge of the four matters of the descent of rain, what is in the wombs, future events, place of death, and based on these narrations, it is the claim of Mawlawi Ahmad Rida Khan Sahib and his followers that the blessed knowledge of the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) encompasses these five things, and it is their opinion that these two verses (6:59 and 31:34) only negate intrinsic knowledge of these things, or these verses were effectively abrogated, that is, after their revelation, the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was granted the knowledge of these five things; and they believe that if this is not accepted there will be such conflict between the verses and those narrations which cannot be resolved. Anyhow, to prove that the blessed knowledge of the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) encompasses these five things, the proponents of ‘ilm al-ghayb use the aforementioned narrations, and because of their weak understanding or misunderstanding, they were deceived by those narrations, which is why it is required that in regards to them, I give some explanation so no room remains for misunderstanding.

One brief and irrefragable answer to these narrations to Mawlawi Ahmad Rida Khan Sahib is that our proofs are from Qur’anic verses and we have proven, with praise to Allah, from decisive proofs that these verses not only negate intrinsic knowledge rather they include negation of granted knowledge, and I have also disproven the possibility that after the revelation of these verses the holy Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was granted these sciences. And in support of all of this, I presented clear marfu‘ hadiths. Thus, to present solitary reports in opposition to these clear verses explained by the marfu‘ hadiths proves ignorance. In the very topic of ‘ilm al-ghayb, Fadil Barelwi Mawlawi Ahmad Rida Khan Sahib wrote inFuyud al-Malakiyyah ‘ala al-Dawlat al-Makkiyyah p. 152:

ان نصوص القرآن لا تعارض بالآحاد

“Indeed texts of Qur’an are not contradicted by solitary reports.” (al-Dawlat al-Makkiyyah p. 152)

Also, he wrote in another treatise Inba’ al-Mustafa on the topic of ‘ilm al-ghayb: “Relying on solitary reports in opposition to the generality of decisive Qur’anic verses is mere ranting.”

Thus, I can say in accordance with his words that to rely on solitary reports against the decisive Qur’anic verses I presented is mere ranting from Fadil Barelwi and his followers.

[poem]

This answer, however, was given on the style of Fadil Barelwi [Ahmad Rida Khan], and although I am certain that this should be sufficient to silence the opposition, my readers will not be consoled, which is why I will also present a researched answer.

It is possible that the reason for my readers’ confusion and my oppositions’ misunderstanding is only that they think the aforementioned hadiths in which it is established the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) had knowledge of some particulars of these five things contradict the verses I presented, and in order to remove this contradiction, our opposition interpret these verses as negating only intrinsic knowledge and some adopted the interpretation of chronological priority and posterity and determined the verses to be effectively abrogated.

But the reality is that there is no contradiction between the verses and hadiths because the verses negate universal or complete (kulli) knowledge of the five matters; and the meaning is that none besides Allah Almighty has universal knowledge of these things, meaning, the sending of rain, what is in the wombs etc. and the aforementioned verses only establish some dispersed particulars of them. And, although affirmation of some (ijab juz’i) contradicts complete negation (salb kulli), it does not contradict negation of the affirmation of all (raf‘ ijab kulli).

Now I will present proof that universal knowledge is negated in these verses:

Here, there are three possibilities:

  1. To understand these verses as negating only intrinsic knowledge which is the belief of most of the proponents of ‘ilm al-ghayb. According to them, the meaning of these two verses is only that intrinsic knowledge of the time of Resurrection, sending down of rain, what is in the wombs, future events and the place of death, is not possessed by anyone besides Allah Almighty.
  2. The objective is to negate every kind of knowledge of these five things, intrinsic and granted, universal and particular, by way of “complete negation” (salb kulli). In this situation the meaning will be that even an iota of knowledge of these things will not be acquired by any besides Allah in whatever way.
  3. The intent is to only negate complete knowledge as I have suggested.

The first possibility is rejected by the marfu‘ hadiths and the statements of the Sahabah (Allah be pleased with them). Under the fifteenth verse (31:34), I have presented hadiths and reports by which this possibility is completely falsified. For example, by the marfu‘ hadiths of Rab‘i ibn Harrash and ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them), and the exegetical statements of Hazrat ‘Ali and Hazrat ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud (Allah be pleased with them) which I quoted with their references from al-Durr al-Manthur and Fath al-Bari, this false idea that the verse intends negation of only intrinsic knowledge is completely dismantled. Besides this, it is accepted by both groups that intrinsic knowledge cannot be for any creature in any item or entity, so why do these verses only negate these five things? The fact that these five things are specifically mentioned in this context itself proves that here negation of only intrinsic knowledge is not intended, rather, it includes negation of granted knowledge. Anyhow, this first possibility is refuted by both transmitted and rational indications.

Similarly, the second possibility of complete negation is also erroneous and false because by means of Allah’s instruction, the reality that the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) had some dispersed particular knowledge of when rain will descend, what is in the wombs etc. cannot be rejected. And the narrations that are presented in favour of the other group, which I have just quoted, are sufficient to prove this. But to say that until the revelation of the verses under inquiry he did not even have any particular knowledge of these matters, but he was given it afterwards and now in terms of their meaning it is as though these verses have been effectively abrogated, is absolutely incorrect and completely ignorant because if this was the case, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would not have recited these verses as proof for the negation of these five sciences from himself at a later time; whereas, the hadith I quoted from Rab‘i ibn Harrash that was at the end stage of the Prophet’s blessed life, and even here the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said in answer to the question “Is there any knowledge left that you do not know?”:

 لقد علمني الله خيراً، وإن من العلم ما لا يعلمه إلا الله. الخمس { إن الله عنده علم الساعة

“Allah (Exalted and Glorified is He) taught me well, and from the knowledge that none knows besides Allah (Glorified and Exalted is Him) is five: ‘Verily, Allah, with him is knowledge of the Hour. And He sends down rain. And He knows what is in the wombs’ [to the end of] the verse.”

Similarly in the last period of the blessed life of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), Hazrat Jibra’il came in the form of a stranger, and after asking various other questions, asked when is the Resurrection, and the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) replied according to the narration of Hazrat Ibn ‘Abbas and ‘Amr al-Ash‘ari (Allah be pleased with them):

سبحن الله خمس لا يعلمهن الا الله ان الله عنده علم الساعة الآية

“Glory be to Allah! Five of the unseen matters, known to none besides Allah: ‘Verily, Allah, with Him is knowledge of the Hour,’ [to the end of] the verse.”

Anyhow, these two narrations occurred in the last part of the life of the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and certainly long before this time, he had acquired many particulars of those five things because the birth of Sayyiduna Hazrat Imam Husayn (Allah be pleased with him), the Battle of Khaybar, the Battle of Badr, had all occurred earlier; yet, in negating knowledge of these five sciences from himself, the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would recite the verse of Surah Luqman, by which is known with certainty that even after learning these particulars, this verse is still in effect and the knowledge that has been negated from other than Allah therein remained right till the end. Thus to make the claim despite these narrations that the knowledge that is negated in this verse was given to the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) afterwards and this verse is abrogated in terms of its meaning is clear ignorance and complete heresy. Consequently, by this explanation, the second possibility that in these verses (6:59 and 31:34) every kind of knowledge of these five things, intrinsic and granted, universal and particular, is completely negated by way of complete negation (salb kulli) is falsified.

Thus, only the third possibility remains which is that only universal or total knowledge of these five matters are negated [for other than Allah] in these verses, and this interpretation is correct; and the fourteenth and fifteenth verses I presented mean that complete knowledge of these five things belongs only to Allah, and no one besides Him has such [knowledge], neither intrinsically, nor by [Allah’s] granting. Thus it is suggested that in this way there is no contradiction between these verses and the aforementioned narrations because those narrations only establish partial knowledge, and the verses negate complete knowledge, and I have already explained that partial affirmation does not contradict negation of universal affirmation.

In sum, the narrations the proponents of ‘ilm al-ghayb present only prove some particular dispersed knowledge, and we do not deny this. We say that it is possible Allah Almighty gave knowledge of many thousands of such dispersed particulars to the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and other accepted and close bondsmen. Yes, we contend that no one besides Allah Almighty acquired universal knowledge of these matters, and we have established this from the fourteenth and fifteenth verses we presented, which we have explained in detail.

If the respected readers have read this report of mine carefully, I hope that all the doubts regarding the five sciences will be removed, and by understanding it the answers to all the false interpretations and distortions of the opposition will be clear.

Here I will suffice with this much in this inquiry even though there still remains some important and necessary relevant discussions which I will inshaAllah discuss in the second chapter of this book. And Allah gives guidance and help, and on Him we rely and from Him we ask for help.

Thus far I have presented fifteen clear and explicit verses against the ‘ilm al-ghayband ‘ilm jami‘ ma kana wa ma yakun beliefs of the Ahl al-Bid‘ah, which while negating knowledge of only the time of Resurrection or all the five matters from other than Allah, affirms them for His essence alone with no partner. After this, further verses will be noted in this respect, from which is established that besides the five things the knowledge of other existents has not been acquired by any besides Allah.