CHAPTER ON NAMAAZ
Namaaz-e-Haqeeqi (True Namaaz) purifies the heart from the pollution of aliens and opens up the door of spiritual mysteries (asraar). Namaaz is the substratum (mahl) for secret discussion and the abode of love and sincerity. During Namaaz the fields of the heart expand for spiritual mysteries and the stars of celestial light (Anwaar) dazzle therein.
The hearts of the chosen servants of Allah are perpetually absorbed in His remembrance. However, association with people and tending to natural needs produce a kind of ghaflat (carelessness) and a relationship with beings other than Allah. As a result, the hearts become contaminated. But when they engross themselves in Namaaz, their hearts are cleansed of the foreign pollution. The Divine Perception is then again restored to their hearts in accordance with their respective ranks.
When the foreign veils are removed from their hearts, thus eliminating the impediments, the doors of hidden Divine Mysteries and the secrets of Divine Knowledge open up on their hearts during Namaaz. Thus, their Namaaz becomes the substratum for communion with their Rabb. Their hearts becomes imbued with sincerity and love, leaving no room whatever for anything besides Allah.
Their hearts expand for the intake of Divine Mysteries. There remains then not the slightest vestige of fear or constriction in their hearts. For these illustrious servants, anwaar (celestial illumination) glitter like stars in their Namaaz. They perceive this illumination with the eyes of the heart.
Every Mu’min should strive to perform such Namaaz (as described above).
When Allah Jalle Shaanuhu discerned the strain you experience in ibaadat, he designed a variety of different acts of ibaadat for you. When he saw enthusiasm for ibaadat, he forbade you therefrom because your concern should be with perfection of Namaaz, not only with the external form of Namaaz. Every performer of Namaaz does not perform it with perfection.
Man of weak constitution (by nature) tires of doing the same act for a length of time. Prolonged performance makes the act difficult. His heart feels no strain in a variety of acts. He is therefore, better equipped to accomplish them. It should be understood that it is incumbent on the bandah to perpetually apply himself to the worship of Allah.
In view of this disposition of man, Allah Ta’ala designed a variety of acts of ibaadat for him. He has not decreed perpetual observation of any one act of ibaadat because the bandah would tire of it, e.g. if it was decreed that the bandah be in the state of Namaaz at all times, certainly he would become exhausted. The heart of the bandah now remains in ibaadat on account of the variety of the acts of ibaadat such as Namaaz, Tilaawat, Hajj, Zakaat, Qur’baani, Roza, Thikr, etc. His heart does not become bored because the taste of every ibaadat is different.
In this way, the entire time is spent in ibaadat without the bandah tiring and becoming bored. He, therefore, does not abandon ibaadat.
In opposition to the condition of tiring and becoming bored, is the trait of greed and enthusiasm. When this trait exceeds the limit, the act is corrupted. For example, when there is extreme enthusiasm for Namaaz, it will be difficult to discharge it with all its rights, e.g. extreme enthusiasm will cause him to refrain form wudhu (so that he remains engrossed in Namaaz), or he will recite the Qur’aan hastily without humility and reflection. In view of this disposition in man, Allah Ta’ala has forbidden him from Namaaz and other ibaadaat at certain times so that man does not plunge headlong on any deed in haste and with excessive enthusiasm. He has decreed Namaaz at appointed times so that the bandah resolves to execute it with perfection. Haste and enthusiasm lead to only the external form of Namaaz. Between the form and the perfect Namaaz, there is a great difference.
In view of your weakness, Allah Ta’ala has reduced the number of Namaaz and knowing your need for His grace, He has increased His aid and thawaab. He has reduced the number from fifty to five while awarding thawaab for fifty.
On the night of Mi’raj initially fifty Namaaz were made obligatory. On the repeated request of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) the number was reduced to five. The reduction was granted on account of our weakness. We would not have been able to steadfastly perform fifty Namaaz daily. Since man is in need of Allah’s grace, the thawaab of fifty Namaaz was retained.
Worship has been decreed at appointed times to ensure that laziness and uncertainty do not constitute obstacles. The time for ibaadat has been extended so that you enjoy some choice and latitude.
Allah Ta’ala has fixed times for the acts of ibaadat which He has decreed obligatory, e.g. Namaaz and Roza. If these acts are performed within the prescribed limits of the time, they will be fulfilled. If the time lapses, the ibaadat is lost.
If fixed times were not prescribed for ibaadat and if its performance was left to our discretion and choice, laziness would have set in. We would have said:
“As soon as I am over with this work, I shall perform Namaaz.”
Or we would have performed the Namaaz of several months in a couple of days. In this way the ibaadat would be lost.
The time fixed for Namaaz is not so short that one is obliged to perform it immediately on the entry of the time otherwise it would become qadha. On the contrary, the time has been so extended to entertain your free choice. You may perform it at any time during the duration of the valid time. The benefit and wisdom for this are to ensure our serenity for the ibaadat. At the approach of the time we may make preparations for Namaaz in peace and without haste. The extended time enables us to terminate our other activities in an orderly manner in preparation for Namaaz. These benefits would have been lost if extended times were not granted for Namaaz. Namaaz would then have been performed hastily and without peace of mind. The soul of Namaaz, viz. Hudhoor-e-Qalb (concentration / presence of the heart) would then have been non-existent.
In view of man’s natural propensity of failing in the correct execution of his duties of worship, Allah Ta’ala has enchained him by decreeing worship obligatory on him. In other words, Allah Ta’ala has driven man towards His obedience with the chains of His compulsion. Your Rabb indicates surprise at those people who reach Jannat fettered in chains.
In every state and circumstance, worship for Allah Ta’ala and the display of Uboodiyat (the state of slavery) are imperative and incumbent on the servants of Allah. This is the demand of intelligence whether Allah Ta’ala decrees ibaadat obligatory on us or not, because the duty of the slave is slavery regardless of whether his master commands him or not. But, on account of man’s indolence and defects regarding the rendition of ibaadat, Allah Ta’ala, out of His boundless mercy, decreed the duties of ibaadat obligatory on His servants. Along with this He notified them of His Promise of Jannat for His obedience. He further warned the transgressors of the chastisement of Jahannum.
The similitude of this imposition (of ibaadat as a waajib duty) is like a chain which is tied around the neck of a prisoner. The prisoner is taken by means of the chain in any direction one desires irrespective of the prisoner’s wishes. Similarly, by decreeing Taa-at (Obedience) waajib, Allah Ta’ala draws the indolent ones towards worship and obedience. He does so precisely on account of His mercy and love, just as a guardian trains and punishes his ward who perpetrates wrong. He does not permit the child unbridled freedom to do as he pleases. The child is thus compelled to do duties he dislikes and to abandon detestable characteristics whether he likes it or not.
It is surprising that some servants have to be drawn towards Jannat by means of chains. In other words, they find it difficult to render A’maal-e-Saalihah (righteous deeds). Since these deeds have been imposed on them as compulsory duties they oppose their desires in the execution of righteousness and gain entry into Jannat.
While ostensibly Taa-at and Khidmat have been decreed obligatory on you, in reality your entry into Jannat has been made incumbent and ensured.
In appearance Allah Ta’ala has made obedience and service to Him compulsory. This conveys the impression that Allah Ta’ala derives benefit from the bandah’s obedience and service whereas He is independent and is in no need of anything. The benefit of Ibaadat accrues to us. Thus, the imposition of ibaadat on us is in actual fact ensuring our entry into Jannat. Subhaanallah! How boundless is His Rahmat!
Regarding the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam),
“The coolness of my eyes has been put in Salaat.”,
it was asked: ‘Is this rank exclusive with Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) or do others to enjoy a share in it?’
In reply, the author said:
“Undoubtedly, the coolness of the eyes and the pleasure of the heart which are derived from the perception (mushaahadah) of the beauty, splendour and grandeur of Allah Ta’ala, are in proportion to the deeper knowledge (irfaan) which the heart has of Mash-hud-e-Haqeeqi (The True Being of Perception). No one’s irfaan is equal to the irfaan of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Therefore, no one can experience coolness of the eyes to the degree of Rasulullah’s experience.”
The reason for our contention that the coolness of Rasulullah’s eyes is on account of the perception (mushaahadah) of Jalaal-e-Mash’hood (Divine Beauty), is Rasulullah’s own statement, “in Salaat” ( فى الصلوة ) . By these words he has indicated what we have contended. He did not say, “with Salaat” ( بالصلوة ) because the coolness of his eyes could not be possible without his Rabb. How could it be possible when he guided others to this stage? Also, by means of his instruction,
“Worship Allah as if you are seeing Him”,
he is commanding others to acquire this lofty stage. The vision of Allah accompanied by perception of anything besides Allah is an impossibility.
If someone argues that the coolness of the eyes in Namaaz is sometimes on account of the grace and favour of Allah Ta’ala, why then will the eyes not be cooled as a result (of the Divine Favour)? In fact, Allah Ta’ala, Himself says:
‘Say – Be pleased only with the grace and mercy of Allah.’,
then understand that for the one who reflects on the mysteries and subtleties of (Allah’s) Kalaam, this very aayat indicates the answer (for the above argument). The aayat says:
“On this, people become pleased.”
The aayat does not say:
‘O Muhammad! You be pleased on it.’
The meaning thus is: ‘Instruct the people to be pleased with Allah’s grace and favour.’ This meaning is also indicated in another aayat which says:
“Say (O Muhammad! I am pleased with Him.), then leave them playing in their futility.”
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had said: “The coolness of my eyes has been put in Salaat.”
In other words: ‘I experience great pleasure and happiness in Salaat.’
Someone had asked the author whether this rank was exclusive with Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) or do others too have a share in this experience? In reply the author (rahmatullah alayh) said that coolness of the eyes, happiness and pleasure of the heart in Namaaz are experienced as a result of perceiving Divine Beauty and Splendour. This is experienced by the Ahl-e-Ma’rifat (the Auliya of lofty ranks). The pleasure experienced in Namaaz will be in proportion to the ma’rifat which one possesses of Allah Ta’ala. It is apparent that Rasulullah’s ma’rifat surpasses the ma’rifat of all, hence, he experienced greater pleasure and coolness of the eyes than everyone else.
This answer means that pleasure and coolness of the eyes in Namaaz are not exclusive with Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), but others too enjoy this experience in lesser degree according to their ranks.
This pleasure and coolness of the eyes are experienced in Namaaz by a man who is not afflicted with nafsaani and shaitaani thoughts. A man who is afflicted with such thoughts will not experience coolness of the eyes in Namaaz.
It was contended that the cause of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) experiencing pleasure and coolness of the eyes in Namaaz was his perception of Allah and not because of the Namaaz itself. The reason for this contention is that the Hadith
جُعِلَتْ قُرَّةُ عَيْنِى فِى الصَّلوةِ
indicates this because it is said:
“In Namaaz is the coolness of my eyes.”
In other words, while in the state of Namaaz Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) derived pleasure on account of Divine Perception. He did not say: “The coolness of my eyes is with Namaaz,” because such coolness was not attainable from ghairullah (objects besides Allah). It is evident that Namaaz itself is also ghairullah. How is it possible for Rasulullah’s eyes to find coolness in ghairullah when he, himself has instructed us to worship Allah Ta’ala in such a manner as if we are seeing Him?
When the servant attains this stage, there remains then nothing for him other than Allah. His attention is completely diverted from all others. Even his actions and existence pale into annihilation. Since Namaaz is an act of the bandah, it too is ghairullah (an object besides Allah). As such it becomes oblivious to him. At that time (in Namaaz) the coolness of the eyes and spiritual pleasure are experienced only because of Divine Presence.
It is argued that coolness of the eyes and spiritual pleasure are attainable from Namaaz itself because Namaaz is the consequence of Allah’s grace and mercy, hence the bandah who is in love with Allah will necessary derive spiritual pleasure from the performance of Namaaz. Furthermore, pleasure with Allah’s fadhl (kindness, grace) has been commanded by Allah Ta’ala. He thus says (in the Qur’aan):
“Say (O Muhammad!) They should be happy with the fadhl and rahmat of Allah.”
In view of Namaaz also being Allah’s fadhl and rahmat, there will be happiness and pleasure in it.
The answer to this argument is:
The aayat (quoted above for this argument), itself indicates the answer. The instruction is that the people should be pleased with only fadhl and rahmat. The aayat does not command:
“O Muhammad! Become happy with it.”
Thus, the meaning of this answer is that while people become happy with the fadhl, rahmat and ihsaan (favour) of Allah, you, O Muhammad, should be happy with Allah Himself. This view is substantiated elsewhere (in the Qur’aan) where the instruction is:
“Say (O Muhammad!) Allah! Then leave them to play in their conjecture.”
In other words: “Say that I am pleased with Allah.” Then leave them to play in their conjecture.”
CHAPTER ON SOLITUDE AND ASCETICISM
Nothing is more beneficial for the heart than solitude accompanied by contemplation on the Attributes and Bounties of Allah.
Association with people in general and unnecessary association in particular, keeps the focus of the heart on the people. The heart’s gaze is diverted from Khaaliq Ta’ala Shaanhu. Ghaflat (negligence) increases further. In most cases the cause of ghaflat is mingling with people.
When the Saalik takes to solitude, the people are out of his sight. The searcher of Allah then necessarily turns his gaze towards Allah Ta’ala. Hence, for the heart to gain Divine Proximity (Qurb) nothing is more efficacious than solitude. However, it is necessary in this solitude to meditate on the Attributes and Bounties of Allah Ta’ala.
Bury yourself in the field of anonymity. The seed which is not buried underground will not develop and flourish.
The dearest wish of man’s nafs is to be held in honour and esteem by others. Man thus pursues name and fame. This characteristic is a highway robber in the Path leading to Allah. It is absolutely negatory of sincerity and truth. The aim is worshipping and serving Allah. Greatness is the right of only Allah Ta’ala. Therefore, the duty of the bandah is to humble himself and hold himself in contempt in the Divine Court.
Therefore, the Shaikh (rahmatullah alayh) says that you should bury yourself in anonymity which is like the ground, i.e. make yourself lost, unknown and humble. The seed which is not planted under the soil will not grow and flourish. Similarly, if man does not bury him in the field of anonymity, but remains in the pursuit of name and fame, he will not attain spiritual excellence and perfection. He will remain defective.
Allah has concealed the anwaar of the hearts of his Auliya in the dense veils of their external states so that they remain safe from the disgrace of publicity. He thus saves them from fame.
The hearts of those who are blessed with Divine Proximity and Divine Presence are radiant with innumerable rays of thikr and ibaadat. Their hearts are illumined with these celestial rays. However, Allah Ta’ala has concealed illumination of their hearts with dense veils of materialism, e.g. eating, drinking, walking, sitting, etc.
Externally, He has made them to resemble the masses by their indulgence in worldly activities. Thus, the difference between these Auliya and the masses is indiscernible. These external worldly states act like thick veils which conceal the anwaar (celestial illumination) of Allah’s Auliya from the eyes of men. But those whose baatini (spiritual) gaze is sharp, recognise these anwaar even behind the veils while the general public cannever discern these rays of celestial illumination because their physical vision cannot penetrate these veils. They therefore echo the statement which the kuffaar made to the Nabi:
“You are but a man like us.”
Allah has hidden these anwaar exuding from the Auliya so that their honour is maintained. He has protected them from the disgrace of publicity, for if these anwaar had to become known to the general public, it would have been on the tongues of all and sundry. Such publicity is dishonourable and in conflict with the dignity and honour of Allah Ta’ala. Mentioning in public even the name of a modest, chaste and beautiful lady protected behind her Purdah, is dishonourable on account of her high degree of modesty and honour. This then is the similitude for the anwaar of the Auliya concealed behind dense worldly veils.
If this system of concealment did not exist, these anwaar of the Auliya would have become fully manifest. Their radiation of illumination would have predominated to such a degree that the external material veils would disappear from even the physical vision of worldly people.
Glory unto That Being Who has hidden Divine Mysteries and subtleties behind the veils of human attributes which are manifested. And (Glory unto Him) Who has manifested for His servants the splendour of His Rububiyat (Godhood, Divinity) by revealing the effects (aathaar) of their Uboodiyat (state of worship and slavery).
The meaning of this statement is similar to the aforementioned observation.
Others are unaware of the mysteries and subtleties which Allah Ta’ala reveals to His close servants. This spiritual treasure is concealed from the gaze of the public. The veils of physical attributes have been cast over these anwaar.
Concealing these anwaar is an extremely marvellous act. These anwaar are infinite in number and are of such supreme quality that if even a single spark had to appear on earth, the light of the sun and moon would become dull and the light of this single spark would permeate from east to west. Inspite of their infinity and quality, Allah Ta’ala has concealed this vast, boundless ocean of illumination in a cup. In other words, He has concealed these boundless anwaar in man who is constituted of a handful of sand. There, thus, appears in the physical gaze of man only this handful of sand or its physical effects, viz. its material and mundane attributes and activities such as man’s movement and rest, his eating, sleeping and working. In view of this marvellous act of Allah, the author expresses his wonder and amazement by proclaiming, Subhaanallah! (Glory to Allah!)
His power is indeed wonderful and marvellous. When He desires to display the greatness and splendour of His Divinity (Rububiyat) to His servants, then He does so by revealing the effects of the Uboodiyat (slavery) of His servants. The effects of Uboodiyat are those states of the servants, which draw their attention to Allah Ta’ala. Such states are sickness, poverty, hardships, etc. When the bandah is afflicted with these conditions, he is compelled to turn towards his Creator. He supplicates for the removal of the hardships and he humbles himself. In such circumstances he develops firmness in faith and understands well that he, most certainly, has a Creator Who is All-Powerful.
In the absence of these effects, the greatness of Allah would not have become manifest for His servants, because they would be perpetually dwelling in their personal whims and fancies. The servants of Allah would then have been deprived of this inner knowledge (ma’rifat).
Also, That Pure Being has fixed the same Path which leads to Him as the Path which leads to His Auliya. He leads to His Auliya only those whom He leads to Himself.
Allah Ta’ala conceals His Pure Being (Thaat) from our gaze, behind the veils of His creation. The earth, heavens, the moon, the sun, the stars, the animal kingdom, the plant kingdom, man, etc. are His makhluqaat (created things). Inspite of the Thaat of Khaaliq (The Creator) being conspicuously manifest, He is hidden from our sight. In fact, He remains so concealed that some brainless people even deny His existence. Those on whom the grace of Allah settled, acknowledge His Unity and accepted belief in the Messengership (Risaalat) of His Messengers.
Those who are favoured with Allah’s Special Grace, He bestows to them a share of His Ma’rifat. Thus, the medium for the acquisition of Allah’s Ma’rifat and the Path leading to the Divine Court are His Special Grace. There is no other way or method for this attainment.
The author then expresses his amazement saying that He (Allah) is Pure and, in fact, Purity belongs only to Him. The cause of the author’s amazement is the fact that the method which Allah has fixed for His recognition (Ma’rifat), has also been fixed for the recognition of His Auliya. Just as Allah Ta’ala has concealed Himself in the veils of His physical creation, so too has He hidden His Auliya behind the veils of their mundane conditions such as their movement, rest, eating, sleeping, etc. And, just as Allah has fixed His Fadhl-e-Khaas (Special Grace) as the way for attaining Him, has He fixed His Fadhl-e-Khaas as the way of recognising His Auliya. Only those who are favoured with Divine Grace will recognise the Auliya.
Every person is not blessed with Ma’rifat nor is every person guided to the Auliya. Some Auliya even aver that it is more difficult to recognise the Auliya than Allah Ta’ala. In view of Allah’s Beauty (Jamaal) and Splendour (Jalaal) being conspicuously manifest in creation, it is relatively easier to recognise Him than to recognise a Wali. A wali resembles all others in mundane acts and attributes, hence it is difficult to recognise him.
The author then says that Allah leads to His Auliya those whom He leads to Himself. In other words, when Allah Ta’ala desires a man to reach Him, He blesses him with the love, recognition and special companionship of the Auliya. The wisdom underlying this system is that the Auliya are Allah’s beloved. Those who love one’s beloved are also beloved.
Thus, when a person loves the Auliya it indicates that Allah loves him and that He will bestow His Ma’rifat to him.
CHAPTER ON THE IMPORTANCE OF TIME
Not a moment of your time passes without some command of Allah being attached to it for you, be it obedience or sin, favour or disfavour, materializing.
Every act which Allah Ta’ala has decreed for man at every breath of his, will materialize whether the act be one of obedience or sin or a ni’mat (bounty) or difficulty. This means that man is perpetually in a state which is pleasing or displeasing to his nafs. If it is pleasing, it will be a ni’mat on condition that it is not a sin. If it is displeasing, it will be a calamity on condition that it is not the effort of an act of obedience.
Of these two states, one state or the other applies at all times with man. Sometimes it is the state of pleasure and sometimes the state of displeasure.
Every state (haalat) has a right (haq) which man has to incumbently discharge. The haq of a ni’mat is shukr and the haq of the state of museebat (calamity) is sabr. It is, therefore, imperative for the bandah to be saabir (patient) or shaakir (grateful) every moment of his life. Thus, he should not destroy even one minute of his life.
Do not wait for a time free from alien influences because it (i.e. waiting) will keep you aloof from His meditation and remembrance in the state in which you are.
When the fadhl (grace) of Allah Ta’ala focuses on the Saalik, his heart establishes a connection with Thikrullah. Thereafter, sometimes the condition of his engrossment in Thikr is such that his heart becomes completely emptied of all things besides Allah. However, sometimes the contamination of mundane affairs and activities dominates him. Due to involvement in worldly affairs, the original state of Thikr in the heart is overshadowed. The Saalik becomes terrified and desires to extricate himself from this state of perplexity. Much of his time is then spent in this desire. He waits in anticipation of a time which will be free from all this pollution so that he could engage peacefully in Thikr.
The Shaikh (rahmatullah alayh) advises the Saalik not to wait for such a free time in order to resume Thikr. Even the state of zulmat (spiritual darkness) and kudoorat (spiritual pollution) in which the True Rabb has cast you, is a time. If in this time granted to you, you are going to involve your heart with the concern of the elimination of the pollution before engaging in Thikr, then this concern will prevent you from the meditation and remembrance of Allah Ta’ala. This time will be squandered in ghaflat (negligence, inertia).
Hence, banish the idea of waiting for a time devoid of contamination. Think that this is the only available time and that there is no other time because one has no certainty regarding the future. Thus, become engrossed with your Master in this very time of pollution and darkness.
Someone asked Sahl (radhiyallahu anhu):
“When does the faqeer attain comfort?”
“The faqeer attains comfort when he knows that the time which has passed over him is the only time.”
When this knowledge becomes grounded in the Saalik, the pollution and the confusion will be dispelled. In reality, this advice of the Shaikh is the remedy for these contaminations.
The aforementioned discussion will apply if the Shaikh’s advice is intended for the Saalik who is involved in thikr and shaghl (spiritual exercises). Nevertheless, this advice can also apply to people who are ensnared in the world. Generally, people involved in the world wait for a time when they will be freed from the encumbrances of a certain activity. They deceive themselves by believing that on the accomplishment of a particular activity, they will be free to apply themselves to the remembrance of Allah. But after accomplishing one worldly activity, they commence another. There is no end to the hopes and desires of the nafs. The entire life is squandered without achieving a time to devote to the remembrance of Allah.
For such people of the world, the Shaikh’s advice will also be applicable. They should not wait for a time when they will be free of worldly encumbrances. They should immediately engage themselves in the remembrance of their Maula (Master) regardless of worry and disturbance. Allah Ta’ala will Himself dispel the state of worry and agitation from the heart.
To delay the rendition of virtuous deeds until availability of free time is of the stupidities of your nafs.
This statement is similar to the aforementioned advice. When man becomes involved in worldly affairs, there is no end to its ramifications. When there is no end to man’s worldly indulgences, it is simply the indolence and stupidity of his nafs to postpone A’maal-e-Saalihah (righteous deeds), moral reformation and spiritual upliftment for the future under the notion of obtaining a time devoid of worldly affairs.
Man destroys his present time and in his stupidity waits for a time, the acquisition of which is uncertain. Life comes to an end without the obtainal of free time. Maut (Death) makes a sudden appearance.
An intelligent man, therefore, is he who values the time he has obtained. He does not postpone the work (of Thikr, etc.) for a later time nor does he wait in anticipation of free time, the attainment of which is impossible.
If the worldly affairs are permissible activities, continue therewith and involve yourself simultaneously in Thikrullah and A’maal-e-Saalihah. If these affairs are unlawful, abandon them.
Obligatory Huqooq (Rights) such as obligatory acts of ibaadat, if not tendered (in their respective times) can be offered as qadha. But, it is impossible to make qadha (i.e. offer compensation) of baatini (spiritual) affairs and the spiritual acts of the heart (Waaridaat-e-Qalbiyah). These acts and affairs are the huqooq of time. Once omitted, fulfilment is not possible because their is no such time in which some new right or command of Allah Ta’ala does not become incumbent. When you are unable to discharge the Haq of Allah in its time, how is it possible to discharge the rights of others in that time?
There are two kinds of rights devolving on the bandah. The first kind pertains to Ibaadaat. These rights become obligatory at fixed times, e.g. Namaaz, Roza. If these rights are not discharged at their appointed times, it is possible to redeem them by executing these acts of Ibaadat at some other time (by making qadha).
The second kind are the Huqooq of time. These Huqooq apply at every moment. There is no separate fixed time set out for them since these are the rights of time itself and the existence of time is perpetual, i.e. at all times.
Time in this context refers to the states (halaat) which occur to the bandah perpetually in succession. These haalat are of four kinds: Ni’mat (Bounty), Museebat (Calamity), Taa-at (Obedience) and Ma’siyat (Sin). At any given time the bandah will certainly be in one of these four states. The rights of these four haalaat are termed Huqooq-e-Auqaat.
The Haq of Ni’mat is Shukr. The Haq of Museebat is Sabr. The Haq of Taa-at is Mushaahadah (Perception) of Allah’s Fadhl (Grace). The Haq of Ma’siyat is Taubah and Istighfaar.
No such time will be found in which some Haq has not devolved on the bandah. Therefore, if these rights are not honoured, compensation (making qadhaa) for them is not possible. Qadhaa is to utilise some of one’s own time to discharge an ibaadat which was not rendered at its appointed time. However, in regard to the second kind of Huqooq Qadhaa is not possible because in the time which you set aside for the qadhaa of these Huqooq, some other right of Allah among the four rights mentioned above, devolves on you. Every moment Shukr, or Sabr or Mushaahadah Fadhl or Taubah becomes incumbent. Thus, their is no time available for the discharge of the Huqooq of time which have been missed.
Now when you have been unable to discharge Allah’s Haqq pertaining to the time, how will it be possible for you to fulfil the right of another person, which you did not discharge at its time? When every moment involving the discharge of some right of Allah (one of the four rights), it follows that when you will choose a particular time for rendering the unfulfilled right of others, you will be abandoning the Huqooq of Allah pertaining to Auqaat (Time).
It is, therefore, imperative that the bandah never neglects the Haq of time. At every breath, he should fulfil the haq of time. It is for this reason that the Pious Seniors have said:
“The Sufi is the Son of Time”.
In other words, he is fully and perpetually engrossed in the discharge of the rights of Time.
There is no compensation for age which has passed. The existing age is priceless.
No compensation can ever be offered for man’s age which has expired. Therefore, if the past age was spent in futility, devoid of Ibaadat and A’maal-e-Saalihah, nothing can now be offered to make good the loss.
On the other hand, the time which one obtains at present, is priceless. The entire earth with all its possessions cannot buy it because by virtue of existing time, the bandah can secure everlasting happiness for him. It is precisely on this account that the Salf-e-Saaliheen (The illustrious Saints of former times) treasured their breathing (taking a constant reckoning of every breath). Never would they destroy a single moment.
According to the Hadith, the moment of the bandah spent in ghaflat (inertia) will be a cause of regret for him. But at that time regret and remorse will be of no avail.
If you do not turn towards Allah Ta’ala even after having withdrawn from all other activities and when obstacles have lessened, then this is complete disgrace and misfortune.
It does not matter to what extent man is involved in worldly affairs and in the execution of his family duties, he is under obligation at all time to turn to Allah and remember Him. Ibaadat is obligatory on him in all circumstances. It is, therefore, essential that he casts behind his back the redundant affairs of the world and contents himself with basic needs. He should incumbently set aside time for his Maula (Master).
If all his time is consumed in worldly matters, leaving no time for building up a capital for the akhirat, then indeed, the bandah will find himself in complete disgrace and total loss. It will be his greatest misfortune. His excuse of not being able to find time, will not be acceptable in Qiyaamat.
If a man inspite of having sufficient means which relieve him of all or of a great number of worldly involvements does not turn to the remembrance of Allah nor applies himself in the spiritual process of building up his treasure for the Hereafter but, on the contrary, ruins his life in forgetfulness, play and amusement, then his disgrace, misfortune and destruction are multiplied manifold. Indeed, his plight is most pitiable. He had acquired the priceless treasure of Time and then had destroyed it. Alas!