Rules Concerning Ma’zur (The Excused)

(From Beheshti Zewar)

1. If someone’s nose begins to bleed in such a way that it does not stop, or has a wound from which blood flows continuously, or is afflicted by the sickness of urine dripping continuously – and in all these cases he does not have such a time wherein he could offer his salaat with (complete) purity – then such a person is called a ma’zur (excused). The rule in regard to him is that he should make wudu for the time of every salaat. As long as that salaat time remains, his wudu will remain. However, if apart from this sickness, some other matter crops up which causes wudu to break, then his wudu will break and he will have to repeat it. An example of this is: a person’s nose began to bleed continuously and refused to stop. At Zuhr time he made wudu. As long as the Zuhr time remains, his wudu will not break as a result of the bleeding nose. However, if (in that Zuhr time) the person went to the toilet, or pricked himself with a needle and blood flowed, wudu will break and will have to be repeated. When this time passes and the next salaat time enters, another wudu will have to be made (for this second salaat time). In like manner, wudu should be made for every salaat time. With this wudu, one can read any number and any type of salaat – irrespective of fard ornafl salaat.

2. If wudu was made at Fajr time, salaat cannot be read with that wudu after sunrise. A fresh wudu will have to be made. If wudu was made after sunrise, it will be permissible to read Zuhr with that wudu and there is no need to make a fresh wudu for Zuhr. When Asr time enters, then only will it be necessary to make a fresh wudu. However, if wudu breaks for some other reason (eg. urinating or passing stool), then fresh wudu will have to be made (as mentioned above).

3. A person had a wound which bled continuously. He therefore made wudu. Thereafter another wound emerged and began to bleed. The wudu will break and will have to be made again.

4. A person will only be classified as a ma’zur and this ruling will only apply to him when one complete time passes wherein the blood flows continuously, and he is unable to read the salaat of that time in complete purity. If such a time is found wherein salaat could be offered with complete purity, he will not be classified as a ma’zur. The rules that have been mentioned will not apply to him. However, if one complete time passed wherein he did not get the opportunity to offer salaat in total purity, he will be classified as a ma’zur. Now, the same rules apply to him, i.e. make a fresh wudu for every salaat time. When the next salaat time enters, it is not a pre-requisite that blood should flow all the time. In fact, if in that entire period, blood only flows once and stops flowing for the rest of the time – then too the person will be classified as a ma’zur. However, if after this, an entire time passes in which no blood at all flowed, the person will not remain a ma’zur. Now the ruling will be that each time blood flows, wudu will break.

5. Zuhr time had already entered and only after that the blood of the wound began to flow. He should therefore wait till the end of the time. If it stops, well and good. If it does not stop, he should make wudu and offer his salaat. Now if it continued flowing during the entire time of Asr and to the extent that he could not perform his Asr salaat, then only when the Asr time passes, he will be classified as a ma’zur. If the blood stops flowing in the very time of Asr, he will not be regarded as a ma’zur and whatever salaats he may have read in this time will not be proper and will have to be repeated.

6. On account of urinating or passing stool, a ma’zur made wudu. At the time of making wudu, the bleeding had stopped. After completing wudu, the blood started to flow again. By the flowing of this blood, wudu will break. However, that wudu which was made on account of the bleeding of the nose, etc.; that particular wudu will not break on account of bleeding of the nose.

7. If this blood falls on the clothing, etc. then check: if it will fall again before he can complete his salaat, it will not be wajib to wash it off. But if he knows that it will not fall again so quickly and that salaat could be performed in purity, then it will be wajib to wash it off. If the extent of the blood is more than the size of a fifty cents coin salaat will not be complete without washing it off.

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