Shaari Ruling on Tabligh and Masturaat
Hadhrat Maulana Mufti Muhammad Kifaayatullaah Dehlawi
The Grand Mufti Of Un-divided India
- Is it correct for women to go for a Tabligh journey with a Mahram?
- To what extent is it correct for males to go on a Tabligh journey without arranging for maintenance for their families and dependants?
- is it obligatory upon every Muslim male and female to do Tabligh, or is it compulsory or Sunnah?
Tabligh of Deen is binding upon every Muslim in accordance to the level of knowledge he has. However, it is not obligatory upon every Muslim to undertake a journey for Tabligh, but it is upon those who have the ability and are of the status to do so. They should also be free from the responsibility of earning. It is permissible to travel for the sake of Tabligh. Every Muslim is not bound and it is not obligatory upon him/her. Women leaving the home for the sake of Tabligh was not practised in the best of eras, nor do we find permission for women travelling alone for the sake of Tabligh. Women are not permitted to travel without a Mahram. Even for a Fard Hajj, it is not permissible for a woman to travel without a Mahram, so how can she go only for Tabligh? And Allaah knows best.
Kifaayatul Mufti vol.2 p.10
Matabah Imdadia-Multan Print
Original Fatwa of Prohibition
The Original Fatwa of Prohibition on the question of women’s (mastoorat) jamaat was issued by the very Senior Muftis of Daarul Uloom Deoband and Mazaahirul Uloom 65 years ago. We reproduce the Original Fatwa and its translation:
FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE HEADQUARTERS – DAARUL ULOOM DEOBAND —- CONSENSUS OF PAST AND PRESENT MUFTIS OF THE HEADQUARTERS – ENDORSED BY MAZAAHIRUL ULOOM
TRANSLATION OF THE QUESTION AND THE FATWA
Question: What is the fatwa of the Ulama and the Muftis of the Deen on the issue of women going on Tableegh journeys accompanied by their mahrams? Is it permissible?
(Question asked by Haafiz Abdur Raheem, Musjid Kotawali, Dehli, India – 17 Safar 1371)
This question was sent to Darul Ifta of Deoband Darul Uloom 65 years ago.
ANSWER BY HADHRAT MUFTI SAYYID MEHDI HASAN, THE CHIEF MUFTI OF DAARUL ULOOM DEOBAND.
Hadhrat Mufti Sayyid Mehdi Hasan (rahmatullah alayh) was the Ustaadh of Hadhrat Maulana Masihullah (rahmatullah alayh), Hadhrat Mufti Mahmoodul Hasan Gangohi (rahmatullah) and of many other senior Ulama. Responding to the question, the Honourable Chief Mufti wrote:
“Women would not travel for tableegh during the age of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) nor during the time of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) nor during the time of the Taabieen (rahmatullah alayhim). Neither did Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) nor the Sahaabah instruct women to embark on journeys for the purpose of tableegh nor did they send women on tableegh journeys. It is thus established that it is not permissible for women to travel for the purpose of tableegh.
During the era of Khairul Quroon (the first three ages of Islam), if a woman required information (in a Deeni issue), she would approach the Holy Wives (of Rasulullah –sallallahu alayhi wasallam) or the wives of the Sahaabah.
Tableegh during that period was the responsibility imposed on men. Females through the medium of Purdah would learn the laws of the Deen. It was the function of men to educate their womenfolk regarding the ahkaam of the Deen. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Sahaabah would travel for the purpose of tableegh and jihad. Generally they would not take women along.
When this was the state during that age of virtue, then how can it be permissible in this age of vice and mischief for women to travel for the purpose of tableegh even if accompanied by their mahrams. The question: How will tableegh be made to females?, is not valid. Their menfolk should make tableegh to them and teach them the ahkaam of the Deen.
The menfolk themselves should acquire knowledge of the Deen from others who know. They should undertake journies to learn and to teach the Deen. If woman in general embark on tableegh journies, the doors of fitnah will open up. This state (of fitnah and evil) is today being observed. And, Allah knows best.”
(1) Mufti Sayyid Mehdi Hasan (The Chief Mufti of Daarul Uloom Deoband) 25 Safar 1371
(2) Mufti Saeed Ahmad (The Chief Mufti of Mazaahirul Uloom, Saharanpur
(3) Mufti Abdul Lateef (Chief Superintendant, Mazaahirul Uloom, Saharanpur
A RECENT FATWA OF DARUL ULOOM DEOBAND
THE LADIES TABLIGH JAMAAT
Ladies go for Tabligh Jamaat work with their husbands or with their mahrams. What is the ruling of women going out in customary Jamaat work fully observing hijaab and purdah and remaining within the proper Shar’i confines and limits? The customary practice germane to Ladies Jamaat is that all those women going out in Jamaat have their mahrams with them and they travel observing fully the Shar’i Code of Purdah.
Arrangements for the lodging and meals for these women are made at a home of Purdah where no male is allowed to visit at all. The males accompanying the Ladies Jamaat stay over at the local Musjid or elsewhere completely away from the ladies. The ladies engage in tabligh to women and the males to men.
Is this scenario permissible or not? If there is some other way of permissibility or if it is impermissible then kindly elaborate. Please provide a clear, detailed and authoritative response with references. It will be much appreciated. (Abdul Qayyoom Qasmi, Principal Darul Uloom Maseehiyyah, Farmani, Muzaffar Nagar)
ANSWER (WABILLAAHIT TAUFEEQ):
Allah Ta’ala has made obligatory upon males to learn the Ahkaam of the Deen and teach it to their females.
“All of you are shepherds and all of you shall be questioned about his flock.” (Bukhari)
Women have not been tasked with Da’wah and Tabligh. They have been excluded from Da’wah, Tabligh, Imaamat and Khilaafat. They have been instructed to remain in their homes and in Purdah.
“And remain firmly in your homes.” (Qur’aan)
Women have only been granted permission to emerge from their homes at times of need and in emergencies. It is reported from Hadhrat Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) that Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said:
“Women have no share in emerging (from their homes) except in emergencies.” (Tabaraani—Mu’jamul Kabeer)
This age is full of fitnah. On account of the preponderance of Fitnah, women were debarred from coming to the Musjid of the locality even with their mahrams during the Khilaafat of Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) upon the mutual consultation of the Sahaabah. Thus, how can it be permissible for them (ladies) to go out in Tabligh Jamaat work, which is a mustahab act, when in this age fitnah is pandemic in our societies? They had been debarred (from the Masaajid) on the basis of this Hadith which is reported in Bukhari Shareef: “Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) said:
‘Had Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) witnessed what women have introduced he would have banned them from the Musjid just as the women of Bani Isra’eel were banned.’ ‘Were they really banned,’ the narrator asked? ‘Yes, they were,” Hadhrat Aishah replied. (Bukhari, 1/120)
There is no precedent in the Khairul Quroon (Salaf-us-Saaliheen) of women being dispatched on Da’wah and Tabligh, whereas the need during that time was greater in view of the large number of men and women entering the fold of Islam.
The founder of the Tabligh Jamaat, Hadhrat Maulana Ilyaas Sahib went to Mufti A’zam Hadhrat Maulana Kifaayatullah Sahib on three occasions for this purpose; of seeking permission to send women on Tabligh missions. On all three occasions Hadhrat Mufti Sahib forbade him. Hence Hadhrat Maulana Ilyaas Sahib never sent women out in Jamaat.. Likewise, his son, Hazratji – Hadhrat Moulana Muhammad Yusuf Sahib – never organized women’s Jamaats.
Women should confine their activities to meeting once or twice weekly at a home in the locality having Deeni Ta’leem. This will be efficacious in inculcating Deeni fervour. This was the time-honoured Tareeqah of our Aslaaf (Predecessors right from the time of the Salaf-us-Saaliheen).
Women should be cautious in leaving the town and journeying to far-off places. In spite of the presence of mahrams there are ghair mahrams also present on the journey. For example, a group of ten women set off on journey with their respective mahrams. Now in this scenario each woman has one mahram with the remaining nine men travelling along being ghair mahrams. This is lack of caution. The Ahaadith have prohibited travelling with ghair mahrams.
And Allah knows best.
Habeebur Rahmaan (Afallahu anhu)
Mufti, Darul Uloom Deoband
Zainul Islam Qasmi
Deputy Mufti, Darul Uloom Deoband
23 Rabiul Awwal 1432
QUOTES FROM THE AUTHORITATIVE TAFSEERS AND FUQAHA (JURISTS) OF ALL FOUR MADH-HABS
Quotes will be added regularly to the following page: